. 2002 May;6(4).
doi: 10.1023/a:1014778713034.

Prognostic factors in breast cancer: current and new predictors of metastasis

D F Hayes 1 C Isaacs  V Stearns  
  • PMID: 12013528
  •     88 References
  •     76 citations


Decisions regarding the use of adjuvant therapy for breast cancer are strongly influenced by the risk of disease recurrence and death. These risks are now determined by examining the currently recognized breast cancer prognostic factors, including clinical stage, axillary nodal status, tumor size and grade, hormone receptor status, and presence of lymphovascular involvement. Newer factors are being evaluated in an attempt to more precisely define disease-related prognosis. This paper provides an overview of issues that need to be considered when analyzing studies of prognostic factors as well as a review of the currently recognized and the newer candidate prognostic factors.

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Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2014 Aug 15; 7(7). PMID: 25120764    Free PMC article.
P2Y2 receptor activation by nucleotides released from highly metastatic breast cancer cells increases tumor growth and invasion via crosstalk with endothelial cells.
Hana Jin, So Young Eun, +4 authors, Hye Jung Kim.
Breast Cancer Res, 2014 Aug 27; 16(5). PMID: 25156554    Free PMC article.
P2Y2R activation by nucleotides released from the highly metastatic breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 contributes to pre-metastatic niche formation by mediating lysyl oxidase secretion, collagen crosslinking, and monocyte recruitment.
Young Nak Joo, Hana Jin, +3 authors, Hye Jung Kim.
Oncotarget, 2014 Sep 23; 5(19). PMID: 25238333    Free PMC article.
New biomarkers to predict the evolution of in situ breast cancers.
S Bravaccini, M M Tumedei, +11 authors, R Silvestrini.
Biomed Res Int, 2014 Sep 23; 2014. PMID: 25243117    Free PMC article.
Enhanced down-regulation of ALCAM/CD166 in African-American Breast Cancer.
Fang Tan, Marina Mosunjac, +5 authors, Solomon F Ofori-Acquah.
BMC Cancer, 2014 Sep 27; 14. PMID: 25255861    Free PMC article.
Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of microRNA-21 overexpression in breast cancer: a meta-analysis.
Fei Pan, Hui Mao, +2 authors, Peiliang Geng.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2014 Oct 23; 7(9). PMID: 25337203    Free PMC article.
Individualized Survival and Treatment Response Predictions in Breast Cancer Patients: Involvements of Phospho-EGFR and Phospho-Her2/neu Proteins.
Lan Guo, Jame Abraham, +3 authors, Yong Qian.
Open Clin Cancer J, 2008 May 27; 2. PMID: 25558292    Free PMC article.
MicroRNA-10b and minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 gene as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer.
Sanaa Eissa, Marwa Matboli, Hanan H Shehata, Nada O E Essawy.
Tumour Biol, 2015 Jan 19; 36(6). PMID: 25596707
Prognostic role of serum C-reactive protein in esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ying Huang, Ji-Feng Feng, Jin-Shi Liu, Qi-Xun Chen.
Ther Clin Risk Manag, 2015 Feb 06; 11. PMID: 25653533    Free PMC article.
Prediction of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients based on microRNA-21 expression: a meta-analysis.
Yanyan Wang, Yujie Zhang, +2 authors, Suzhan Zhang.
PLoS One, 2015 Feb 24; 10(2). PMID: 25706383    Free PMC article.
Prognostic role of miR-200c in various malignancies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ke-Cheng Zhang, Hong-Qing Xi, +4 authors, Lin Chen.
Int J Clin Exp Med, 2015 May 02; 8(2). PMID: 25932122    Free PMC article.
Prognostic role of hormone receptors in endometrial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Yanli Zhang, Dong Zhao, +5 authors, Jing Sun.
World J Surg Oncol, 2015 Jun 26; 13. PMID: 26108802    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
MicroRNAs: New Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Therapy Prediction and Therapeutic Tools for Breast Cancer.
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Theranostics, 2015 Jul 23; 5(10). PMID: 26199650    Free PMC article.
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Prognostic role of microRNA-210 in various carcinomas: a meta-analysis.
Xuejiao Xie, Wenhong Wu, +5 authors, Shikang Li.
Int J Clin Exp Med, 2015 Dec 03; 8(9). PMID: 26629015    Free PMC article.
Prognostic value of caveolin-1 in genitourinary cancer: a meta-analysis.
Jia-Ming Liu, Si-Hang Cheng, +3 authors, Xue-Lei Ma.
Int J Clin Exp Med, 2016 Feb 18; 8(11). PMID: 26884999    Free PMC article.
Prognostic value of microRNA-21 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Geng-yuan Hu, Feng Tao, Wei Wang, Ke-wei Ji.
World J Surg Oncol, 2016 Mar 13; 14. PMID: 26969625    Free PMC article.
Prognostic role of microRNA-150 in various carcinomas: a meta-analysis.
Wei Wang, Xinshuai Wang, +4 authors, Shegan Gao.
Onco Targets Ther, 2016 Apr 05; 9. PMID: 27042106    Free PMC article.
CYC1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Breast Cancer.
Yingyan Han, Shujuan Sun, +8 authors, Peng Wu.
Dis Markers, 2016 May 31; 2016. PMID: 27239088    Free PMC article.
Prognostic significance of microRNA-200c in various types of cancer: An updated meta-analysis of 34 studies.
Jia-Yi Zhang, Ya-Min Wang, +3 authors, Ning-Hong Song.
Mol Clin Oncol, 2016 Jun 11; 4(6). PMID: 27284426    Free PMC article.
Epigenetic activation of LY6K predicts the presence of metastasis and poor prognosis in breast carcinoma.
Hyun Kyung Kong, Sae Jeong Park, +11 authors, Jong Hoon Park.
Oncotarget, 2016 Aug 06; 7(34). PMID: 27494879    Free PMC article.
LncRNAs act as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Jianwen Chen, Yalei Chen, +10 authors, Xin Ma.
Oncotarget, 2016 Aug 17; 7(45). PMID: 27527868    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Prognostic role of microRNA-21 expression in gliomas: a meta-analysis.
Chao Li, Jianjun Sun, +5 authors, Yimin Cui.
J Neurooncol, 2016 Oct 21; 130(1). PMID: 27531352
Epstein-Barr virus DNA level as a novel prognostic factor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A meta-analysis.
Jing Zhang, Chi Shu, +3 authors, Xuelei Ma.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2016 Oct 18; 95(40). PMID: 27749596    Free PMC article.
The prognostic value of long non coding RNAs in non small cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis.
Manni Wang, Xuelei Ma, +4 authors, Jing Zhang.
Oncotarget, 2016 Nov 12; 7(49). PMID: 27833074    Free PMC article.
Prognostic role of vascular endothelial growth factor in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis.
Jing Zhang, Jiaming Liu, +6 authors, Xuelei Ma.
Oncotarget, 2017 Feb 09; 8(15). PMID: 28177889    Free PMC article.
Prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET-CT-based functional parameters in patients with soft tissue sarcoma: A meta-analysis.
Linyan Chen, Xin Wu, +3 authors, Qingfang Li.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2017 Feb 09; 96(6). PMID: 28178131    Free PMC article.
Expression of caveolin-1 in breast cancer stroma as a potential prognostic biomarker of survival and progression: a meta-analysis.
Xiuying Li, Jinfan Sun, Shuenqin Hu.
Wien Klin Wochenschr, 2017 Apr 02; 129(15-16). PMID: 28364168
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the utility of long non-coding RNA GAS5 as a diagnostic and prognostic cancer biomarker.
Wei Li, Na Li, Ke Shi, Qiong Chen.
Oncotarget, 2017 Oct 17; 8(39). PMID: 29029523    Free PMC article.
Pre-treatment inflammatory indexes as predictors of survival and cetuximab efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with wild-type RAS.
Jing Yang, Xinli Guo, +3 authors, Panpan Lin.
Sci Rep, 2017 Dec 08; 7(1). PMID: 29215037    Free PMC article.
Caspase-3 over-expression is associated with poor overall survival and clinicopathological parameters in breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 3091 cases.
Xia Yang, Da-Ni Zhong, +5 authors, Jin-Cai Zhong.
Oncotarget, 2018 Mar 02; 9(9). PMID: 29492222    Free PMC article.
Predictive value of circulating cell-free DNA in the survival of breast cancer patients: A systemic review and meta-analysis.
Jing Yang, Li Cheng, +4 authors, Xuelei Ma.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Jul 12; 97(28). PMID: 29995790    Free PMC article.
Prognostic role of Toll-like receptors in cancer: a meta-analysis.
Qingwen Wang, Xiankai Zhang, +3 authors, Yulan Zhao.
Ther Clin Risk Manag, 2018 Aug 15; 14. PMID: 30104878    Free PMC article.
Prognostic Significance of P16INK4a Expression in Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis.
Jiayi Zhang, Hengcheng Zhang, +3 authors, Ninghong Song.
Biomed Res Int, 2018 Aug 15; 2018. PMID: 30105253    Free PMC article.
Clinical relevance of the 21-gene Recurrence Score® assay in treatment decisions for patients with node-positive breast cancer in the genomic era.
Eleftherios P Mamounas, Christy A Russell, +2 authors, Kathy S Albain.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 Aug 30; 4. PMID: 30155517    Free PMC article.
Prognostic role of microvessel density in patients with glioma.
Chaofeng Fan, Jing Zhang, +6 authors, Jianguo Xu.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Mar 01; 98(9). PMID: 30817605    Free PMC article.
The prognostic association of SPAG5 gene expression in breast cancer patients with systematic therapy.
Chenjing Zhu, Otilia Menyhart, Balázs Győrffy, Xia He.
BMC Cancer, 2019 Nov 07; 19(1). PMID: 31690268    Free PMC article.
The Prognostic Value of Blood-Based Biomarkers in Patients With Testicular Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
Jing Yang, Xinli Guo, +3 authors, Xuelei Ma.
Front Oncol, 2020 Jan 11; 9. PMID: 31921649    Free PMC article.
Expression of cleaved caspase-3 predicts good chemotherapy response but poor survival for patients with advanced primary triple-negative breast cancer.
Xiaodan Liu, Shenyi Jiang, Xin Tian, Youhong Jiang.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2018 Sep 01; 11(9). PMID: 31949833    Free PMC article.
Prognostic role of microRNA-31 in various cancers: a meta-analysis.
Shuwei Wang, Jun Hu, +3 authors, Yueming Sun.
Tumour Biol, 2014 Aug 21; 35(11). PMID: 25139099
Safety and efficacy profile of cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib in cancer therapy: A meta-analysis of clinical trials.
Linghong Guo, Yuanyuan Hu, +3 authors, Xuelei Ma.
Cancer Med, 2019 Mar 22; 8(4). PMID: 30897298    Free PMC article.
The Emerging Role of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer.
Zhiguang Yang, Zhaoyu Liu.
J Oncol, 2020 Jul 28; 2020. PMID: 32714393    Free PMC article.
Prognostic value of low microRNA-34a expression in human gastrointestinal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Yan-Ling Chen, Xiao-Lin Liu, Ling Li.
BMC Cancer, 2021 Jan 16; 21(1). PMID: 33446130    Free PMC article.
Recent Discoveries of Macromolecule- and Cell-Based Biomarkers and Therapeutic Implications in Breast Cancer.
Hsing-Ju Wu, Pei-Yi Chu.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jan 14; 22(2). PMID: 33435254    Free PMC article.
Identification of a Transcription Factor Signature That Can Predict Breast Cancer Survival.
Chunni Fan, Jianshi Du, Ning Liu.
Comput Math Methods Med, 2021 Mar 11; 2021. PMID: 33688372    Free PMC article.