. 2007 Oct; 7(11):880-7.
doi: 10.1038/nrc2250.

Regulatory-T-cell inhibition versus depletion: the right choice in cancer immunotherapy

Mario P Colombo 1 Silvia Piconese  
  • PMID: 17957190
  •     163 citations


Tumour-induced expansion of regulatory T (T(Reg)) cells is an obstacle to successful cancer immunotherapy. The potential benefit of T(Reg)-cell depletion through the interleukin-2 receptor is lost by the concurrent elimination of activated effector lymphocytes and possibly by the de novo induction of T(Reg)-cell replenishment. In theory, the functional inactivation of T(Reg) cells will maintain them at high numbers in tumours and avoid their replenishment from the peripheral lymphocyte pool, which has the capacity to further suppress the effector lymphocyte anti-tumour response.

The Italian Network for Tumor Biotherapy (NIBIT): getting together to push the field forward.
Michele Maio, Hugues Jm Nicolay, +9 authors, Giorgio Parmiani.
J Transl Med, 2008 Feb 14; 6. PMID: 18269750    Free PMC article.
Cancer treatment: the combination of vaccination with other therapies.
Mads Hald Andersen, Rikke Baek Sørensen, +3 authors, Per Thor Straten.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2008 Feb 21; 57(11). PMID: 18286284    Free PMC article.
Breast tumor microenvironment: proteomics highlights the treatments targeting secretome.
Shui-Tein Chen, Tai-Long Pan, +3 authors, Chun-Ming Huang.
J Proteome Res, 2008 Feb 23; 7(4). PMID: 18290608    Free PMC article.
OX40 triggering blocks suppression by regulatory T cells and facilitates tumor rejection.
Silvia Piconese, Barbara Valzasina, Mario P Colombo.
J Exp Med, 2008 Mar 26; 205(4). PMID: 18362171    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Polarized immune responses differentially regulate cancer development.
Magnus Johansson, David G Denardo, Lisa M Coussens.
Immunol Rev, 2008 Mar 28; 222. PMID: 18363999    Free PMC article.
Cluster intradermal DNA vaccination rapidly induces E7-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses leading to therapeutic antitumor effects.
S Peng, C Trimble, +5 authors, T-C Wu.
Gene Ther, 2008 Apr 11; 15(16). PMID: 18401437    Free PMC article.
Treg depletion inhibits efficacy of cancer immunotherapy: implications for clinical trials.
James F Curtin, Marianela Candolfi, +5 authors, Maria G Castro.
PLoS One, 2008 Apr 24; 3(4). PMID: 18431473    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T cells and treatment of cancer.
Tyler J Curiel.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2008 May 30; 20(2). PMID: 18508251    Free PMC article.
A Role for PPARgamma in the Regulation of Cytokines in Immune Cells and Cancer.
Xiao Yi Yang, Li Hua Wang, William L Farrar.
PPAR Res, 2008 Jun 21; 2008. PMID: 18566687    Free PMC article.
Reprogrammed FoxP3+ T regulatory cells become IL-17+ antigen-specific autoimmune effectors in vitro and in vivo.
Suresh Radhakrishnan, Rosalyn Cabrera, +6 authors, Larry R Pease.
J Immunol, 2008 Aug 21; 181(5). PMID: 18713984    Free PMC article.
Limited tumor infiltration by activated T effector cells restricts the therapeutic activity of regulatory T cell depletion against established melanoma.
Sergio A Quezada, Karl S Peggs, +3 authors, James P Allison.
J Exp Med, 2008 Aug 30; 205(9). PMID: 18725522    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Visualizing stromal cell dynamics in different tumor microenvironments by spinning disk confocal microscopy.
Mikala Egeblad, Andrew J Ewald, +6 authors, Zena Werb.
Dis Model Mech, 2008 Dec 03; 1(2-3). PMID: 19048079    Free PMC article.
Disruption of CCR5-dependent homing of regulatory T cells inhibits tumor growth in a murine model of pancreatic cancer.
Marcus C B Tan, Peter S Goedegebuure, +6 authors, David C Linehan.
J Immunol, 2009 Jan 22; 182(3). PMID: 19155524    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunomodulation in the treatment of haematological malignancies.
Michela Cesco-Gaspere, Emma Morris, Hans J Stauss.
Clin Exp Med, 2009 Feb 25; 9(2). PMID: 19238515
Lectin of Concanavalin A as an anti-hepatoma therapeutic agent.
Huan-Yao Lei, Chih-Peng Chang.
J Biomed Sci, 2009 Mar 11; 16. PMID: 19272170    Free PMC article.
Adoptive transfer of virus-specific and tumor-specific T cell immunity.
Carolina Berger, Cameron J Turtle, Michael C Jensen, Stanley R Riddell.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2009 Mar 24; 21(2). PMID: 19304470    Free PMC article.
OX40 engagement and chemotherapy combination provides potent antitumor immunity with concomitant regulatory T cell apoptosis.
Daniel Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Gabrielle A Rizzuto, +6 authors, Alan N Houghton.
J Exp Med, 2009 May 06; 206(5). PMID: 19414558    Free PMC article.
Genotyping and expression analysis of IDO2 in human pancreatic cancer: a novel, active target.
Agnieszka K Witkiewicz, Christina L Costantino, +4 authors, Jonathan R Brody.
J Am Coll Surg, 2009 May 30; 208(5). PMID: 19476837    Free PMC article.
Cancer immunotherapy: the role regulatory T cells play and what can be done to overcome their inhibitory effects.
Ulf Petrausch, Christian H Poehlein, +20 authors, Bernard A Fox.
Curr Mol Med, 2009 Aug 20; 9(6). PMID: 19689294    Free PMC article.
Identification of a human cyclin D1-derived peptide that induces human cytotoxic CD4 T cells.
Tao Dao, Tatyana Korontsvit, +3 authors, David A Scheinberg.
PLoS One, 2009 Aug 27; 4(8). PMID: 19707583    Free PMC article.
Autologous MUC1-specific Th1 effector cell immunotherapy induces differential levels of systemic TReg cell subpopulations that result in increased ovarian cancer patient survival.
Mark J Dobrzanski, Kathleen A Rewers-Felkins, +5 authors, Stephen E Wright.
Clin Immunol, 2009 Sep 19; 133(3). PMID: 19762283    Free PMC article.
Unifying roles for regulatory T cells and inflammation in cancer.
Susan E Erdman, Varada P Rao, +8 authors, Theofilos Poutahidis.
Int J Cancer, 2009 Oct 02; 126(7). PMID: 19795459    Free PMC article.
Engineered interleukin-2 antagonists for the inhibition of regulatory T cells.
David V Liu, Lisa M Maier, David A Hafler, K Dane Wittrup.
J Immunother, 2009 Oct 10; 32(9). PMID: 19816193    Free PMC article.
Cancer and pregnancy: parallels in growth, invasion, and immune modulation and implications for cancer therapeutic agents.
Shernan G Holtan, Douglas J Creedon, Paul Haluska, Svetomir N Markovic.
Mayo Clin Proc, 2009 Nov 03; 84(11). PMID: 19880689    Free PMC article.
Roles for inflammation and regulatory T cells in colon cancer.
Susan E Erdman, Theofilos Poutahidis.
Toxicol Pathol, 2009 Dec 19; 38(1). PMID: 20019355    Free PMC article.
The biology of FoxP3: a key player in immune suppression during infections, autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Frances Mercer, Derya Unutmaz.
Adv Exp Med Biol, 2009 Jan 01; 665. PMID: 20429415    Free PMC article.
FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in the human immune system.
Shimon Sakaguchi, Makoto Miyara, Cristina M Costantino, David A Hafler.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2010 Jun 19; 10(7). PMID: 20559327
Highly Cited. Review.
Characterization of cytokine-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells from normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Melissa G Lechner, Daniel J Liebertz, Alan L Epstein.
J Immunol, 2010 Jul 21; 185(4). PMID: 20644162    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
B7-H1-dependent sex-related differences in tumor immunity and immunotherapy responses.
Pei-Yi Lin, Lishi Sun, +11 authors, Tyler J Curiel.
J Immunol, 2010 Aug 06; 185(5). PMID: 20686128    Free PMC article.
Trends in cancer immunotherapy.
Joseph F Murphy.
Clin Med Insights Oncol, 2010 Aug 13; 4. PMID: 20703326    Free PMC article.
PGE(2) contributes to TGF-beta induced T regulatory cell function in human non-small cell lung cancer.
Felicita Baratelli, Jay M Lee, +10 authors, Steven M Dubinett.
Am J Transl Res, 2010 Aug 25; 2(4). PMID: 20733946    Free PMC article.
Significant anti-tumour activity of adoptively transferred T cells elicited by intratumoral dendritic cell vaccine injection through enhancing the ratio of CD8(+) T cell/regulatory T cells in tumour.
S Song, K Zhang, +4 authors, F Liu.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2010 Aug 26; 162(1). PMID: 20735440    Free PMC article.
2011: the immune hallmarks of cancer.
Federica Cavallo, Carla De Giovanni, +2 authors, Pier-Luigi Lollini.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2011 Jan 27; 60(3). PMID: 21267721    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The bone marrow stroma in hematological neoplasms--a guilty bystander.
Claudio Tripodo, Sabina Sangaletti, +6 authors, Stefano A Pileri.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2011 Mar 31; 8(8). PMID: 21448151    Free PMC article.
Noncanonical K27-linked polyubiquitination of TIEG1 regulates Foxp3 expression and tumor growth.
Dong-Jun Peng, Minghui Zeng, +6 authors, K Venuprasad.
J Immunol, 2011 Apr 08; 186(10). PMID: 21471442    Free PMC article.
Recruitment of regulatory T cells is correlated with hypoxia-induced CXCR4 expression, and is associated with poor prognosis in basal-like breast cancers.
Max Yan, Nicholas Jene, +8 authors, Stephen B Fox.
Breast Cancer Res, 2011 Apr 28; 13(2). PMID: 21521526    Free PMC article.
CXCL12/CXCR4 blockade induces multimodal antitumor effects that prolong survival in an immunocompetent mouse model of ovarian cancer.
Elda Righi, Satoshi Kashiwagi, +14 authors, Mark C Poznansky.
Cancer Res, 2011 Jul 12; 71(16). PMID: 21742774    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Cisplatin pretreatment enhances anti-tumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells.
Xiang Huang, Yi-Tian Chen, +2 authors, Long-Bang Chen.
World J Gastroenterol, 2011 Jul 30; 17(25). PMID: 21799646    Free PMC article.
Alterations in regulatory T-cells: rediscovered pathways in immunotoxicology.
Emanuela Corsini, Mohamed Oukka, +3 authors, Dori R Germolec.
J Immunotoxicol, 2011 Aug 19; 8(4). PMID: 21848365    Free PMC article.
Sustained suppression by Foxp3+ regulatory T cells is vital for infectious transplantation tolerance.
Adrian R Kendal, Ye Chen, +5 authors, Herman Waldmann.
J Exp Med, 2011 Aug 31; 208(10). PMID: 21875958    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Chemokine nitration prevents intratumoral infiltration of antigen-specific T cells.
Barbara Molon, Stefano Ugel, +16 authors, Antonella Viola.
J Exp Med, 2011 Sep 21; 208(10). PMID: 21930770    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Epithelial nuclear factor-κB signaling promotes lung carcinogenesis via recruitment of regulatory T lymphocytes.
R Zaynagetdinov, G T Stathopoulos, +11 authors, T S Blackwell.
Oncogene, 2011 Oct 18; 31(26). PMID: 22002309    Free PMC article.
Targeting regulatory T cells in cancer.
William L Byrne, Kingston H G Mills, James A Lederer, Gerald C O'Sullivan.
Cancer Res, 2011 Nov 10; 71(22). PMID: 22068034    Free PMC article.
The dendritic cell-regulatory T lymphocyte crosstalk contributes to tumor-induced tolerance.
Nona Janikashvili, Bernard Bonnotte, Emmanuel Katsanis, Nicolas Larmonier.
Clin Dev Immunol, 2011 Nov 24; 2011. PMID: 22110524    Free PMC article.
A role for T-bet-mediated tumour immune surveillance in anti-IL-17A treatment of lung cancer.
S Reppert, I Boross, +4 authors, S Finotto.
Nat Commun, 2011 Dec 22; 2. PMID: 22186896
Recent successes of cancer immunotherapy: a new dimension in personalized medicine?
Christophe Caux, Laurence Zitvogel.
Target Oncol, 2012 Feb 22; 7(1). PMID: 22350488
[Clinical significance of T lymphocyte subset changes after first line chemotherapy in peripheral blood from patients with advanced stage adenocarcinoma cell lung cancer].
Xiang Yan, Xiao Zhao, +3 authors, Zhiyong Wu.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi, 2012 Mar 21; 15(3). PMID: 22429580    Free PMC article.
The ambiguity in immunology.
Vincenzo Barnaba, Marino Paroli, Silvia Piconese.
Front Immunol, 2012 May 09; 3. PMID: 22566903    Free PMC article.
Effective modulation of CD4(+)CD25 (+high) regulatory T and NK cells in malignant patients by combination of interferon-α and interleukin-2.
Guangxian Liu, Wuwei Yang, +17 authors, Bing Liu.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2012 Jun 23; 61(12). PMID: 22722448    Free PMC article.
Human regulatory T cells induce T-lymphocyte senescence.
Jian Ye, Xingxu Huang, +6 authors, Guangyong Peng.
Blood, 2012 Jun 23; 120(10). PMID: 22723548    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive analysis of current approaches to inhibit regulatory T cells in cancer.
Helene Pere, Corinne Tanchot, +17 authors, Eric Tartour.
Oncoimmunology, 2012 Jun 28; 1(3). PMID: 22737608    Free PMC article.
Increased number of regulatory T cells (T-regs) in the peripheral blood of patients with Her-2/neu-positive early breast cancer.
Thomas Decker, Gerhard Fischer, +8 authors, Katharina Götze.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2012 Jul 05; 138(11). PMID: 22760213
Mesenchymal stem cells in tumor development: emerging roles and concepts.
Benjamin G Cuiffo, Antoine E Karnoub.
Cell Adh Migr, 2012 Aug 07; 6(3). PMID: 22863739    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T-cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and autoimmune diseases.
Giovanni D'Arena, Giovanni Rossi, +10 authors, Pellegrino Musto.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis, 2012 Sep 14; 4(1). PMID: 22973497    Free PMC article.
Basic principles of tumor-associated regulatory T cell biology.
Peter A Savage, Sven Malchow, Daniel S Leventhal.
Trends Immunol, 2012 Sep 25; 34(1). PMID: 22999714    Free PMC article.
Induction of tumoricidal function in CD4+ T cells is associated with concomitant memory and terminally differentiated phenotype.
Daniel Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Sadna Budhu, +10 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
J Exp Med, 2012 Sep 26; 209(11). PMID: 23008334    Free PMC article.
Local effects of regulatory T cells in MUC1 transgenic mice potentiate growth of MUC1 expressing tumor cells in vivo.
Daisuke Sugiura, Kaori Denda-Nagai, +4 authors, Tatsuro Irimura.
PLoS One, 2012 Oct 03; 7(9). PMID: 23028615    Free PMC article.
Class I histone deacetylase inhibition is a novel mechanism to target regulatory T cells in immunotherapy.
Li Shen, Roberto Pili.
Oncoimmunology, 2012 Nov 20; 1(6). PMID: 23162767    Free PMC article.
Local expression of interleukin-2 by B16 melanoma cells results in decreased tumour growth and long-term tumour dormancy.
Scott A Gerber, Elizabeth W Sorensen, +4 authors, Edith M Lord.
Immunology, 2012 Dec 04; 138(3). PMID: 23198850    Free PMC article.
Tumor-stromal interactions in pancreatic cancer.
Clifford Whatcott, Haiyong Han, Richard G Posner, Daniel D Von Hoff.
Crit Rev Oncog, 2012 Dec 15; 18(1-2). PMID: 23237556    Free PMC article.
Adenosine as an endogenous immunoregulator in cancer pathogenesis: where to go?
V Kumar.
Purinergic Signal, 2012 Dec 29; 9(2). PMID: 23271562    Free PMC article.
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) synergizes with IL-2 to enhance T-cell receptor-induced human T-cell proliferation and counteracts IL-2/transforming growth factor-β-induced regulatory T-cell development.
Alessandra Battaglia, Alexia Buzzonetti, +5 authors, Andrea Fattorossi.
Immunology, 2013 Jan 03; 139(1). PMID: 23278180    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T-cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: actor or innocent bystander?
Giovanni D'Arena, Vittorio Simeon, +7 authors, Vincenzo De Feo.
Am J Blood Res, 2013 Jan 30; 3(1). PMID: 23358515    Free PMC article.
Naïve rat umbilical cord matrix stem cells significantly attenuate mammary tumor growth through modulation of endogenous immune responses.
Atsushi Kawabata, Naomi Ohta, +6 authors, Masaaki Tamura.
Cytotherapy, 2013 Mar 12; 15(5). PMID: 23474329    Free PMC article.
Beyond oxidative stress: an immunologist's guide to reactive oxygen species.
Carl Nathan, Amy Cunningham-Bussel.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2013 Apr 27; 13(5). PMID: 23618831    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Depleting tumor-specific Tregs at a single site eradicates disseminated tumors.
Aurélien Marabelle, Holbrook Kohrt, +13 authors, Ronald Levy.
J Clin Invest, 2013 Jun 04; 123(6). PMID: 23728179    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
What are the molecules involved in regulatory T-cells induction by dendritic cells in cancer?
Rodrigo Nalio Ramos, Cristiano Jacob de Moraes, Bruna Zelante, José Alexandre M Barbuto.
Clin Dev Immunol, 2013 Jun 14; 2013. PMID: 23762097    Free PMC article.
Mesothelin virus-like particle immunization controls pancreatic cancer growth through CD8+ T cell induction and reduction in the frequency of CD4+ foxp3+ ICOS- regulatory T cells.
Sheng Zhang, Lin-Kin Yong, +3 authors, Qizhi Yao.
PLoS One, 2013 Jul 23; 8(7). PMID: 23874581    Free PMC article.
Digital pattern recognition-based image analysis quantifies immune infiltrates in distinct tissue regions of colorectal cancer and identifies a metastatic phenotype.
H K Angell, N Gray, +3 authors, M Cumberbatch.
Br J Cancer, 2013 Aug 22; 109(6). PMID: 23963148    Free PMC article.
Convergences and divergences of thymus- and peripherally derived regulatory T cells in cancer.
Alessia Burocchi, Mario P Colombo, Silvia Piconese.
Front Immunol, 2013 Aug 30; 4. PMID: 23986759    Free PMC article.
Ways to enhance lymphocyte trafficking into tumors and fitness of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.
Matteo Bellone, Arianna Calcinotto.
Front Oncol, 2013 Sep 26; 3. PMID: 24062984    Free PMC article.
The development of a fully-integrated immune response model (FIRM) simulator of the immune response through integration of multiple subset models.
Sirus Palsson, Timothy P Hickling, +6 authors, Paolo Vicini.
BMC Syst Biol, 2013 Oct 01; 7. PMID: 24074340    Free PMC article.
OX40 is a potent immune-stimulating target in late-stage cancer patients.
Brendan D Curti, Magdalena Kovacsovics-Bankowski, +20 authors, Andrew D Weinberg.
Cancer Res, 2013 Nov 02; 73(24). PMID: 24177180    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Regulatory T cells in colorectal cancer: from biology to prognostic relevance.
Dimitrios Mougiakakos.
Cancers (Basel), 2011 Jan 01; 3(2). PMID: 24212779    Free PMC article.
Depletion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells during interleukin-12 immunogene therapy does not confer a survival advantage in experimental malignant glioma.
B Thaci, A U Ahmed, +8 authors, M S Lesniak.
Cancer Gene Ther, 2014 Jan 18; 21(1). PMID: 24434573    Free PMC article.
The multifaceted role of Th17 lymphocytes and their associated cytokines in cancer.
Darya Alizadeh, Emmanuel Katsanis, Nicolas Larmonier.
Clin Dev Immunol, 2014 Jan 24; 2013. PMID: 24454480    Free PMC article.
Association between discordant immunological response to highly active anti-retroviral therapy, regulatory T cell percentage, immune cell activation and very low-level viraemia in HIV-infected patients.
J Saison, T Ferry, +8 authors, Lyon HIV Cohort Study.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2014 Jan 28; 176(3). PMID: 24460818    Free PMC article.
PD-1 blockade and OX40 triggering synergistically protects against tumor growth in a murine model of ovarian cancer.
Zhiqiang Guo, Xin Wang, +3 authors, Shulan Zhang.
PLoS One, 2014 Mar 04; 9(2). PMID: 24586709    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Chemotherapeutic targeting of cancer-induced immunosuppressive cells.
Darya Alizadeh, Nicolas Larmonier.
Cancer Res, 2014 Apr 30; 74(10). PMID: 24778417    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Gut microbiota and the paradox of cancer immunotherapy.
Theofilos Poutahidis, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Susan E Erdman.
Front Immunol, 2014 Apr 30; 5. PMID: 24778636    Free PMC article.
Induced regulatory T cells in inhibitory microenvironments created by cancer.
Theresa L Whiteside.
Expert Opin Biol Ther, 2014 Jun 18; 14(10). PMID: 24934899    Free PMC article.
Higher FOXP3-TSDR demethylation rates in adjacent normal tissues in patients with colon cancer were associated with worse survival.
Changhua Zhuo, Zhiyuan Li, +7 authors, Sanjun Cai.
Mol Cancer, 2014 Jun 19; 13. PMID: 24938080    Free PMC article.
Non-traditional CD4+CD25-CD69+ regulatory T cells are correlated to leukemia relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Xiao-su Zhao, Xu-hua Wang, +4 authors, Xiao-jun Huang.
J Transl Med, 2014 Jul 06; 12. PMID: 24984576    Free PMC article.
Prognostic value of peripheral and local forkhead box P3+ regulatory T cells in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.
Takeo Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Suzuki, +7 authors, Mitsukazu Gotoh.
Mol Clin Oncol, 2014 Jul 24; 2(5). PMID: 25054031    Free PMC article.
TLR8 signaling enhances tumor immunity by preventing tumor-induced T-cell senescence.
Jian Ye, Chunling Ma, +9 authors, Guangyong Peng.
EMBO Mol Med, 2014 Sep 19; 6(10). PMID: 25231413    Free PMC article.
Mathematical modeling of Interleukin-35 promoting tumor growth and angiogenesis.
Kang-Ling Liao, Xue-Feng Bai, Avner Friedman.
PLoS One, 2014 Oct 31; 9(10). PMID: 25356878    Free PMC article.
Immune profiling and cancer post transplantation.
Christopher Martin Hope, Patrick Toby H Coates, Robert Peter Carroll.
World J Nephrol, 2015 Feb 11; 4(1). PMID: 25664246    Free PMC article.
The Yin and Yang aspects of IL-27 in induction of cancer-specific T-cell responses and immunotherapy.
Ming-Song Li, Zhenzhen Liu, +3 authors, Xue-Feng Bai.
Immunotherapy, 2015 Feb 26; 7(2). PMID: 25713993    Free PMC article.
Peripheral myeloid-derived suppressor and T regulatory PD-1 positive cells predict response to neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients.
Maria Napolitano, Crescenzo D'Alterio, +11 authors, Stefania Scala.
Oncotarget, 2015 Apr 01; 6(10). PMID: 25823653    Free PMC article.
Differential potency of regulatory T cell-mediated immunosuppression in kidney tumors compared to subcutaneous tumors.
Christel Devaud, Jennifer A Westwood, +6 authors, Michael H Kershaw.
Oncoimmunology, 2015 May 06; 3(11). PMID: 25941590    Free PMC article.
Controlling T cell senescence in the tumor microenvironment for tumor immunotherapy.
Jian Ye, Guangyong Peng.
Oncoimmunology, 2015 May 08; 4(3). PMID: 25949919    Free PMC article.
IL-21: a pleiotropic cytokine with potential applications in oncology.
Michela Croce, Valentina Rigo, Silvano Ferrini.
J Immunol Res, 2015 May 12; 2015. PMID: 25961061    Free PMC article.
Chemical compounds from anthropogenic environment and immune evasion mechanisms: potential interactions.
Julia Kravchenko, Emanuela Corsini, +23 authors, H Kim Lyerly.
Carcinogenesis, 2015 May 24; 36 Suppl 1. PMID: 26002081    Free PMC article.
The functional and prognostic implications of regulatory T cells in colorectal carcinoma.
Xinhai Zhang, Sonia Kelaria, Justin Kerstetter, Jun Wang.
J Gastrointest Oncol, 2015 Jun 02; 6(3). PMID: 26029458    Free PMC article.
Gut bacteria and cancer.
Susan E Erdman, Theofilos Poutahidis.
Biochim Biophys Acta, 2015 Jun 09; 1856(1). PMID: 26050963    Free PMC article.
Increased Regulatory T-Cell Percentage Contributes to Poor CD4(+) Lymphocytes Recovery: A 2-Year Prospective Study After Introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy.
Julien Saison, Delphine Maucort Boulch, +9 authors, Tristan Ferry.
Open Forum Infect Dis, 2015 Jun 26; 2(2). PMID: 26110165    Free PMC article.
Immunosuppressive Mechanisms of Malignant Gliomas: Parallels at Non-CNS Sites.
Powell Perng, Michael Lim.
Front Oncol, 2015 Jul 29; 5. PMID: 26217588    Free PMC article.
Effects of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitor in non-Hodgkin lymphoma model mice.
Nobuhiko Nakamura, Takeshi Hara, +12 authors, Hisashi Tsurumi.
Int J Hematol, 2015 Aug 06; 102(3). PMID: 26243621
CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(+) T cells play a role in tuberculous hydrothorax rather than malignant hydrothorax.
Ying Tang, Li-Ping Peng, +3 authors, Yan-Fang Jiang.
J Transl Med, 2015 Aug 19; 13. PMID: 26283421    Free PMC article.
CpG Oligonucleotides as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants.
Hidekazu Shirota, Debra Tross, Dennis M Klinman.
Vaccines (Basel), 2015 Sep 08; 3(2). PMID: 26343193    Free PMC article.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors: a new frontier in bladder cancer.
Max Kates, Nikolai A Sopko, +3 authors, Trinity J Bivalacqua.
World J Urol, 2015 Oct 22; 34(1). PMID: 26487055
Genetics and biology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Haoqiang Ying, Prasenjit Dey, +4 authors, Ronald A DePinho.
Genes Dev, 2016 Feb 18; 30(4). PMID: 26883357    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Methotrexate up-regulates ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 and reduces the frequency of T lymphocytes in the glioblastoma microenvironment.
Fabrício Figueiró, Catiúscia P de Oliveira, +9 authors, Ana Maria O Battastini.
Purinergic Signal, 2016 Feb 26; 12(2). PMID: 26910734    Free PMC article.
Vaccines for established cancer: overcoming the challenges posed by immune evasion.
Sjoerd H van der Burg, Ramon Arens, +2 authors, Cornelis J M Melief.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2016 Mar 12; 16(4). PMID: 26965076
Highly Cited. Review.
Immunotherapy with methyl gallate, an inhibitor of Treg cell migration, enhances the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin therapy.
Hyunseong Kim, Gihyun Lee, +3 authors, Hyunsu Bae.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol, 2016 May 11; 20(3). PMID: 27162480    Free PMC article.
The role of regulatory T cells in cancer immunology.
Theresa L Whiteside.
Immunotargets Ther, 2015 Jan 01; 4. PMID: 27471721    Free PMC article.
Immunological Evaluation of Recent MUC1 Glycopeptide Cancer Vaccines.
Md Kamal Hossain, Katherine A Wall.
Vaccines (Basel), 2016 Jul 30; 4(3). PMID: 27472370    Free PMC article.
Targeted Programming of the Lymph Node Environment Causes Evolution of Local and Systemic Immunity.
James I Andorko, Joshua M Gammon, +2 authors, Christopher M Jewell.
Cell Mol Bioeng, 2016 Aug 23; 9. PMID: 27547269    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T Cells Are Dispensable for Tolerance to RBC Antigens.
Amanda L Richards, Linda M Kapp, +2 authors, Krystalyn E Hudson.
Front Immunol, 2016 Oct 05; 7. PMID: 27698653    Free PMC article.
Immunosuppression for in vivo research: state-of-the-art protocols and experimental approaches.
Rita Diehl, Fabienne Ferrara, +4 authors, Johannes Boltze.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2016 Oct 11; 14(2). PMID: 27721455    Free PMC article.
Targeting Immune Regulatory Networks to Counteract Immune Suppression in Cancer.
Chiara Camisaschi, Viviana Vallacchi, +10 authors, Veronica Huber.
Vaccines (Basel), 2016 Nov 10; 4(4). PMID: 27827921    Free PMC article.
CCL22-specific T Cells: Modulating the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.
Evelina Martinenaite, Shamaila Munir Ahmad, +7 authors, Mads Hald Andersen.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Dec 22; 5(11). PMID: 27999757    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms by Which B Cells and Regulatory T Cells Influence Development of Murine Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases.
Jason S Ellis, Helen Braley-Mullen.
J Clin Med, 2017 Jan 31; 6(2). PMID: 28134752    Free PMC article.
Mechanism of immune evasion in breast cancer.
Mozhi Wang, Changwang Zhang, +7 authors, Yingying Xu.
Onco Targets Ther, 2017 Mar 30; 10. PMID: 28352189    Free PMC article.
Immunological effects of vaccines combined with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on a murine WEHI-3 leukemia model.
Jinqiu Chen, Miling Zhang, +3 authors, Wanggang Zhang.
Oncol Lett, 2017 Apr 30; 13(4). PMID: 28454398    Free PMC article.
Intratumoral depletion of regulatory T cells using CD25-targeted photodynamic therapy in a mouse melanoma model induces antitumoral immune responses.
Dong Sun Oh, Heegon Kim, +4 authors, Heung Kyu Lee.
Oncotarget, 2017 May 26; 8(29). PMID: 28537894    Free PMC article.
Upregulation of Treg-Related Genes in Addition with IL6 Showed the Significant Role for the Distant Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer.
L D Miteva, N S Stanilov, G М Cirovski, Spaska Angelova Stanilova.
Cancer Microenviron, 2017 Sep 05; 10(1-3). PMID: 28868572    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T cells trigger effector T cell DNA damage and senescence caused by metabolic competition.
Xia Liu, Wei Mo, +5 authors, Guangyong Peng.
Nat Commun, 2018 Jan 18; 9(1). PMID: 29339767    Free PMC article.
Tumor Necrosis Factor α and Regulatory T Cells in Oncoimmunology.
Benoît L Salomon, Mathieu Leclerc, +3 authors, José L Cohen.
Front Immunol, 2018 Mar 30; 9. PMID: 29593717    Free PMC article.
IL-27 gene therapy induces depletion of Tregs and enhances the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.
Jianmin Zhu, Jin-Qing Liu, +11 authors, Xue-Feng Bai.
JCI Insight, 2018 Apr 06; 3(7). PMID: 29618655    Free PMC article.
Temozolomide for immunomodulation in the treatment of glioblastoma.
Aida Karachi, Farhad Dastmalchi, Duane A Mitchell, Maryam Rahman.
Neuro Oncol, 2018 May 08; 20(12). PMID: 29733389    Free PMC article.
Preliminary investigation on the abnormal mechanism of CD4+FOXP3+CD25high regulatory T cells in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Si-Xi Liu, Hai-Rong Xiao, +6 authors, Fei-Qiu Wen.
Exp Ther Med, 2018 Aug 18; 16(2). PMID: 30116392    Free PMC article.
OX40 triggering concomitant to IL12-engineered cell vaccine hampers the immunoprevention of HER2/neu-driven mammary carcinogenesis.
Patrizia Nanni, Carla De Giovanni, +7 authors, Pier-Luigi Lollini.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Sep 18; 7(8). PMID: 30221061    Free PMC article.
A Single-Chain-Based Hexavalent CD27 Agonist Enhances T Cell Activation and Induces Anti-Tumor Immunity.
Meinolf Thiemann, David M Richards, +10 authors, Oliver Hill.
Front Oncol, 2018 Oct 10; 8. PMID: 30298117    Free PMC article.
Exceptional responses with sequential metronomic temozolomide after pembrolizumab failure in patients with metastatic melanoma.
Umang Swami, Varun Monga, +4 authors, Mohammed Milhem.
Melanoma Res, 2019 Mar 05; 29(6). PMID: 30829928    Free PMC article.
Racial Differences in Immunological Landscape Modifiers Contributing to Disparity in Prostate Cancer.
Jeronay King Thomas, Hina Mir, Neeraj Kapur, Shailesh Singh.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Nov 27; 11(12). PMID: 31769418    Free PMC article.
Inhibition Mechanism of Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) by Amidoxime Derivatives and Its Revelation in Drug Design: Comparative Molecular Dynamics Simulations.
Xinyu Liu, Yiwen Zhang, +7 authors, Hubing Shi.
Front Mol Biosci, 2020 Feb 13; 6. PMID: 32047753    Free PMC article.
Potential Role of CXCR4 Targeting in the Context of Radiotherapy and Immunotherapy of Cancer.
Franziska Eckert, Karin Schilbach, +5 authors, Stephan M Huber.
Front Immunol, 2019 Jan 10; 9. PMID: 30622535    Free PMC article.
Depletion of regulatory T cells in tumors with an anti-CD25 immunotoxin induces CD8 T cell-mediated systemic antitumor immunity.
Masanori Onda, Kazuto Kobayashi, Ira Pastan.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2019 Feb 15; 116(10). PMID: 30760587    Free PMC article.
Critical role of kinase activity of hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 in anti-tumor immune surveillance.
Jinqi Liu, Joshua Curtin, +19 authors, Luisa Salter-Cid.
PLoS One, 2019 Mar 27; 14(3). PMID: 30913212    Free PMC article.
Resistance Mechanisms and Barriers to Successful Immunotherapy for Treating Glioblastoma.
Jason Adhikaree, Julia Moreno-Vicente, +2 authors, Poulam M Patel.
Cells, 2020 Jan 25; 9(2). PMID: 31973059    Free PMC article.
Management guidelines for paediatric patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy.
Kris M Mahadeo, Sajad J Khazal, +31 authors, Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2018 Aug 08; 16(1). PMID: 30082906    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Thymic Function Associated With Cancer Development, Relapse, and Antitumor Immunity - A Mini-Review.
Weikan Wang, Rachel Thomas, Olga Sizova, Dong-Ming Su.
Front Immunol, 2020 May 20; 11. PMID: 32425946    Free PMC article.
Single-Cell Atlas Reveals Complexity of the Immunosuppressive Microenvironment of Initial and Recurrent Glioblastoma.
Weilun Fu, Wenjing Wang, +9 authors, Jizong Zhao.
Front Immunol, 2020 May 28; 11. PMID: 32457755    Free PMC article.
IRF4 instructs effector Treg differentiation and immune suppression in human cancer.
Giorgia Alvisi, Jolanda Brummelman, +18 authors, Enrico Lugli.
J Clin Invest, 2020 Mar 04; 130(6). PMID: 32125291    Free PMC article.
Emerging role of PTEN loss in evasion of the immune response to tumours.
Thiago Vidotto, Camila Morais Melo, +3 authors, Jeremy A Squire.
Br J Cancer, 2020 Apr 25; 122(12). PMID: 32327707    Free PMC article.
Nanotechnology Strategies To Advance Outcomes in Clinical Cancer Care.
Christopher M Hartshorn, Michelle S Bradbury, +6 authors, Piotr Grodzinski.
ACS Nano, 2017 Dec 20; 12(1). PMID: 29257865    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T cells in tumor microenvironment: new mechanisms, potential therapeutic strategies and future prospects.
Chunxiao Li, Ping Jiang, +2 authors, Junjie Wang.
Mol Cancer, 2020 Jul 19; 19(1). PMID: 32680511    Free PMC article.
Molecular Heterogeneity and Immunosuppressive Microenvironment in Glioblastoma.
Syreeta DeCordova, Abhishek Shastri, +4 authors, Uday Kishore.
Front Immunol, 2020 Aug 09; 11. PMID: 32765498    Free PMC article.
Urinary Metals Concentrations and Biomarkers of Autoimmunity among Navajo and Nicaraguan Men.
Madeleine K Scammell, Caryn Sennett, +10 authors, Esther Erdei.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020 Jul 28; 17(15). PMID: 32707746    Free PMC article.
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase inhibitors in immunochemotherapy of breast cancer: challenges and opportunities.
Nastran Hashemzadeh, Khosro Adibkia, Jaleh Barar.
Bioimpacts, 2019 Feb 23; 9(1). PMID: 30788254    Free PMC article.
Depleting T regulatory cells by targeting intracellular Foxp3 with a TCR mimic antibody.
Tao Dao, Sung Soo Mun, +11 authors, David A Scheinberg.
Oncoimmunology, 2019 May 31; 8(7). PMID: 31143508    Free PMC article.
Formaldehyde exposure induces regulatory T cell-mediated immunosuppression via calcineurin-NFAT signalling pathway.
Jeongsik Park, Hyo-Seon Yang, +2 authors, Kyuhong Lee.
Sci Rep, 2020 Oct 14; 10(1). PMID: 33046725    Free PMC article.
Expression of m6A Regulators Correlated With Immune Microenvironment Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy and Prognosis in Gliomas.
Shengchao Xu, Lu Tang, +2 authors, Zhixiong Liu.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2020 Nov 27; 8. PMID: 33240891    Free PMC article.
Is AAV-delivered IL-27 a potential immunotherapeutic for cancer?
Jin-Qing Liu, Jianmin Zhu, +6 authors, Xue-Feng Bai.
Am J Cancer Res, 2020 Dec 10; 10(11). PMID: 33294255    Free PMC article.
Spatially selective depletion of tumor-associated regulatory T cells with near-infrared photoimmunotherapy.
Kazuhide Sato, Noriko Sato, +5 authors, Hisataka Kobayashi.
Sci Transl Med, 2016 Aug 19; 8(352). PMID: 27535621    Free PMC article.
The Functional Crosstalk between Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Regulatory T Cells within the Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment.
Maximilian Haist, Henner Stege, Stephan Grabbe, Matthias Bros.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 13; 13(2). PMID: 33430105    Free PMC article.
The Therapeutic Potential of Regulatory T Cells: Challenges and Opportunities.
Fatemeh Bayati, Mahsa Mohammadi, +3 authors, Ehsan Sharif-Paghaleh.
Front Immunol, 2021 Feb 02; 11. PMID: 33519807    Free PMC article.
A high number of PD-L1+ CD14+ monocytes in peripheral blood is correlated with shorter survival in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Kiyohiro Ando, Kazuyuki Hamada, +14 authors, Satoshi Wada.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Aug 07; 70(2). PMID: 32757055
Involvement of Cellular Prion Protein in Invasion and Metastasis of Lung Cancer by Inducing Treg Cell Development.
Seunghwa Cha, Mi-Ji Sin, +4 authors, Mi-Yeon Kim.
Biomolecules, 2021 Mar 07; 11(2). PMID: 33671884    Free PMC article.
T Cell Subsets During Early Life and Their Implication in the Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Shanie Saghafian-Hedengren, Eva Sverremark-Ekström, Anna Nilsson.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 26; 12. PMID: 33763058    Free PMC article.
Small molecule inhibitors against PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints and current methodologies for their development: a review.
Chang Liu, Navindra P Seeram, Hang Ma.
Cancer Cell Int, 2021 Apr 29; 21(1). PMID: 33906641    Free PMC article.
Identification and Validation of an Immune-Associated RNA-Binding Proteins Signature to Predict Clinical Outcomes and Therapeutic Responses in Glioma Patients.
Ruotong Tian, Yimin Li, Qian Liu, Minfeng Shu.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 May 01; 13(7). PMID: 33917399    Free PMC article.
FOXP3-based immune risk model for recurrence prediction in small-cell lung cancer at stages I-III.
Minlin Jiang, Chunyan Wu, +13 authors, Caicun Zhou.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 May 20; 9(5). PMID: 34006632    Free PMC article.
Near Infrared Photoimmunotherapy; A Review of Targets for Cancer Therapy.
Takuya Kato, Hiroaki Wakiyama, +2 authors, Hisataka Kobayashi.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 13(11). PMID: 34064074    Free PMC article.
Turning 'Cold' tumors 'Hot': immunotherapies in sarcoma.
Jeff Rytlewski, Mohammed M Milhem, Varun Monga.
Ann Transl Med, 2021 Jul 20; 9(12). PMID: 34277839    Free PMC article.
The Role of Cellular Prion Protein in Cancer Biology: A Potential Therapeutic Target.
Manqiu Ding, Yongqiang Chen, Yue Lang, Li Cui.
Front Oncol, 2021 Oct 02; 11. PMID: 34595121    Free PMC article.
Hypoxia-Related lncRNA Correlates With Prognosis and Immune Microenvironment in Lower-Grade Glioma.
Shengchao Xu, Lu Tang, +2 authors, Quan Cheng.
Front Immunol, 2021 Oct 19; 12. PMID: 34659218    Free PMC article.
Elimination of acquired resistance to PD-1 blockade via the concurrent depletion of tumour cells and immunosuppressive cells.
Gang Xue, Ziyu Wang, +6 authors, Yong Lu.
Nat Biomed Eng, 2021 Nov 03; 5(11). PMID: 34725506    Free PMC article.
Spatiotemporal depletion of tumor-associated immune checkpoint PD-L1 with near-infrared photoimmunotherapy promotes antitumor immunity.
Shunichi Taki, Kohei Matsuoka, +6 authors, Kazuhide Sato.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Nov 03; 9(11). PMID: 34725216    Free PMC article.
Development and Verification of the Amino Metabolism-Related and Immune-Associated Prognosis Signature in Gliomas.
Yang Xu, Liguo Ye, +5 authors, Qianxue Chen.
Front Oncol, 2021 Nov 23; 11. PMID: 34804978    Free PMC article.
Mucosal tissue regulatory T cells are integral in balancing immunity and tolerance at portals of antigen entry.
Brianna R Traxinger, Laura E Richert-Spuhler, Jennifer M Lund.
Mucosal Immunol, 2021 Dec 01; 15(3). PMID: 34845322    Free PMC article.
Immunometabolism in biofilm infection: lessons from cancer.
Rasoul Mirzaei, Niloofar Sabokroo, +2 authors, Sajad Karampoor.
Mol Med, 2022 Jan 31; 28(1). PMID: 35093033    Free PMC article.