. 2006 Sep; 12(37):5941-50.
doi: 10.3748/wjg.v12.i37.5941.

Probiotics and prebiotics in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases

Julia B Ewaschuk 1 Levinus A Dieleman  
  • PMID: 17009391
  •     117 References
  •     35 citations


The prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells of the colon exist in a highly complex, but harmonious relationship. Disturbances in this remarkable symbiosis can result in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Although the etiology of IBD is not entirely understood, it is known that the chronic inflammation of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and chronic pouchitis are a result of an overly aggressive immune response to the commensal intestinal flora in genetically susceptible hosts. Recent studies have enhanced our ability to understand the interaction between the host and its intestinal microflora and the role the microflora plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. As we begin to understand the benefits conferred to the intestine by the microflora, the notion of modifying the composition of the bacterial load to improve human health has arisen. A significant body of research now exists investigating the role of probiotics and prebiotics in ameliorating chronic intestinal inflammation. This article will begin with an overview of the role of the commensal microflora in maintaining mucosal immune homeostasis, and how a dysregulated immune response to the intestinal microflora results in IBD. This will be followed by a summary of the use of probiotics and prebiotics in experimental and human IBD.

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Restoration of the integrity of rat caeco-colonic mucosa by resistant starch, but not by fructo-oligosaccharides, in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis.
Noëlle M Moreau, Lucile J Martin, +5 authors, Martine M J Champ.
Br J Nutr, 2003 Jul 08; 90(1). PMID: 12844378
Use of mouse models to evaluate the persistence, safety, and immune modulation capacities of lactic acid bacteria.
Sonia Pavan, Pierre Desreumaux, Annick Mercenier.
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, 2003 Jul 11; 10(4). PMID: 12853407    Free PMC article.
The suppressive effect of bifidobacteria on Bacteroides vulgatus, a putative pathogenic microbe in inflammatory bowel disease.
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Microbiol Immunol, 2003 Aug 09; 47(6). PMID: 12906096
Treatment of ulcerative colitis patients by long-term administration of germinated barley foodstuff: multi-center open trial.
Osamu Kanauchi, Keiichi Mitsuyama, +19 authors, Tadao Bamba.
Int J Mol Med, 2003 Oct 09; 12(5). PMID: 14532996
Intestinal microflora in early infancy: composition and development.
S Fanaro, R Chierici, P Guerrini, V Vigi.
Acta Paediatr Suppl, 2003 Nov 06; 91(441). PMID: 14599042
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Recent advances in basic and clinical aspects of inflammatory bowel disease: which steps in the mucosal inflammation should we block for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease?
Hitoshi Asakura, Kenji Suzuki, Terasu Honma.
World J Gastroenterol, 2007 May 01; 13(15). PMID: 17465491    Free PMC article.
Current view of the immunopathogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease and its implications for therapy.
M-I Torres, A Rios.
World J Gastroenterol, 2008 Apr 09; 14(13). PMID: 18395894    Free PMC article.
Probiotic intervention has strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults.
Riina-A Kekkonen, Netta Lummela, +7 authors, Riitta Korpela.
World J Gastroenterol, 2008 Apr 09; 14(13). PMID: 18395902    Free PMC article.
State-of-the-art of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease research in 2008.
Lynne V McFarland.
World J Gastroenterol, 2008 May 08; 14(17). PMID: 18461647    Free PMC article.
Optimizing conventional therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.
Marc Schwartz, Russell Cohen.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep, 2008 Nov 14; 10(6). PMID: 19006615
Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Christopher B Forsyth, Ashkan Farhadi, +3 authors, Ali Keshavarzian.
Alcohol, 2009 Mar 03; 43(2). PMID: 19251117    Free PMC article.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of the genus Bifidobacterium on macrophages by modification of phospho-I kappaB and SOCS gene expression.
Yoshikiyo Okada, Yoshikazu Tsuzuki, +5 authors, Soichiro Miura.
Int J Exp Pathol, 2009 Apr 02; 90(2). PMID: 19335551    Free PMC article.
Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes increases in chronic portal hypertensive rats.
Miguel-Angel Llamas, María-Angeles Aller, +2 authors, Jaime Arias.
Dig Dis Sci, 2009 Oct 17; 55(8). PMID: 19834810
Antioxidant properties of probiotics and their protective effects in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced enteritis and colitis.
Basileios G Spyropoulos, Evangelos P Misiakos, Constantine Fotiadis, Christos N Stoidis.
Dig Dis Sci, 2010 Jul 16; 56(2). PMID: 20632107
Suppression of tumorigenesis: modulation of inflammatory cytokines by oral administration of microencapsulated probiotic yogurt formulation.
Aleksandra Malgorzata Urbanska, Arghya Paul, +2 authors, Satya Prakash.
Int J Inflam, 2010 Dec 29; 2010. PMID: 21188222    Free PMC article.
Inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway in human intestinal epithelial cells by commensal Streptococcus salivarius.
Ghalia Kaci, Omar Lakhdari, +4 authors, Christine Delorme.
Appl Environ Microbiol, 2011 May 24; 77(13). PMID: 21602373    Free PMC article.
The effects of an oral supplement enriched with fish oil, prebiotics, and antioxidants on nutrition status in Crohn's disease patients.
Dawn M Wiese, Bret A Lashner, +2 authors, Douglas L Seidner.
Nutr Clin Pract, 2011 Jul 22; 26(4). PMID: 21775642    Free PMC article.
Probiotics, nuclear receptor signaling, and anti-inflammatory pathways.
Sonia S Yoon, Jun Sun.
Gastroenterol Res Pract, 2011 Aug 03; 2011. PMID: 21808643    Free PMC article.
Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory efficacy of indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Lp91 in colitis mouse model.
Raj Kumar Duary, Mache Amit Bhausaheb, Virender Kumar Batish, Sunita Grover.
Mol Biol Rep, 2011 Sep 29; 39(4). PMID: 21947851
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment potentiates intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor, promotes intestinal integrity and ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury.
Yuhua Wang, Irina Kirpich, +4 authors, Wenke Feng.
Am J Pathol, 2011 Nov 19; 179(6). PMID: 22093263    Free PMC article.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury.
Yuhua Wang, Yanlong Liu, +3 authors, Wenke Feng.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2012 Apr 28; 303(1). PMID: 22538402    Free PMC article.
Role of the gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis: what have we learnt in the past 10 years?
Georgina L Hold, Megan Smith, +3 authors, Indrani Mukhopadhya.
World J Gastroenterol, 2014 Feb 28; 20(5). PMID: 24574795    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Th17 Cells as Potential Probiotic Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.
Eddy Owaga, Rong-Hong Hsieh, +3 authors, Jung-Su Chang.
Int J Mol Sci, 2015 Sep 05; 16(9). PMID: 26340622    Free PMC article.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury in a mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding.
Fengwei Tian, Feifei Chi, +5 authors, Wei Chen.
J Microbiol, 2015 Dec 03; 53(12). PMID: 26626356
The Gastrointestinal Microbiome: Alcohol Effects on the Composition of Intestinal Microbiota.
Phillip A Engen, Stefan J Green, +2 authors, Ali Keshavarzian.
Alcohol Res, 2015 Dec 24; 37(2). PMID: 26695747    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Diet therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases: The established and the new.
Franziska Durchschein, Wolfgang Petritsch, Heinz F Hammer.
World J Gastroenterol, 2016 Feb 24; 22(7). PMID: 26900283    Free PMC article.
Probiotics, fibre and herbal medicinal products for functional and inflammatory bowel disorders.
Diego Currò, Gianluca Ianiro, +2 authors, Giovanni Cammarota.
Br J Pharmacol, 2016 Oct 27; 174(11). PMID: 27696378    Free PMC article.
Diet and microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease: The gut in disharmony.
Davy C M Rapozo, Claudio Bernardazzi, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza.
World J Gastroenterol, 2017 Apr 14; 23(12). PMID: 28405140    Free PMC article.
A common antimicrobial additive increases colonic inflammation and colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis in mice.
Haixia Yang, Weicang Wang, +18 authors, Guodong Zhang.
Sci Transl Med, 2018 Jun 01; 10(443). PMID: 29848663    Free PMC article.
Probiotics for induction of remission in Crohn's disease.
Andrew D Butterworth, Adrian G Thomas, Anthony Kwaku Akobeng.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2008 Jul 23; (3). PMID: 18646162    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Probiotics for Alleviating Alcoholic Liver Injury.
Zelin Gu, Yanlong Liu, +4 authors, Yuhua Wang.
Gastroenterol Res Pract, 2019 Jul 03; 2019. PMID: 31263495    Free PMC article.
Triclocarban exposure exaggerates colitis and colon tumorigenesis: roles of gut microbiota involved.
Haixia Yang, Katherine Z Sanidad, +5 authors, Guodong Zhang.
Gut Microbes, 2019 Nov 26; 12(1). PMID: 31760871    Free PMC article.
Exopolysaccharides From Lactobacillus paracasei Isolated From Kefir as Potential Bioactive Compounds for Microbiota Modulation.
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Front Microbiol, 2020 Nov 13; 11. PMID: 33178165    Free PMC article.
LightCUD: a program for diagnosing IBD based on human gut microbiome data.
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Oxidative Stress in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. An Updated Mini Review.
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Front Med (Lausanne), 2021 Mar 16; 8. PMID: 33718398    Free PMC article.
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The Effect of Perioperative Administration of Probiotics on Colorectal Cancer Surgery Outcomes.
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Nutrients, 2021 May 01; 13(5). PMID: 33922897    Free PMC article.
The Dietary Fiber Pectin: Health Benefits and Potential for the Treatment of Allergies by Modulation of Gut Microbiota.
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Dysbiosis, Host Metabolism, and Non-communicable Diseases: Trialogue in the Inborn Errors of Metabolism.
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Front Physiol, 2021 Oct 01; 12. PMID: 34588993    Free PMC article.
Effect of Application of Probiotic Pollen Suspension on Immune Response and Gut Microbiota of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).
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