Review
. 2008 Feb;26(5).
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2007.15.1068.

Development of the 21-gene assay and its application in clinical practice and clinical trials

Joseph A Sparano 1 Soonmyung Paik  
Affiliations
  • PMID: 18258979
  •     181 citations

Abstract

Several multigene markers that predict relapse more accurately than classical clinicopathologic features have been developed. The 21-gene assay was developed specifically for patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, and has been shown to predict distant recurrence more accurately that classical clinicopathologic features in patients with ER-positive breast cancer and negative axillary nodes treated with adjuvant tamoxifen; validation studies in this population led to its approval as a diagnostic test. In a similar population, it also may be used to assess the benefit of adding chemotherapy to hormonal therapy. Other validation studies indicate that it also predicts the risk of distant and local recurrence in other populations with ER-positive disease, including node-negative patients receiving no adjuvant therapy and patients with positive axillary nodes treated with doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy. The Trial Assigning Individualized Options for Treatment (TAILORx) is multicenter trial that integrates the 21-gene assay into the clinical decision-making process and is designed to refine the utility of the assay in clinical practice and to provide a resource for evaluating additional molecular markers as they are developed in the future.

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21-Gene Recurrence Score Assay As a Predictor of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Administration for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: An Analysis of Use, Therapeutic Implications, and Disparity Profile.
Jagar Jasem, Arya Amini, +4 authors, Peter Kabos.
J Clin Oncol, 2016 Mar 24; 34(17). PMID: 27001563    Free PMC article.
Underutilization of gene expression profiling for early-stage breast cancer in California.
Rosemary D Cress, Yingjia S Chen, +2 authors, Kenneth W Kizer.
Cancer Causes Control, 2016 Apr 22; 27(6). PMID: 27097910    Free PMC article.
Identification of breast cancer candidate genes using gene co-expression and protein-protein interaction information.
Zhenyu Yue, Hai-Tao Li, +4 authors, Yan Chen.
Oncotarget, 2016 May 07; 7(24). PMID: 27150055    Free PMC article.
Utilization and impact of 21-gene recurrence score assay for breast cancer in clinical practice across the United States: lessons learned from the 2010 to 2012 National Cancer Data Base analysis.
Amila Orucevic, Robert E Heidel, John L Bell.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2016 May 22; 157(3). PMID: 27206678    Free PMC article.
Fourth Generation of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies: Promise and Consequences.
Rongqin Ke, Marco Mignardi, Thomas Hauling, Mats Nilsson.
Hum Mutat, 2016 Jul 14; 37(12). PMID: 27406789    Free PMC article.
Review.
Defining the transcriptional and biological response to CDK4/6 inhibition in relation to ER+/HER2- breast cancer.
Erik S Knudsen, Agnieszka K Witkiewicz.
Oncotarget, 2016 Aug 27; 7(43). PMID: 27564114    Free PMC article.
Optimizing the Use of Gene Expression Profiling in Early-Stage Breast Cancer.
Hyun-Seok Kim, Christopher B Umbricht, +22 authors, Leslie Cope.
J Clin Oncol, 2016 Dec 22; 34(36). PMID: 27998227    Free PMC article.
Biomarker-Guided Non-Adaptive Trial Designs in Phase II and Phase III: A Methodological Review.
Miranta Antoniou, Ruwanthi Kolamunnage-Dona, Andrea L Jorgensen.
J Pers Med, 2017 Jan 27; 7(1). PMID: 28125057    Free PMC article.
Review.
Outcomes in patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent a 21-gene expression assay.
Carlos H Barcenas, Akshara Raghavendra, +10 authors, Debu Tripathy.
Cancer, 2017 Feb 16; 123(13). PMID: 28199747    Free PMC article.
Using the 21-gene assay from core needle biopsies to choose neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer: A multicenter trial.
Harry D Bear, Wen Wan, +8 authors, Amy P Sing.
J Surg Oncol, 2017 Apr 14; 115(8). PMID: 28407247    Free PMC article.
Systematic functional perturbations uncover a prognostic genetic network driving human breast cancer.
Tristan Gallenne, Kenneth N Ross, +6 authors, Daniel S Peeper.
Oncotarget, 2017 Apr 16; 8(13). PMID: 28411283    Free PMC article.
Current Update of Patient-Derived Xenograft Model for Translational Breast Cancer Research.
Tsutomu Kawaguchi, Barbara A Foster, Jessica Young, Kazuaki Takabe.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 2017 Apr 30; 22(2). PMID: 28451789    Free PMC article.
Review.
Single-cell RNA-seq enables comprehensive tumour and immune cell profiling in primary breast cancer.
Woosung Chung, Hye Hyeon Eum, +10 authors, Woong-Yang Park.
Nat Commun, 2017 May 06; 8. PMID: 28474673    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Adjuvant endocrine therapy alone in patients with node-positive, luminal A type breast cancer.
Sungmin Park, Se Kyung Lee, +7 authors, Seok Jin Nam.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2017 Jun 01; 96(22). PMID: 28562530    Free PMC article.
Clinical use of the Oncotype DX genomic test to guide treatment decisions for patients with invasive breast cancer.
Terri P McVeigh, Michael J Kerin.
Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press), 2017 Jun 16; 9. PMID: 28615971    Free PMC article.
Review.
Improved prediction of PARP inhibitor response and identification of synergizing agents through use of a novel gene expression signature generation algorithm.
Daniel J McGrail, Curtis Chun-Jen Lin, +11 authors, Shiaw-Yih Lin.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl, 2017 Jun 27; 3. PMID: 28649435    Free PMC article.
Prognostic cancer gene signatures share common regulatory motifs.
Ying Wang, Steve Goodison, Xiaoman Li, Haiyan Hu.
Sci Rep, 2017 Jul 08; 7(1). PMID: 28684851    Free PMC article.
21-Gene recurrence score and locoregional recurrence in lymph node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Gulisa Turashvili, Joanne F Chou, +5 authors, Hannah Y Wen.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2017 Jul 14; 166(1). PMID: 28702894    Free PMC article.
Learning from big data: are we undertreating older women with high-risk breast cancer?
Joseph A Sparano, Hyman Muss.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2017 Jul 20; 2. PMID: 28721380    Free PMC article.
Chemosensitivity to doxorubicin of ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancers with high 21-gene recurrence score: A study based on in vitro chemoresponse assay.
Sung Gwe Ahn, Soong June Bae, +4 authors, Joon Jeong.
PLoS One, 2017 Nov 09; 12(11). PMID: 29117208    Free PMC article.
A metastasis biomarker (MetaSite Breast™ Score) is associated with distant recurrence in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early-stage breast cancer.
Joseph A Sparano, Robert Gray, +13 authors, Joan Jones.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2017 Nov 16; 3. PMID: 29138761    Free PMC article.
Single subject transcriptome analysis to identify functionally signed gene set or pathway activity.
Joanne Berghout, Qike Li, +2 authors, Yves A Lussier.
Pac Symp Biocomput, 2017 Dec 09; 23. PMID: 29218900    Free PMC article.
Luminal-like HER2-negative stage IA breast cancer: a multicenter retrospective study on long-term outcome with propensity score analysis.
Carmine De Angelis, Massimo Di Maio, +12 authors, Grazia Arpino.
Oncotarget, 2018 Jan 20; 8(68). PMID: 29348868    Free PMC article.
Prognostic & predictive factors for planning adjuvant chemotherapy of early-stage breast cancer.
Onur Esbah, Berna Oksuzoglu.
Indian J Med Res, 2018 Mar 08; 146(5). PMID: 29512598    Free PMC article.
Review.
Molecular and clinical features of the TP53 signature gene expression profile in early-stage breast cancer.
Shigeo Yamaguchi, Shin Takahashi, +8 authors, Shunsuke Kato.
Oncotarget, 2018 Mar 28; 9(18). PMID: 29581837    Free PMC article.
Practice patterns and outcomes for patients with node-negative hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and intermediate 21-gene Recurrence Scores.
Jonathan Chen, Xian Wu, +2 authors, Himanshu Nagar.
Breast Cancer Res, 2018 Apr 18; 20(1). PMID: 29661221    Free PMC article.
Prognostic gene expression assays in breast cancer: are two better than one?
Joseph A Sparano.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 May 31; 4. PMID: 29845110    Free PMC article.
Quantitative nuclear histomorphometry predicts oncotype DX risk categories for early stage ER+ breast cancer.
Jon Whitney, German Corredor, +6 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
BMC Cancer, 2018 Jun 01; 18(1). PMID: 29848291    Free PMC article.
Adjuvant Chemotherapy Guided by a 21-Gene Expression Assay in Breast Cancer.
Joseph A Sparano, Robert J Gray, +27 authors, George W Sledge.
N Engl J Med, 2018 Jun 05; 379(2). PMID: 29860917    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Addressing the challenges of applying precision oncology.
Seung Ho Shin, Ann M Bode, Zigang Dong.
NPJ Precis Oncol, 2018 Jun 07; 1(1). PMID: 29872710    Free PMC article.
Review.
Network-Based Predictors of Progression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Nasim Sanati, Ovidiu D Iancu, +2 authors, Shannon K McWeeney.
Front Genet, 2018 Jun 19; 9. PMID: 29910823    Free PMC article.
Image analysis with deep learning to predict breast cancer grade, ER status, histologic subtype, and intrinsic subtype.
Heather D Couture, Lindsay A Williams, +6 authors, Marc Niethammer.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 Sep 06; 4. PMID: 30182055    Free PMC article.
An assessment of prognostic immunity markers in breast cancer.
Benlong Yang, Jeff Chou, +13 authors, Zhiyuan Hu.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 Nov 06; 4. PMID: 30393759    Free PMC article.
21-Gene assay as predictor of chemotherapy benefit in HER2-negative breast cancer.
Charles E Geyer, Gong Tang, +8 authors, Norman Wolmark.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 Nov 21; 4. PMID: 30456299    Free PMC article.
BCT score predicts chemotherapy benefit in Asian patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, lymph node-negative breast cancer.
Mi Jeong Kwon, Sae Byul Lee, +8 authors, Young Kee Shin.
PLoS One, 2018 Nov 22; 13(11). PMID: 30462685    Free PMC article.
TAILORx: Questions Answered, Lessons Learned, and Remaining Knowledge Gaps.
Joseph A Sparano, Robert Gray.
J Clin Oncol, 2019 Jun 08; 37(21). PMID: 31173552    Free PMC article.
Clinical Outcomes in Early Breast Cancer With a High 21-Gene Recurrence Score of 26 to 100 Assigned to Adjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Endocrine Therapy: A Secondary Analysis of the TAILORx Randomized Clinical Trial.
Joseph A Sparano, Robert J Gray, +26 authors, George W Sledge.
JAMA Oncol, 2019 Oct 01; 6(3). PMID: 31566680    Free PMC article.
Oncotype DX recurrence score implications for disparities in chemotherapy and breast cancer mortality in Georgia.
Lindsay J Collin, Ming Yan, +8 authors, Lauren E McCullough.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2019 Oct 05; 5. PMID: 31583272    Free PMC article.
Decision of Adjuvant Systemic Treatment in HR+ HER2- Early Invasive Breast Cancer: Which Biomarkers Could Help?
Marie Alexandre, Aurélie Maran-Gonzalez, +6 authors, Séverine Guiu.
Cancer Manag Res, 2019 Dec 19; 11. PMID: 31849525    Free PMC article.
Review.
Patient similarity by joint matrix trifactorization to identify subgroups in acute myeloid leukemia.
F Vitali, S Marini, +4 authors, R Bellazzi.
JAMIA Open, 2018 May 14; 1(1). PMID: 31984320    Free PMC article.
Opportunities for Patient Matching Algorithms to Improve Patient Care in Oncology.
Travis Johnson, David Liebner, James L Chen.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2017 Nov 01; 1. PMID: 30657369    Free PMC article.
Clinical and Genomic Risk to Guide the Use of Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer.
Joseph A Sparano, Robert J Gray, +27 authors, George W Sledge.
N Engl J Med, 2019 Jun 04; 380(25). PMID: 31157962    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Developing a 'personalome' for precision medicine: emerging methods that compute interpretable effect sizes from single-subject transcriptomes.
Francesca Vitali, Qike Li, +3 authors, Yves A Lussier.
Brief Bioinform, 2017 Dec 23; 20(3). PMID: 29272327    Free PMC article.
Review.
Association of Circulating Tumor Cells With Late Recurrence of Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.
Joseph Sparano, Anne O'Neill, +5 authors, Kathy D Miller.
JAMA Oncol, 2018 Jul 29; 4(12). PMID: 30054636    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Community clinical practice patterns and mortality in patients with intermediate oncotype DX recurrence scores: Who benefits from chemotherapy?
Abiola F Ibraheem, David J Press, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Dezheng Huo.
Cancer, 2018 Nov 06; 125(2). PMID: 30387876    Free PMC article.
A Multigene Assay Determines Risk of Recurrence in Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Rachel L Stewart, Katherine L Updike, +4 authors, Katherine E Varley.
Cancer Res, 2019 May 03; 79(13). PMID: 31048497    Free PMC article.
The impact of Oncotype DX breast cancer assay results on clinical practice: a UK experience.
Valerie E Crolley, Husam Marashi, +12 authors, Judy King.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2020 Mar 15; 180(3). PMID: 32170635    Free PMC article.
The Correlation of Magee EquationsTM and Oncotype DX® Recurrence Score From Core Needle Biopsy Tissues in Predicting Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in ER+ and HER2- Breast Cancer.
Atilla Soran, Kaori Tane, Efe Sezgin, Rohit Bhargava.
Eur J Breast Health, 2020 Apr 15; 16(2). PMID: 32285033    Free PMC article.
The Evaluation of Magee Equation 2 in Predicting Response and Outcome in Hormone Receptor-Positive and HER2-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
Napat Saigosoom, Doonyapat Sa-Nguanraksa, +2 authors, Pornchai O-Charoenrat.
Cancer Manag Res, 2020 Apr 21; 12. PMID: 32308485    Free PMC article.
Simulation Modeling to Extend Clinical Trials of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Guided by a 21-Gene Expression Assay in Early Breast Cancer.
Jinani Jayasekera, Joseph A Sparano, +5 authors, Jeanne Mandelblatt.
JNCI Cancer Spectr, 2020 Apr 28; 3(4). PMID: 32337487    Free PMC article.
DGM-CM6: A New Model to Predict Distant Recurrence Risk in Operable Endocrine-Responsive Breast Cancer.
Lei Lei, Xiao-Jia Wang, +2 authors, Yunyun Zhou.
Front Oncol, 2020 Jun 13; 10. PMID: 32528885    Free PMC article.
Radiogenomics of magnetic resonance imaging and a new multi-gene classifier for predicting recurrence prognosis in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: A preliminary study.
Yukiko Tokuda, Masahiro Yanagawa, +3 authors, Noriyuki Tomiyama.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2020 Apr 22; 99(16). PMID: 32311939    Free PMC article.
Distribution of the 21-Gene Breast Recurrence Score in Patients with Primary Breast Cancer in Germany.
Vincent P Walter, Florin-Andrei Taran, +6 authors, Andreas Daniel Hartkopf.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd, 2020 Jun 23; 80(6). PMID: 32565552    Free PMC article.
Chemotherapy benefit for 'ER-positive' breast cancer and contamination of nonluminal subtypes—waiting for TAILORx and RxPONDER.
Z Sun, A Prat, +2 authors, C M Perou.
Ann Oncol, 2014 Oct 31; 26(1). PMID: 25355719    Free PMC article.
Sex Disparity Observed for Oncotype DX Breast Recurrence Score in Predicting Mortality Among Patients with Early Stage ER-Positive Breast Cancer.
Fei Wang, Sonya Reid, +6 authors, Xiao-Ou Shu.
Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Nov 22; 26(1). PMID: 31748278    Free PMC article.
High Levels of Chromosomal Copy Number Alterations and TP53 Mutations Correlate with Poor Outcome in Younger Breast Cancer Patients.
Ayla Koçak, Kerstin Heselmeyer-Haddad, +13 authors, Thomas Ried.
Am J Pathol, 2020 May 18; 190(8). PMID: 32416097    Free PMC article.
The 21-Gene Recurrence Score Assay and Prediction of Chemotherapy Benefit: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis of the SEER Database.
In Sil Choi, Jiwoong Jung, +5 authors, Ki-Tae Hwang.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 12; 12(7). PMID: 32650374    Free PMC article.
Discordance in 21-gene recurrence scores between paired breast cancer samples is inversely associated with patient age.
Sarah M Bernhardt, Pallave Dasari, +6 authors, Wendy V Ingman.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 Aug 20; 22(1). PMID: 32811558    Free PMC article.
Exploratory Analysis of Single-Gene Predictive Biomarkers in HERA DASL Cohort Reveals That C8A mRNA Expression Is Prognostic of Outcome and Predictive of Benefit of Trastuzumab.
Scooter Willis, Varvara Polydoropoulou, +13 authors, Brian Leyland-Jones.
JCO Precis Oncol, 2018 Nov 01; 2. PMID: 32913993    Free PMC article.
The Oncotype Dx Assay in ER-Positive, HER2-Negative Breast Cancer Patients: A Real Life Experience from a Single Cancer Center.
Stephane Thibodeau, Ioannis A Voutsadakis.
Eur J Breast Health, 2019 Jul 18; 15(3). PMID: 31312792    Free PMC article.
Comparison of GenesWell BCT Score With Oncotype DX Recurrence Score for Risk Classification in Asian Women With Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Early Breast Cancer.
Mi Jeong Kwon, Jeong Eon Lee, +12 authors, Young Kee Shin.
Front Oncol, 2019 Aug 14; 9. PMID: 31404265    Free PMC article.
Future perspectives of surgical treatment of breast cancer.
Margit Riis.
Ann Med Surg (Lond), 2020 Oct 03; 59. PMID: 33005399    Free PMC article.
Patient and physician factors associated with Oncotype DX and adjuvant chemotherapy utilization for breast cancer patients in New Hampshire, 2010-2016.
Thomas M Schwedhelm, Judy R Rees, +4 authors, Erika L Moen.
BMC Cancer, 2020 Sep 05; 20(1). PMID: 32883270    Free PMC article.
Biobanking for Cancer Biomarker Research: Issues and Solutions.
Lise A Matzke, Peter H Watson.
Biomark Insights, 2020 Nov 17; 15. PMID: 33192050    Free PMC article.
Review.
Multifocal/Multicentric Ipsilateral Invasive Breast Carcinomas with Similar Histology: Is Multigene Testing of All Individual Foci Necessary?
Anne Grabenstetter, Edi Brogi, +4 authors, Hannah Y Wen.
Ann Surg Oncol, 2018 Oct 10; 26(2). PMID: 30298311    Free PMC article.
A Nomogram for Predicting the Oncotype DX Recurrence Score in Women with T1-3N0-1miM0 Hormone Receptor‒Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 (HER2)‒Negative Breast Cancer.
Sae Byul Lee, Junetae Kim, +8 authors, Kyung Hae Jung.
Cancer Res Treat, 2018 Nov 06; 51(3). PMID: 30384581    Free PMC article.
Impact of Commercialized Genomic Tests on Adjuvant Treatment Decisions in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients.
Hazem I Assi, Ibrahim A Alameh, +9 authors, Nagi El Saghir.
J Oncol, 2020 Dec 15; 2020. PMID: 33312202    Free PMC article.
Concordance of the 21-gene assay between core needle biopsy and resection specimens in early breast cancer patients.
Peng Qi, Yu Yang, +5 authors, Xiao-Yan Zhou.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2021 Jan 14;. PMID: 33439420    Free PMC article.