. 2005 Aug; 27(6):469-76.
doi: 10.1007/s00292-005-0782-1.

[Virtual microscopy: first applications]

K Glatz-Krieger 1 D Glatz  M J Mihatsch  
  • PMID: 16096757
  •     37 References
  •     6 citations


Only recently fast-paced developments in computer technology allowed for the digitization of complete histologic slides. The resulting virtual slides may be viewed via webbrowser by any number of pathologists or students independent of time and location. Usage of a virtual microscope simply requires a computer workstation with a fast internet connection, which opens this technology to a broad public. A virtual microscopy system consists of three components: acquisition, server and client. Such systems are under development by different commercial and academic bodies worldwide. We have developed a virtual microscope system called vMic ( which provides virtual slides of very high image quality. Several successfully held online slide seminars and a histology course for students in dentistry are freely accessible in the internet. With the commercial availability of ultra rapid and easy-to-use slide scanners and the fast improvements of technology virtual microscopy will offer many applications in teaching, research and diagnostics. Thanks to additional functionalities, real microscopes will most likely be replaced by computer workstations in a couple of years.

Histopathology training in Europe: a lesson for other specialties?
Dirk J Ruiter, Borghild Roald, +2 authors, UEMS Section of Pathology/European Board of Pathology.
Virchows Arch, 2003 Dec 04; 444(3). PMID: 14652752
Telepathology overview: from concept to implementation.
R S Weinstein, M R Descour, +9 authors, B E Dunn.
Hum Pathol, 2002 Jan 05; 32(12). PMID: 11774159
A tale of two systems: Pathology resident recruitment in and out of the National Resident Matching Program.
J A Kant.
Hum Pathol, 2001 Aug 04; 32(7). PMID: 11486165
Implementation of virtual microscope slides in the annual pathobiology of cancer workshop laboratory.
Fred R Dee, John M Lehman, +2 authors, Michael B Cohen.
Hum Pathol, 2003 Jun 07; 34(5). PMID: 12792915
Telepathology: current status and future prospects in diagnostic histopathology.
S S Cross, T Dennis, R D Start.
Histopathology, 2002 Jul 31; 41(2). PMID: 12147086
Virtual microscopy as a tool for proficiency testing in cytopathology: a model using multiple digital images of Papanicolaou tests.
Alberto M Marchevsky, Yan Wan, +3 authors, Helene Haber.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2003 Oct 03; 127(10). PMID: 14521463
Combined robotic and nonrobotic telepathology as an integral service component of a geographically dispersed laboratory network.
B E Dunn, H Choi, U A Almagro, D L Recla.
Hum Pathol, 2002 Jan 05; 32(12). PMID: 11774160
Digital slide and virtual microscopy based routine and telepathology evaluation of routine gastrointestinal biopsy specimens.
B Molnar, L Berczi, +4 authors, Z Tulassay.
J Clin Pathol, 2003 Jun 05; 56(6). PMID: 12783970    Free PMC article.
Digital storage of glass slides for quality assurance in histopathology and cytopathology.
Francesca Demichelis, Vincenzo Della Mea, +2 authors, Carlo Alberto Beltrami.
J Telemed Telecare, 2002 Jul 05; 8(3). PMID: 12097174
Acceptance of telepathology in daily practice.
T Mairinger.
Anal Cell Pathol, 2001 May 08; 21(3-4). PMID: 11339560    Free PMC article.
[Web-based learning tools in pathology].
K Glatz-Krieger, D Glatz, +2 authors, M J Mihatsch.
Pathologe, 2003 Sep 10; 24(5). PMID: 12961028
Teaching medical histology at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine: Transition to virtual slides and virtual microscopes.
Charles A Blake, Holly A Lavoie, Clarke F Millette.
Anat Rec B New Anat, 2003 Nov 25; 275(1). PMID: 14628320
Quicktime virtual reality technology in light microscopy to support medical education in pathology.
Francesco Alfredo Zito, Franco Marzullo, +4 authors, Antonio Pellecchia.
Mod Pathol, 2004 Apr 10; 17(6). PMID: 15073600
Integrated approach to teaching and testing in histology with real and virtual imaging.
Paul M Heidger, Fred Dee, +3 authors, Clarence Kreiter.
Anat Rec, 2002 May 10; 269(2). PMID: 12001217
Technology insight: Identification of biomarkers with tissue microarray technology.
Jena M Giltnane, David L Rimm.
Nat Clin Pract Oncol, 2005 Nov 03; 1(2). PMID: 16264828
The virtual microscope.
Umit Catalyürek, Michael D Beynon, +3 authors, Joel Saltz.
IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed, 2004 Mar 06; 7(4). PMID: 15000350
Telemicroscopy by the Internet revisited.
K Brauchli, H Christen, +3 authors, M Oberholzer.
J Pathol, 2002 Jan 17; 196(2). PMID: 11793377
The development and evaluation of the UK national telepathology network.
W M Bamford, N Rogers, +2 authors, P N Furness.
Histopathology, 2003 Feb 01; 42(2). PMID: 12558742
Digital dynamic telepathology--the Virtual Microscope.
A Afework, M D Beynon, +8 authors, H Tsang.
Proc AMIA Symp, 1999 Feb 03;. PMID: 9929351    Free PMC article.
Application of virtual microscopy in clinical cytopathology.
D M Steinberg, S Z Ali.
Diagn Cytopathol, 2001 Dec 18; 25(6). PMID: 11747236
CytoView. A prototype computer image-based Papanicolaou smear proficiency test.
R N Taylor, M Gagnon, +3 authors, E Kujawski.
Acta Cytol, 1999 Dec 01; 43(6). PMID: 10578977
Self-instructional "virtual pathology" laboratories using web-based technology enhance medical school teaching of pathology.
Alberto M Marchevsky, Anju Relan, Susan Baillie.
Hum Pathol, 2003 Jun 07; 34(5). PMID: 12792914
Globalization of pathology training and examination: The time to begin is now.
Jan Van Den Tweel, Clive R Taylor.
Hum Pathol, 2002 Oct 16; 33(9). PMID: 12378508
The education of professionals.
Ronald S Weinstein.
Hum Pathol, 2003 Jun 07; 34(5). PMID: 12792912
Clinical trial of telepathology as an alternative modality in breast histopathology quality assurance.
F J Leong, A K Graham, P Schwarzmann, J O McGee.
Telemed J E Health, 2001 Mar 10; 6(4). PMID: 11242544
"Virtual microscopy" and the internet as telepathology consultation tools: diagnostic accuracy in evaluating melanocytic skin lesions.
D H Okada, S W Binder, +2 authors, A M Marchevsky.
Am J Dermatopathol, 1999 Dec 23; 21(6). PMID: 10608244
Virtual microscopy for learning and assessment in pathology.
Rakesh K Kumar, Gary M Velan, +3 authors, Denis Wakefield.
J Pathol, 2004 Oct 08; 204(5). PMID: 15470688
Virtual slides: high-quality demand, physical limitations, and affordability.
Katharina Glatz-Krieger, Dieter Glatz, Michael J Mihatsch.
Hum Pathol, 2003 Nov 11; 34(10). PMID: 14608529
Development and evaluation of the virtual pathology slide: a new tool in telepathology.
Sean S P Costello, Daniel J Johnston, Peter A Dervan, Daniel G O'Shea.
J Med Internet Res, 2003 Jul 15; 5(2). PMID: 12857667    Free PMC article.
Pathology manpower: a few rays of sunshine.
R E Sobonya, R S Weinstein.
Hum Pathol, 2001 Aug 04; 32(7). PMID: 11486163
Comparison of a virtual microscope laboratory to a regular microscope laboratory for teaching histology.
T Harris, T Leaven, +3 authors, F Dick.
Anat Rec, 2001 Mar 10; 265(1). PMID: 11241206
Training in pathology informatics: implementation at the University of Pittsburgh.
James H Harrison, Jimmie Stewart.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2003 Jul 23; 127(8). PMID: 12873178
Automated complete slide digitization: a medium for simultaneous viewing by multiple pathologists.
F J Leong, J O McGee.
J Pathol, 2001 Dec 18; 195(4). PMID: 11745684
Use of virtual microscopy for didactic live-audience presentation in anatomic pathology.
David J Romer, Saul Suster.
Ann Diagn Pathol, 2003 Mar 05; 7(1). PMID: 12616477
The virtual case: a new method to completely digitize cytological and histological slides.
F Demichelis, M Barbareschi, P Dalla Palma, S Forti.
Virchows Arch, 2002 Aug 22; 441(2). PMID: 12189506
Informatics training in pathology residency programs: proposed learning objectives and skill sets for the new millennium.
Walter H Henricks, Philip J Boyer, +2 authors, James C Healy.
Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2003 Jul 23; 127(8). PMID: 12873177
An array microscope for ultrarapid virtual slide processing and telepathology. Design, fabrication, and validation study.
Ronald S Weinstein, Michael R Descour, +15 authors, Peter H Bartels.
Hum Pathol, 2005 Jan 26; 35(11). PMID: 15668886
[Cytology in the internet].
K Glatz, L Bubendorf, D Glatz.
Pathologe, 2007 Jul 17; 28(5). PMID: 17632721
[Pathology websites in the World Wide Web. A guide for a specific research of pathology information on the Internet].
J Böhm.
Pathologe, 2007 Sep 13; 29(3). PMID: 17849121
Image standards in tissue-based diagnosis (diagnostic surgical pathology).
Klaus Kayser, Jürgen Görtler, +3 authors, Gian Kayser.
Diagn Pathol, 2008 Apr 22; 3. PMID: 18423031    Free PMC article.
How to measure image quality in tissue-based diagnosis (diagnostic surgical pathology).
Klaus Kayser, Jürgen Görtler, +5 authors, Gian Kayser.
Diagn Pathol, 2008 Aug 05; 3 Suppl 1. PMID: 18673499    Free PMC article.
[Virtual microscopy and routine diagnostics. A discussion paper].
P Hufnagl, K Schlüns.
Pathologe, 2008 Oct 09; 29 Suppl 2. PMID: 18841365
[Video-based teaching in pathology. Experience gained in the last 3 years at the RWTH Aachen University].
A Perez-Bouza, M Merk, I Rieck, R Knuechel.
Pathologe, 2010 Nov 04; 32(3). PMID: 21046107