. 2009 Jun; 205(11):735-41.
doi: 10.1016/j.prp.2009.05.004.

Digital slides: present status of a tool for consultation, teaching, and quality control in pathology

Rafael Rocha 1 José Vassallo  Fernando Soares  Keith Miller  Helenice Gobbi  
  • PMID: 19501988
  •     30 citations


In the last few years, telepathology has benefited from the progress in the technology of image digitalization and transmission through the world web. The applications of telepathology and virtual imaging are more current in research and morphology teaching. In surgical pathology daily practice, this technology still has limits and is more often used for case consultation. In the present review, we intend to discuss its applications and challenges for pathologists and scientists. Much of the limitations of virtual imaging for the surgical pathologist reside in the capacity of storage of images, which so far has hindered the more widespread use of this technology. Overcoming this major drawback may revolutionize the surgical pathologist's activity and slide storing.

Shifting gears higher--digital slides in graduate education--4 years experience at Semmelweis University.
László Fónyad, László Gerely, +2 authors, András Matolcsy.
Diagn Pathol, 2010 Nov 26; 5. PMID: 21092205    Free PMC article.
Quantification of virtual slides: Approaches to analysis of content-based image information.
Klaus Kayser.
J Pathol Inform, 2011 Mar 09; 2. PMID: 21383926    Free PMC article.
Implementation of whole slide imaging in surgical pathology: A value added approach.
Mike Isaacs, Jochen K Lennerz, +3 authors, John D Pfeifer.
J Pathol Inform, 2011 Oct 05; 2. PMID: 21969920    Free PMC article.
Virtual slides in peer reviewed, open access medical publication.
Klaus Kayser, Stephan Borkenfeld, Torsten Goldmann, Gian Kayser.
Diagn Pathol, 2011 Dec 21; 6. PMID: 22182763    Free PMC article.
Introduction of virtual microscopy in routine surgical pathology--a hypothesis and personal view from Europe.
Klaus Kayser.
Diagn Pathol, 2012 May 02; 7. PMID: 22546238    Free PMC article.
Compressing pathology whole-slide images using a human and model observer evaluation.
Elizabeth A Krupinski, Jeffrey P Johnson, +2 authors, Ronald S Weinstein.
J Pathol Inform, 2012 May 23; 3. PMID: 22616029    Free PMC article.
The "tele" factor in surgery today and tomorrow: implications for surgical training and education.
Pietro Gambadauro, Rafael Torrejón.
Surg Today, 2012 Jul 28; 43(2). PMID: 22836545
Double staining cytologic samples with quantitative Feulgen-thionin and anti-Ki-67 immunocytochemistry as a method of distinguishing cells with abnormal DNA content from normal cycling cells.
Gerald Li, Martial Guillaud, Michele Follen, Calum MacAulay.
Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol, 2013 Jan 11; 34(5). PMID: 23301387    Free PMC article.
Mobile digital fluorescence microscopy for diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Asa Tapley, Neil Switz, +7 authors, Adithya Cattamanchi.
J Clin Microbiol, 2013 Apr 05; 51(6). PMID: 23554191    Free PMC article.
Going fully digital: Perspective of a Dutch academic pathology lab.
Nikolas Stathonikos, Mitko Veta, André Huisman, Paul J van Diest.
J Pathol Inform, 2013 Jul 17; 4. PMID: 23858390    Free PMC article.
Evaluation of mitotic activity index in breast cancer using whole slide digital images.
Shaimaa Al-Janabi, Henk-Jan van Slooten, +3 authors, Mehdi Jiwa.
PLoS One, 2014 Jan 05; 8(12). PMID: 24386102    Free PMC article.
Color standardization in whole slide imaging using a color calibration slide.
Pinky A Bautista, Noriaki Hashimoto, Yukako Yagi.
J Pathol Inform, 2014 Mar 29; 5(1). PMID: 24672739    Free PMC article.
Digitized whole slides for breast pathology interpretation: current practices and perceptions.
Tracy Onega, Donald Weaver, +8 authors, Joann G Elmore.
J Digit Imaging, 2014 Apr 01; 27(5). PMID: 24682769    Free PMC article.
Virtual microscopy system at Chinese medical university: an assisted teaching platform for promoting active learning and problem-solving skills.
Yanping Tian, Wengang Xiao, +5 authors, Hongli Li.
BMC Med Educ, 2014 Apr 10; 14. PMID: 24712715    Free PMC article.
Intra-observer reproducibility of whole slide imaging for the primary diagnosis of breast needle biopsies.
Carolina Reyes, Offiong F Ikpatt, Mehrdad Nadji, Richard J Cote.
J Pathol Inform, 2014 Apr 18; 5(1). PMID: 24741464    Free PMC article.
Inter-observer variability between general pathologists and a specialist in breast pathology in the diagnosis of lobular neoplasia, columnar cell lesions, atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.
Douglas S Gomes, Simone S Porto, Débora Balabram, Helenice Gobbi.
Diagn Pathol, 2014 Jun 21; 9. PMID: 24948027    Free PMC article.
Transition from glass to digital slide microscopy in the teaching of oral pathology in a Brazilian dental school.
Felipe-Paiva Fonseca, Alan-Roger Santos-Silva, +2 authors, Pablo-Agustin Vargas.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal, 2014 Aug 19; 20(1). PMID: 25129250    Free PMC article.
Embracing an integromic approach to tissue biomarker research in cancer: Perspectives and lessons learned.
Gerald Li, Peter Bankhead, +5 authors, Darragh G McArt.
Brief Bioinform, 2016 Jun 04; 18(4). PMID: 27255914    Free PMC article.
Emerging Themes in Image Informatics and Molecular Analysis for Digital Pathology.
Rohit Bhargava, Anant Madabhushi.
Annu Rev Biomed Eng, 2016 Jul 16; 18. PMID: 27420575    Free PMC article.
Comparing whole slide digital images versus traditional glass slides in the detection of common microscopic features seen in dermatitis.
Nikki S Vyas, Michael Markow, +5 authors, Drazen M Jukic.
J Pathol Inform, 2016 Aug 27; 7. PMID: 27563489    Free PMC article.
Using virtual microscopy to deliver an integrated oral pathology course for undergraduate dental students.
D J Brierley, P M Speight, K D Hunter, P Farthing.
Br Dent J, 2017 Jul 22; 223(2). PMID: 28729584
Comparison between digital and optical microscopy: Analysis in a mouse gut inflammation model.
Airton Pereira E Silva, Sylvia Maria Nicolau Campos, Isabelle Mazza Guimarães, Gerlinde Agate Platais Brasil Teixeira.
Biomed Rep, 2017 Sep 13; 7(3). PMID: 28894572    Free PMC article.
Biological Interpretation of Morphological Patterns in Histopathological Whole-Slide Images.
Sonal Kothari, John H Phan, Adeboye O Osunkoya, May D Wang.
ACM BCB, 2012 Oct 01; 2012. PMID: 29568817    Free PMC article.
The California Telepathology Service: UCLA's Experience in Deploying a Regional Digital Pathology Subspecialty Consultation Network.
Thomas Chong, M Fernando Palma-Diaz, +10 authors, W Dean Wallace.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Oct 18; 10. PMID: 31620310    Free PMC article.
HISTOBREAST, a collection of brightfield microscopy images of Haematoxylin and Eosin stained breast tissue.
Roxana M Buga, Tiberiu Totu, +4 authors, Stefan G Stanciu.
Sci Data, 2020 Jun 07; 7(1). PMID: 32503988    Free PMC article.
Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) in Pathology: Current Perspectives and Future Directions.
Neeta Kumar, Ruchika Gupta, Sanjay Gupta.
J Digit Imaging, 2020 May 30; 33(4). PMID: 32468487    Free PMC article.
Interchangeability of light and virtual microscopy for histopathological evaluation of prostate cancer.
Renata Zelic, Francesca Giunchi, +12 authors, Andreas Pettersson.
Sci Rep, 2021 Feb 07; 11(1). PMID: 33547336    Free PMC article.
Histologic grading of breast carcinoma: a multi-institution study of interobserver variation using virtual microscopy.
Paula S Ginter, Romana Idress, +6 authors, Malini Harigopal.
Mod Pathol, 2020 Oct 21; 34(4). PMID: 33077923    Free PMC article.
Cutting-Edge Microscopy Systems as Remote Teaching and Research Tools for Undergraduate Students.
Christopher R Thompson.
J Microbiol Biol Educ, 2021 Apr 23; 22(1). PMID: 33884092    Free PMC article.
Smartpathk: a platform for teaching glomerulopathies using machine learning.
Nayze Lucena Sangreman Aldeman, Keylla Maria de Sá Urtiga Aita, +6 authors, Semíramis Jamil Hadad do Monte.
BMC Med Educ, 2021 May 01; 21(1). PMID: 33926437    Free PMC article.