Journal Article
. 2000 Jan; 5(2):105-10.
doi: 10.1258/1357633991933404.

Virtual microscopy and public-key cryptography for Internet telepathology

J S Strauss 1 C L Felten  D H Okada  A M Marchevsky  
Affiliations
  • PMID: 10628020
  •     5 citations

Abstract

The Internet is a potentially inexpensive, widely available medium for telepathology, but there are concerns about its reliability and security. Using a digital camera, 41 photomicrographs of transbronchial biopsies, at x 100 optical magnification, were captured and digitized at 2700 x 3400 pixel, 24 bit/pixel resolution. The image files were saved in JPEG format at medium compression, attached to text files with patient information, encrypted for security in the S/MIME format using a digital signature and digital envelope, and transmitted by email. Received email files were decrypted automatically and the images viewed with standard software. Telepathology diagnoses were compared with original interpretations. The images averaged 810 kByte in size. The encryption and decryption did not cause significant delays in overall transmission time and, together with transmission, did not produce noticeable image degradation. The received image files could be viewed in a manner that simulated light microscopy. There was agreement between telepathology and original diagnoses in 92% of the cases. All the discrepancies were due to inadequate area selection because the pathological features of interest were present in histological levels other than those photographed. The use of high-resolution digital photomicrography, the Internet and public-key cryptography offers an effective and relatively inexpensive method of telepathology consultation. The method is best suited for the diagnosis of small biopsy specimens that require the transmission of only a few digital images that represent the majority of the biopsy materials.

Glucoweb: a case study of secure, remote biomonitoring and communication.
D J Nigrin, I S Kohane.
Proc AMIA Symp, 2000 Nov 18;. PMID: 11079956    Free PMC article.
Static telepathology in cancer institute of Tehran university: report of the first academic experience in Iran.
Afshin Abdirad, Babak Sarrafpour, Siavash Ghaderi-Sohi.
Diagn Pathol, 2006 Oct 05; 1. PMID: 17018157    Free PMC article.
Virtual slide telepathology workstation of the future: lessons learned from teleradiology.
Elizabeth A Krupinski.
Hum Pathol, 2009 Jun 26; 40(8). PMID: 19552939    Free PMC article.
Inter- and intra-observer concordance of cyberpathology in twenty-five cases.
Tommy R Tong, Kam-Cheong Lee, +6 authors, Jessica Pik-Man Lam.
Int J Biomed Sci, 2008 Mar 01; 4(1). PMID: 23675068    Free PMC article.
The Use of Screencasts with Embedded Whole-Slide Scans and Hyperlinks to Teach Anatomic Pathology in a Supervised Digital Environment.
Mary Wong, Joseph Frye, Stacey Kim, Alberto M Marchevsky.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Jan 05; 9. PMID: 30607306    Free PMC article.