Journal Article
. 2001 Dec; 195(4):508-14.
doi: 10.1002/path.972.

Automated complete slide digitization: a medium for simultaneous viewing by multiple pathologists

F J Leong 1 J O McGee  
Affiliations
  • PMID: 11745684
  •     20 citations

Abstract

Developments in telepathology robotic systems have evolved the concept of a 'virtual microscope' handling 'digital slides'. Slide digitization is a method of archiving salient histological features in numerical (digital) form. The value and potential of this have begun to be recognized by several international centres. Automated complete slide digitization has application at all levels of clinical practice and will benefit undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing education. Unfortunately, as the volume of potential data on a histological slide represents a significant problem in terms of digitization, storage, and subsequent manipulation, the reality of virtual microscopy to date has comprised limited views at inadequate resolution. This paper outlines a system refined in the authors' laboratory, which employs a combination of enhanced hardware, image capture, and processing techniques designed for telepathology. The system is able to scan an entire slide at high magnification and create a library of such slides that may exist on an internet server or be distributed on removable media (such as CD-ROM or DVD). A digital slide allows image data manipulation at a level not possible with conventional light microscopy. Combinations of multiple users, multiple magnifications, annotations, and addition of ancillary textual and visual data are now possible. This demonstrates that with increased sophistication, the applications of telepathology technology need not be confined to second opinion, but can be extended on a wider front.

The image pyramid system--an unbiased, inexpensive and broadly accessible method of telepathology.
Péter Gombás, Jeremy N Skepper, László Hegyi.
Pathol Oncol Res, 2002 May 08; 8(1). PMID: 11994767
Digital slide and virtual microscopy based routine and telepathology evaluation of routine gastrointestinal biopsy specimens.
B Molnar, L Berczi, +4 authors, Z Tulassay.
J Clin Pathol, 2003 Jun 05; 56(6). PMID: 12783970    Free PMC article.
Correction of uneven illumination (vignetting) in digital microscopy images.
F J W-M Leong, M Brady, J O'D McGee.
J Clin Pathol, 2003 Aug 02; 56(8). PMID: 12890815    Free PMC article.
A digital atlas of breast histopathology: an application of web based virtual microscopy.
M Lundin, J Lundin, H Helin, J Isola.
J Clin Pathol, 2004 Nov 26; 57(12). PMID: 15563669    Free PMC article.
The use of digital imaging, video conferencing, and telepathology in histopathology: a national survey.
T Dennis, R D Start, S S Cross.
J Clin Pathol, 2005 Mar 01; 58(3). PMID: 15735155    Free PMC article.
[Virtual microscopy: first applications].
K Glatz-Krieger, D Glatz, M J Mihatsch.
Pathologe, 2005 Aug 13; 27(6). PMID: 16096757
Review.
Factors to keep in mind when introducing virtual microscopy.
Katharina Glatz-Krieger, Udo Spornitz, +2 authors, Dieter Glatz.
Virchows Arch, 2005 Dec 20; 448(3). PMID: 16362822
Review.
Primary histologic diagnosis using automated whole slide imaging: a validation study.
John R Gilbertson, Jonhan Ho, +3 authors, Anil V Parwani.
BMC Clin Pathol, 2006 Apr 29; 6. PMID: 16643664    Free PMC article.
Towards an automated virtual slide screening: theoretical considerations and practical experiences of automated tissue-based virtual diagnosis to be implemented in the Internet.
Klaus Kayser, Dominik Radziszowski, +2 authors, Gian Kayser.
Diagn Pathol, 2006 Jun 13; 1. PMID: 16764733    Free PMC article.
[Digital slide training portal. Training slides available on the Internet from the German division of the IAP].
K Saeger, D Schmidt.
Pathologe, 2006 Oct 06; 27(6). PMID: 17021916
Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM): combining automated Gigapixel image capture with in silico virtual microscopy.
Emilie Flaberg, Per Sabelström, Christer Strandh, Laszlo Szekely.
BMC Med Imaging, 2008 Jul 17; 8. PMID: 18627634    Free PMC article.
Theory of sampling and its application in tissue based diagnosis.
Klaus Kayser, Holger Schultz, +3 authors, Ekkehard Vollmer.
Diagn Pathol, 2009 Feb 18; 4. PMID: 19220904    Free PMC article.
Quantification of virtual slides: Approaches to analysis of content-based image information.
Klaus Kayser.
J Pathol Inform, 2011 Mar 09; 2. PMID: 21383926    Free PMC article.
Validation of diagnostic accuracy using digital slides in routine histopathology.
László Fónyad, Tibor Krenács, +7 authors, Béla Molnár.
Diagn Pathol, 2012 Apr 03; 7. PMID: 22463804    Free PMC article.
Nomenclatural benchmarking: the roles of digital typification and telemicroscopy.
Quentin Wheeler, Thierry Bourgoin, +6 authors, M Alma Solis.
Zookeys, 2012 Aug 04; (209). PMID: 22859888    Free PMC article.
Darkfield adapter for whole slide imaging: adapting a darkfield internal reflection illumination system to extend WSI applications.
Yoshihiro Kawano, Christopher Higgins, +5 authors, Tobias Schilling.
PLoS One, 2013 Mar 23; 8(3). PMID: 23520500    Free PMC article.
Inter- and intra-observer concordance of cyberpathology in twenty-five cases.
Tommy R Tong, Kam-Cheong Lee, +6 authors, Jessica Pik-Man Lam.
Int J Biomed Sci, 2008 Mar 01; 4(1). PMID: 23675068    Free PMC article.
Intra-observer reproducibility of whole slide imaging for the primary diagnosis of breast needle biopsies.
Carolina Reyes, Offiong F Ikpatt, Mehrdad Nadji, Richard J Cote.
J Pathol Inform, 2014 Apr 18; 5(1). PMID: 24741464    Free PMC article.
Use of Digital Whole Slide Imaging in Dermatopathology.
Tracy Onega, Lisa M Reisch, +8 authors, Joann G Elmore.
J Digit Imaging, 2015 Nov 08; 29(2). PMID: 26546178    Free PMC article.
Machine learning-based image analysis for accelerating the diagnosis of complicated preneoplastic and neoplastic ductal lesions in breast biopsy tissues.
Shinya Sato, Satoshi Maki, +11 authors, Yohei Miyagi.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2021 May 03; 188(3). PMID: 33934277