Journal Article
. 2006 Sep; 38(4):390-401.
doi: 10.1016/j.micron.2006.06.008.

A history of scanning electron microscopy developments: towards "wet-STEM" imaging

A Bogner 1 P-H Jouneau  G Thollet  D Basset  C Gauthier  
  • PMID: 16990007
  •     17 citations


A recently developed imaging mode called "wet-STEM" and new developments in environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) allows the observation of nano-objects suspended in a liquid phase, with a few manometers resolution and a good signal to noise ratio. The idea behind this technique is simply to perform STEM-in-SEM, that is SEM in transmission mode, in an environmental SEM. The purpose of the present contribution is to highlight the main advances that contributed to development of the wet-STEM technique. Although simple in principle, the wet-STEM imaging mode would have been limited before high brightness electron sources became available, and needed some progresses and improvements in ESEM. This new technique extends the scope of SEM as a high-resolution microscope, relatively cheap and widely available imaging tool, for a wider variety of samples.

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