. 2003 Apr; 3(4):331-41.
doi: 10.1038/nri1057.

Anatomical basis of tolerance and immunity to intestinal antigens

Allan McI Mowat 1 
  • PMID: 12669023
  •     350 citations


The intestinal immune system has to discriminate between harmful and beneficial antigens. Although strong protective immunity is essential to prevent invasion by pathogens, equivalent responses against dietary proteins or commensal bacteria can lead to chronic disease. These responses are normally prevented by a complex interplay of regulatory mechanisms. This article reviews the unique aspects of the local microenvironment of the intestinal immune system and discuss how these promote the development of regulatory responses that ensure the maintenance of homeostasis in the gut.

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Nat Rev Immunol, 2011 Jun 18; 11(7). PMID: 21681197    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Distribution, organization and innervation of gastric MALT in conventional piglet.
Maurizio Mazzoni, Paolo Bosi, Nadia De Sordi, Giovanna Lalatta-Costerbosa.
J Anat, 2011 Jul 26; 219(5). PMID: 21781093    Free PMC article.
Alterations in regulatory T-cells: rediscovered pathways in immunotoxicology.
Emanuela Corsini, Mohamed Oukka, +3 authors, Dori R Germolec.
J Immunotoxicol, 2011 Aug 19; 8(4). PMID: 21848365    Free PMC article.
Insights into inflammatory bowel disease using Toxoplasma gondii as an infectious trigger.
Charlotte E Egan, Sara B Cohen, Eric Y Denkers.
Immunol Cell Biol, 2011 Nov 09; 90(7). PMID: 22064707    Free PMC article.
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal mediates genotoxicity and bystander effects caused by Enterococcus faecalis-infected macrophages.
Xingmin Wang, Yonghong Yang, +3 authors, Mark M Huycke.
Gastroenterology, 2011 Nov 24; 142(3). PMID: 22108198    Free PMC article.
Development of murine hepatic NK cells during ontogeny: comparison with spleen NK cells.
Xian Wu, Yongyan Chen, +2 authors, Zhigang Tian.
Clin Dev Immunol, 2011 Dec 29; 2012. PMID: 22203859    Free PMC article.
Absence of HIV-1 evolution in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue from patients on combination antiviral therapy initiated during primary infection.
Teresa H Evering, Saurabh Mehandru, +5 authors, Martin Markowitz.
PLoS Pathog, 2012 Feb 10; 8(2). PMID: 22319447    Free PMC article.
Modulating intestinal immune responses by lipoteichoic acid-deficient Lactobacillus acidophilus.
Mohammad W Khan, Mojgan Zadeh, +4 authors, Mansour Mohamadzadeh.
Immunotherapy, 2012 Feb 22; 4(2). PMID: 22339459    Free PMC article.
Phenotypical and functional analysis of intraepithelial lymphocytes from small intestine of mice in oral tolerance.
Maristela Ruberti, Luis Gustavo Romani Fernandes, +3 authors, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha Tamashiro.
Clin Dev Immunol, 2012 Mar 09; 2012. PMID: 22400033    Free PMC article.
Role of LFA-1 in the activation and trafficking of T cells: implications in the induction of chronic colitis.
Iurii Koboziev, Fridrik Karlsson, +4 authors, Matthew B Grisham.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2012 Apr 11; 18(12). PMID: 22488891    Free PMC article.
Tissue transglutaminase treatment leads to concentration-dependent changes in dendritic cell phenotype--implications for the role of transglutaminase in coeliac disease.
William J Dalleywater, David Y S Chau, Amir M Ghaemmaghami.
BMC Immunol, 2012 Apr 18; 13. PMID: 22507564    Free PMC article.
IL-27 production and STAT3-dependent upregulation of B7-H1 mediate immune regulatory functions of liver plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
Benjamin M Matta, Giorgio Raimondi, +2 authors, Angus W Thomson.
J Immunol, 2012 Apr 18; 188(11). PMID: 22508931    Free PMC article.
Role of TIM-4 in innate or adaptive immune response.
Natasha Nurtanio, Ping-Chang Yang.
N Am J Med Sci, 2012 May 05; 3(5). PMID: 22558597    Free PMC article.
Microbiota/host crosstalk biomarkers: regulatory response of human intestinal dendritic cells exposed to Lactobacillus extracellular encrypted peptide.
David Bernardo, Borja Sánchez, +4 authors, Abelardo Margolles.
PLoS One, 2012 May 19; 7(5). PMID: 22606249    Free PMC article.
Concurrent exposure to microbial products and food antigens triggers initiation of food allergy.
Xiao Chen, Ping-Chang Yang.
N Am J Med Sci, 2009 Jun 01; 1(1). PMID: 22666664    Free PMC article.
Gut immune maturation depends on colonization with a host-specific microbiota.
Hachung Chung, Sünje J Pamp, +12 authors, Dennis L Kasper.
Cell, 2012 Jun 26; 149(7). PMID: 22726443    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Pathogenesis of food allergy in the pediatric patient.
Stacy Chin, Brian P Vickery.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep, 2012 Aug 31; 12(6). PMID: 22933136    Free PMC article.
Microbial-induced Th17: superhero or supervillain?
Mandy J McGeachy, Stephen J McSorley.
J Immunol, 2012 Sep 22; 189(7). PMID: 22997231    Free PMC article.
Nutritive potential of some 'edible' soils in Blantyre city, Malawi.
D D Lakudzala, J J Khonje.
Malawi Med J, 2011 Jun 01; 23(2). PMID: 23074810    Free PMC article.
Intestinal antimicrobial peptides during homeostasis, infection, and disease.
Luciana R Muniz, Camille Knosp, Garabet Yeretssian.
Front Immunol, 2012 Oct 23; 3. PMID: 23087688    Free PMC article.
Immune disorders and its correlation with gut microbiome.
Ji-Sun Hwang, Chang-Rok Im, Sin-Hyeog Im.
Immune Netw, 2012 Oct 24; 12(4). PMID: 23091436    Free PMC article.
Mechanism of oral tolerance induction to therapeutic proteins.
Xiaomei Wang, Alexandra Sherman, +4 authors, Roland W Herzog.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 2012 Nov 06; 65(6). PMID: 23123293    Free PMC article.
Guarding the perimeter: protection of the mucosa by tissue-resident memory T cells.
L S Cauley, L Lefrançois.
Mucosal Immunol, 2012 Nov 08; 6(1). PMID: 23131785    Free PMC article.
New insights into probiotic mechanisms: a harvest from functional and metagenomic studies.
John Bienenstock, Glenn Gibson, +2 authors, Andrew S Neish.
Gut Microbes, 2012 Dec 20; 4(2). PMID: 23249742    Free PMC article.
Dendritic cells from human mesenteric lymph nodes in inflammatory and non-inflammatory bowel diseases: subsets and function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
Arwed Hostmann, Kerstin Kapp, +10 authors, Reiner Ullrich.
Immunology, 2013 Jan 03; 139(1). PMID: 23278129    Free PMC article.
Probiotics in the treatment and prevention of allergy in children.
Erkki Savilahti, Kaarina Kukkonen, Mikael Kuitunen.
World Allergy Organ J, 2009 May 01; 2(5). PMID: 23283013    Free PMC article.
Microbiota restricts trafficking of bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes by CX(3)CR1(hi) cells.
Gretchen E Diehl, Randy S Longman, +5 authors, Dan R Littman.
Nature, 2013 Jan 22; 494(7435). PMID: 23334413    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The twenty-year story of a plant-based vaccine against hepatitis B: stagnation or promising prospects?
Tomasz Pniewski.
Int J Mol Sci, 2013 Jan 23; 14(1). PMID: 23337199    Free PMC article.
CD4(+) T-cell subsets in intestinal inflammation.
Matthew Shale, Chris Schiering, Fiona Powrie.
Immunol Rev, 2013 Feb 15; 252(1). PMID: 23405904    Free PMC article.
Gut microbiota as potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cow's milk allergy.
Roberto Berni Canani, Margherita Di Costanzo.
Nutrients, 2013 Mar 05; 5(3). PMID: 23455693    Free PMC article.
Alga-produced cholera toxin-Pfs25 fusion proteins as oral vaccines.
James A Gregory, Aaron B Topol, David Z Doerner, Stephen Mayfield.
Appl Environ Microbiol, 2013 Apr 23; 79(13). PMID: 23603678    Free PMC article.
Decreased IgA+ B cells population and IgA, IgG, IgM contents of the cecal tonsil induced by dietary high fluorine in broilers.
Juan Liu, Hengmin Cui, +7 authors, Kangping Wang.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2013 May 07; 10(5). PMID: 23644827    Free PMC article.
Antigen-specific effector CD4 T lymphocytes school lamina propria dendritic cells to transfer innate tolerance.
Jason A Cascio, Cara L Haymaker, +7 authors, Habib Zaghouani.
J Immunol, 2013 May 21; 190(12). PMID: 23686493    Free PMC article.
Food components and the immune system: from tonic agents to allergens.
Ana Maria Caetano Faria, Ana Cristina Gomes-Santos, +4 authors, Denise Carmona Cara.
Front Immunol, 2013 Jun 05; 4. PMID: 23730302    Free PMC article.
Epigenetic modification of FOXP3 in patients with chronic HIV infection.
Enass A Abdel-Hameed, Hong Ji, Kenneth E Sherman, Mohamed T M Shata.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2013 Jul 13; 65(1). PMID: 23846566    Free PMC article.
Probiotics can generate FoxP3 T-cell responses in the small intestine and simultaneously inducing CD4 and CD8 T cell activation in the large intestine.
Maaike J Smelt, Bart J de Haan, +5 authors, Paul de Vos.
PLoS One, 2013 Jul 19; 8(7). PMID: 23861953    Free PMC article.
A single intraduodenal administration of human adenovirus 40 vaccine effectively prevents anaphylactic shock.
Satoshi Yamasaki, Yoshiaki Miura, +2 authors, Masato Yamamoto.
Clin Vaccine Immunol, 2013 Jul 26; 20(10). PMID: 23885027    Free PMC article.
Probiotics and food allergy.
Anna Maria Castellazzi, Chiara Valsecchi, +8 authors, Gian Luigi Marseglia.
Ital J Pediatr, 2013 Jul 31; 39. PMID: 23895430    Free PMC article.
Interaction of Cryptosporidium parvum with mouse dendritic cells leads to their activation and parasite transportation to mesenteric lymph nodes.
Gregorio Perez-Cordon, Guilin Yang, +5 authors, Hanping Feng.
Pathog Dis, 2013 Aug 06; 70(1). PMID: 23913680    Free PMC article.
Low dose native type II collagen prevents pain in a rat osteoarthritis model.
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Laura Micheli, Matteo Zanardelli, Carla Ghelardini.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2013 Aug 07; 14. PMID: 23915264    Free PMC article.
Oligoclonal expansions of mucosal T cells in Crohn's disease predominate in NKG2D-expressing CD4 T cells.
M Camus, S Esses, +9 authors, M Allez.
Mucosal Immunol, 2013 Aug 16; 7(2). PMID: 23945543
The gut as a sensory organ.
John B Furness, Leni R Rivera, +2 authors, Brid Callaghan.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2013 Sep 26; 10(12). PMID: 24061204
Highly Cited.
Estimating the contribution of the gut to plasma viral load in early SIV infection.
Janka Petravic, Thomas H Vanderford, Guido Silvestri, Miles Davenport.
Retrovirology, 2013 Oct 15; 10. PMID: 24119218    Free PMC article.
Immune activation, HIV persistence, and the cure.
Daniel C Douek.
Top Antivir Med, 2013 Nov 15; 21(4). PMID: 24225078    Free PMC article.
Distribution of CD4(pos) -, CD8(pos) - and regulatory T cells in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract in healthy young subjects.
Martin Tauschmann, Barbara Prietl, +4 authors, Thomas R Pieber.
PLoS One, 2013 Nov 23; 8(11). PMID: 24265815    Free PMC article.
Role of the enteric microbiota in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation.
Iurii Koboziev, Cynthia Reinoso Webb, Kathryn L Furr, Matthew B Grisham.
Free Radic Biol Med, 2013 Nov 28; 68. PMID: 24275541    Free PMC article.
The Potential Therapeutic Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in Children with Food Allergies.
Roberto Berni Canani, Margherita Di Costanzo, +4 authors, Rita Nocerino.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2012 Jan 01; 5(6). PMID: 24281667    Free PMC article.
Oral administration of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli induces intestinal and systemic specific immune response in mice.
Romina Jimena Fernandez-Brando, Gabriel Cabrera, +8 authors, Marina Sandra Palermo.
Med Microbiol Immunol, 2014 Jan 09; 203(3). PMID: 24399245
Innate and adaptive type 2 immune cell responses in genetically controlled resistance to intestinal helminth infection.
Kara J Filbey, John R Grainger, +6 authors, Rick M Maizels.
Immunol Cell Biol, 2014 Feb 05; 92(5). PMID: 24492801    Free PMC article.
Extensive expression differences along porcine small intestine evidenced by transcriptome sequencing.
Núria Mach, Mustapha Berri, +8 authors, Jordi Estellé.
PLoS One, 2014 Feb 18; 9(2). PMID: 24533095    Free PMC article.
Intestinal epithelial cells: regulators of barrier function and immune homeostasis.
Lance W Peterson, David Artis.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2014 Feb 26; 14(3). PMID: 24566914
Highly Cited. Review.
Regulation of Intestinal Immune Responses through TLR Activation: Implications for Pro- and Prebiotics.
Sander de Kivit, Mary C Tobin, +2 authors, Alan L Landay.
Front Immunol, 2014 Mar 07; 5. PMID: 24600450    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T-cell vaccination independent of auto-antigen.
David W Pascual, Xinghong Yang, +3 authors, Irina Kochetkova.
Exp Mol Med, 2014 Mar 15; 46. PMID: 24626168    Free PMC article.
The monocyte-macrophage axis in the intestine.
Calum C Bain, Allan McI Mowat.
Cell Immunol, 2014 Apr 15; 291(1-2). PMID: 24726741    Free PMC article.
Endoscopic photoconversion reveals unexpectedly broad leukocyte trafficking to and from the gut.
Angela M Morton, Esen Sefik, +3 authors, Diane Mathis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2014 Apr 23; 111(18). PMID: 24753589    Free PMC article.
The role of commensal bacteria in the regulation of sensitization to food allergens.
Severine Cao, Taylor J Feehley, Cathryn R Nagler.
FEBS Lett, 2014 May 06; 588(22). PMID: 24791655    Free PMC article.
Polarizing the T helper 17 response in Citrobacter rodentium infection via expression of resistin-like molecule α.
Gang Chen, Alexander J Chan, +3 authors, Meera G Nair.
Gut Microbes, 2014 May 17; 5(3). PMID: 24831469    Free PMC article.
Surface-modified P(HEMA-co-MAA) nanogel carriers for oral vaccine delivery: design, characterization, and in vitro targeting evaluation.
Matilde Durán-Lobato, Brenda Carrillo-Conde, Yasmine Khairandish, Nicholas A Peppas.
Biomacromolecules, 2014 Jun 24; 15(7). PMID: 24955658    Free PMC article.
Probiotics in the treatment and prevention of allergies in children.
Erkki Savilahti.
Biosci Microflora, 2011 Jan 01; 30(4). PMID: 25045317    Free PMC article.
Mucosal resident memory CD4 T cells in protection and immunopathology.
Damian Lanz Turner, Donna L Farber.
Front Immunol, 2014 Jul 30; 5. PMID: 25071787    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Role of Th17 Cells in the Pathogenesis of Human IBD.
Julio Gálvez.
ISRN Inflamm, 2014 Aug 08; 2014. PMID: 25101191    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Toxicological effects of nickel chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the intestinal mucosal immunity in broilers.
Bangyuan Wu, Hengmin Cui, +4 authors, Jianying Huang.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2014 Aug 15; 11(8). PMID: 25116637    Free PMC article.
CCR2(+)CD103(-) intestinal dendritic cells develop from DC-committed precursors and induce interleukin-17 production by T cells.
C L Scott, C C Bain, +9 authors, A M Mowat.
Mucosal Immunol, 2014 Aug 21; 8(2). PMID: 25138666    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Toll-like receptor 2 as a regulator of oral tolerance in the gastrointestinal tract.
Matthew C Tunis, Jean S Marshall.
Mediators Inflamm, 2014 Oct 14; 2014. PMID: 25309051    Free PMC article.
Targeted 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase adoptive gene therapy ameliorates dss-induced colitis without causing hypercalcemia in mice.
Bo Li, David J Baylink, +6 authors, Xuezhong Qin.
Mol Ther, 2014 Oct 21; 23(2). PMID: 25327179    Free PMC article.
Persistent production of an integrase-deleted HIV-1 variant with no resistance mutation and wild-type proviral DNA in a treated patient.
Mary-Anne Trabaud, Laurent Cotte, +6 authors, Patrice André.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 2014 Oct 22; 31(1). PMID: 25333615    Free PMC article.
Cellular Plasticity of CD4+ T Cells in the Intestine.
Verena Brucklacher-Waldert, Edward J Carr, Michelle A Linterman, Marc Veldhoen.
Front Immunol, 2014 Oct 24; 5. PMID: 25339956    Free PMC article.
The importance of TSLP in allergic disease and its role as a potential therapeutic target.
Antonella Cianferoni, Jonathan Spergel.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol, 2014 Oct 24; 10(11). PMID: 25340427    Free PMC article.
Processed Aloe vera gel ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced immunotoxicity.
Sun-A Im, Ki-Hyang Kim, +6 authors, Chong-Kil Lee.
Int J Mol Sci, 2014 Oct 28; 15(11). PMID: 25347273    Free PMC article.
IL-1β in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production.
Y Jung, T Wen, +9 authors, M E Rothenberg.
Mucosal Immunol, 2015 Jan 08; 8(4). PMID: 25563499    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Characterization and functional studies of forkhead box protein 3(-) lymphocyte activation gene 3(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells induced by mucosal B cells.
K-H Chu, B-L Chiang.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2015 Jan 13; 180(2). PMID: 25581421    Free PMC article.
CD69 is the crucial regulator of intestinal inflammation: a new target molecule for IBD treatment?
Katarina Radulovic, Jan Hendrik Niess.
J Immunol Res, 2015 Mar 12; 2015. PMID: 25759842    Free PMC article.
Consideration of the efficacy of non-ionic vesicles in the targeted delivery of oral vaccines.
Jitinder S Wilkhu, Sarah E McNeil, David E Anderson, Yvonne Perrie.
Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2015 Mar 20; 4(3). PMID: 25786878
Intestinal microbiota as modulators of the immune system.
Borja Sánchez, Miguel Gueimonde, Amado Salvador Peña, David Bernardo.
J Immunol Res, 2015 Mar 31; 2015. PMID: 25821835    Free PMC article.
Human colon-derived soluble factors modulate gut microbiota composition.
Arancha Hevia, David Bernardo, +9 authors, Borja Sánchez.
Front Oncol, 2015 Apr 29; 5. PMID: 25918688    Free PMC article.
Abdominal Distension and Escherichia coli Peritonitis in Mice Lacking Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88.
Linda K Johnson, Antin Yn Widi, Serrin Rowarth, Alan G Baxter.
Comp Med, 2015 May 01; 65(2). PMID: 25926397    Free PMC article.
Implication of fructans in health: immunomodulatory and antioxidant mechanisms.
Elena Franco-Robles, Mercedes G López.
ScientificWorldJournal, 2015 May 12; 2015. PMID: 25961072    Free PMC article.
Cry protein crystals: a novel platform for protein delivery.
Manoj S Nair, Marianne M Lee, +6 authors, Michael K Chan.
PLoS One, 2015 Jun 02; 10(6). PMID: 26030844    Free PMC article.
Divergent behavior of mucosal memory T cells.
O H Pham, S J McSorley.
Mucosal Immunol, 2015 Jun 11; 8(4). PMID: 26059005    Free PMC article.
Innate immunity and inflammatory bowel disease: a review of clinical evidence and future application.
Kyoko Katakura, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hiromasa Ohira.
Clin J Gastroenterol, 2013 Dec 01; 6(6). PMID: 26182129
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in dendritic cells is crucial for the activation of protective regulatory T cells in murine colitis.
K Flück, G Breves, J Fandrey, S Winning.
Mucosal Immunol, 2015 Jul 30; 9(2). PMID: 26220168
Therapeutic and immunoregulatory effect of GATA-binding protein-3/T-box expressed in T-cells ratio of astragalus polysaccharides on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.
Yong-Jian Gao, Feng Zhu, Jia-Ming Qian, Jia-Yuan Dai.
Chin J Integr Med, 2015 Aug 27; 22(12). PMID: 26306417
Breast Milk and Solid Food Shaping Intestinal Immunity.
Sara M Parigi, Maria Eldh, +2 authors, Eduardo J Villablanca.
Front Immunol, 2015 Sep 09; 6. PMID: 26347740    Free PMC article.
Emerging immunopharmacological targets in multiple sclerosis.
Mojtaba Farjam, Guang-Xian Zhang, Bogoljub Ciric, Abdolmohamad Rostami.
J Neurol Sci, 2015 Oct 07; 358(1-2). PMID: 26440421    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of Oral Tolerance.
Scott P Commins.
Pediatr Clin North Am, 2015 Oct 13; 62(6). PMID: 26456448    Free PMC article.
Protective effect of diet supplemented with rice prolamin extract against DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis in BALB/c mice.
Hyun-Joong Yoon, Mi-Sun Jang, +8 authors, Bong-Whan Ahn.
BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 Oct 16; 15. PMID: 26467986    Free PMC article.
Oral Immunization with a Recombinant Lactococcus lactis-Expressing HIV-1 Antigen on Group A Streptococcus Pilus Induces Strong Mucosal Immunity in the Gut.
Venkateswarlu Chamcha, Andrew Jones, +2 authors, Rama Rao Amara.
J Immunol, 2015 Oct 21; 195(10). PMID: 26482408    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of Microbe-Host Interaction in Crohn's Disease: Dysbiosis vs. Pathobiont Selection.
Ludovica F Buttó, Monika Schaubeck, Dirk Haller.
Front Immunol, 2015 Dec 05; 6. PMID: 26635787    Free PMC article.
The Neuromodulation of the Intestinal Immune System and Its Relevance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Martina Di Giovangiulio, Simon Verheijden, +3 authors, Gianluca Matteoli.
Front Immunol, 2015 Dec 05; 6. PMID: 26635804    Free PMC article.
Nutritional Keys for Intestinal Barrier Modulation.
Stefania De Santis, Elisabetta Cavalcanti, +2 authors, Marcello Chieppa.
Front Immunol, 2015 Dec 24; 6. PMID: 26697008    Free PMC article.
CD8αα TCRαβ Intraepithelial Lymphocytes in the Mouse Gut.
Yuan Qiu, Ke Peng, +2 authors, Hua Yang.
Dig Dis Sci, 2016 Jan 16; 61(6). PMID: 26769056
Chemokine (C-C Motif) Receptor 2 Mediates Dendritic Cell Recruitment to the Human Colon but Is Not Responsible for Differences Observed in Dendritic Cell Subsets, Phenotype, and Function Between the Proximal and Distal Colon.
David Bernardo, Lydia Durant, +27 authors, Stella C Knight.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2016 Feb 13; 2(1). PMID: 26866054    Free PMC article.
Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.
Antonella Cianferoni.
J Asthma Allergy, 2016 Feb 19; 9. PMID: 26889090    Free PMC article.
Tissue-resident dendritic cells and diseases involving dendritic cell malfunction.
Keqiang Chen, Ji Ming Wang, +6 authors, Shaobo Su.
Int Immunopharmacol, 2016 Feb 26; 34. PMID: 26906720    Free PMC article.
Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein expression in normal gastrointestinal tract and in tumors detected with novel monoclonal antibodies.
Aileen Houston, John M Williams, +12 authors, Tom Moore.
MAbs, 2016 Mar 02; 8(3). PMID: 26926266    Free PMC article.
Nur77-deficiency in bone marrow-derived macrophages modulates inflammatory responses, extracellular matrix homeostasis, phagocytosis and tolerance.
Anouk A J Hamers, Carmen Argmann, +6 authors, Claudia M van Tiel.
BMC Genomics, 2016 Mar 05; 17. PMID: 26932821    Free PMC article.
Protective and pro-inflammatory roles of intestinal bacteria.
Cynthia Reinoso Webb, Iurii Koboziev, Kathryn L Furr, Matthew B Grisham.
Pathophysiology, 2016 Mar 08; 23(2). PMID: 26947707    Free PMC article.
Secretory IgA in complex with Lactobacillus rhamnosus potentiates mucosal dendritic cell-mediated Treg cell differentiation via TLR regulatory proteins, RALDH2 and secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β.
Josip Mikulic, Stéphanie Longet, +2 authors, Blaise Corthesy.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2016 Mar 15; 14(6). PMID: 26972771    Free PMC article.
Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses.
Khavong Pha, Lorena Navarro.
World J Biol Chem, 2016 Mar 17; 7(1). PMID: 26981193    Free PMC article.
Regulation of the Adaptive Immune Response by the IκB Family Protein Bcl-3.
Felicity D Herrington, Robert J B Nibbs.
Cells, 2016 Mar 31; 5(2). PMID: 27023613    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of T cell organotropism.
Hongmei Fu, Eleanor Jayne Ward, Federica M Marelli-Berg.
Cell Mol Life Sci, 2016 Apr 03; 73(16). PMID: 27038487    Free PMC article.
Sex impacts Th1 cells, Tregs, and DCs in both intestinal and systemic immunity in a mouse strain and location-dependent manner.
Marlies Elderman, Adriaan van Beek, +4 authors, Marijke Faas.
Biol Sex Differ, 2016 Apr 07; 7. PMID: 27051505    Free PMC article.
Combined blockade of the histamine H1 and H4 receptor suppresses peanut-induced intestinal anaphylaxis by regulating dendritic cell function.
M Wang, J Han, +3 authors, E W Gelfand.
Allergy, 2016 Apr 10; 71(11). PMID: 27059534    Free PMC article.
Gut microbiota and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: where do we stand?
D Zama, E Biagi, +5 authors, A Pession.
Bone Marrow Transplant, 2016 Jun 28; 52(1). PMID: 27348539
Unique Transcompartmental Bridge: Antigen-Presenting Cells Sampling across Endothelial and Mucosal Barriers.
Frederick Allen, Alexander A Tong, Alex Y Huang.
Front Immunol, 2016 Jul 05; 7. PMID: 27375624    Free PMC article.
Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.
M A Nosenko, M S Drutskaya, M M Moisenovich, S A Nedospasov.
Acta Naturae, 2016 Jul 21; 8(2). PMID: 27437136    Free PMC article.
The Mucosal Immune System and Its Regulation by Autophagy.
Agnieszka M Kabat, Johanna Pott, Kevin J Maloy.
Front Immunol, 2016 Jul 23; 7. PMID: 27446072    Free PMC article.
Mutagenicity and Immune Toxicity of Emulsion-type Sausage Cured with Plasma-treated Water.
Hyun-Joo Kim, Nak-Yun Sung, +5 authors, Cheorun Jo.
Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour, 2016 Sep 14; 36(4). PMID: 27621690    Free PMC article.
Enteric immunity, the gut microbiome, and sepsis: Rethinking the germ theory of disease.
Javier Cabrera-Perez, Vladimir P Badovinac, Thomas S Griffith.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2016 Sep 17; 242(2). PMID: 27633573    Free PMC article.
Comparative Analysis of Immune Activation Markers of CD8+ T Cells in Lymph Nodes of Different Origins in SIV-Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaques.
Jinbiao Liu, Qianhao Xiao, +9 authors, Jieliang Li.
Front Immunol, 2016 Oct 07; 7. PMID: 27708644    Free PMC article.
Gene expression profile of endothelial cells during perturbation of the gut vascular barrier.
Ilaria Spadoni, Alessandro Pietrelli, Graziano Pesole, Maria Rescigno.
Gut Microbes, 2016 Nov 03; 7(6). PMID: 27723418    Free PMC article.
Tissue Microenvironments in the Nasal Epithelium of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Define Two Distinct CD8α+ Cell Populations and Establish Regional Immunity.
Ali Sepahi, Elisa Casadei, +3 authors, Irene Salinas.
J Immunol, 2016 Nov 01; 197(11). PMID: 27798156    Free PMC article.
Predominance of weakly cytotoxic, T-betLowEomesNeg CD8+ T-cells in human gastrointestinal mucosa: implications for HIV infection.
B E Kiniry, A Ganesh, +5 authors, B L Shacklett.
Mucosal Immunol, 2016 Nov 09; 10(4). PMID: 27827375    Free PMC article.
Developing food allergy: a potential immunologic pathway linking skin barrier to gut.
Yui-Hsi Wang.
F1000Res, 2016 Nov 18; 5. PMID: 27853507    Free PMC article.
Role of the intestinal mucosa in acute gastrointestinal GVHD.
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Blood, 2016 Nov 20; 128(20). PMID: 27856471    Free PMC article.
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U-Omp19 from Brucella abortus Is a Useful Adjuvant for Vaccine Formulations against Salmonella Infection in Mice.
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Alessandro Maglione, Miriam Zuccalà, +2 authors, Simona Rolla.
Genes (Basel), 2021 Aug 28; 12(8). PMID: 34440354    Free PMC article.
Gut microbiota dysbiosis in functional gastrointestinal disorders: Underpinning the symptoms and pathophysiology.
Lai Wei, Rajan Singh, Seungil Ro, Uday C Ghoshal.
JGH Open, 2021 Sep 30; 5(9). PMID: 34584964    Free PMC article.
Role of microbiota and related metabolites in gastrointestinal tract barrier function in NAFLD.
Maria Victoria Fernandez-Cantos, Diego Garcia-Morena, +3 authors, Oscar P Kuipers.
Tissue Barriers, 2021 Jul 20; 9(3). PMID: 34280073    Free PMC article.
Role of Barrier Integrity and Dysfunctions in Maintaining the Healthy Gut and Their Health Outcomes.
Shruti Panwar, Sapna Sharma, Prabhanshu Tripathi.
Front Physiol, 2021 Oct 12; 12. PMID: 34630140    Free PMC article.
Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction.
Agustín Albillos, Rosa Martin-Mateos, +3 authors, Melchor Álvarez-Mon.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2021 Oct 28;. PMID: 34703031
Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Derived CD83 Contributes to Regulatory T-Cell Generation and Inhibition of Food Allergy.
Yong Yu, Qiao-Ruo Jin, +6 authors, Peng-Yuan Zheng.
J Innate Immun, 2021 Jun 29; 13(5). PMID: 34182560    Free PMC article.
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Modulates Renal Phenotype in the Humanized Mouse Model of IgA Nephropathy.
Gabriella Lauriero, Lilia Abbad, +7 authors, Renato C Monteiro.
Front Immunol, 2021 Oct 30; 12. PMID: 34712223    Free PMC article.
Nanomedicine for increasing the oral bioavailability of cancer treatments.
Alessandro Parodi, Polina Buzaeva, +5 authors, Andrey A Zamyatnin.
J Nanobiotechnology, 2021 Nov 01; 19(1). PMID: 34717658    Free PMC article.