Journal Article
. 2009 Nov; 27(34):5763-71.
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.24.3675.

Phase II clinical trial of a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-encoding, second-generation oncolytic herpesvirus in patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma

Neil N Senzer 1 Howard L Kaufman  Thomas Amatruda  Mike Nemunaitis  Tony Reid  Gregory Daniels  Rene Gonzalez  John Glaspy  Eric Whitman  Kevin Harrington  Howard Goldsweig  Tracey Marshall  Colin Love  Robert Coffin  John J Nemunaitis  
  • PMID: 19884534
  •     255 citations


Purpose: Treatment options for metastatic melanoma are limited. We conducted this phase II trial to assess the efficacy of JS1/34.5-/47-/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in stages IIIc and IV disease.

Patients And Methods: Treatment involved intratumoral injection of up to 4 mL of 10(6) pfu/mL of JS1/34.5-/47-/GM-CSF followed 3 weeks later by up to 4 mL of 10(8) pfu/mL every 2 weeks for up to 24 treatments. Clinical activity (by RECIST [Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors]), survival, and safety parameters were monitored.

Results: Fifty patients (stages IIIc, n = 10; IVM1a, n = 16; IVM1b, n = 4; IVM1c, n = 20) received a median of six injection sets; 74% of patients had received one or more nonsurgical prior therapies for active disease, including dacarbazine/temozolomide or interleukin-2 (IL-2). Adverse effects were limited primarily to transient flu-like symptoms. The overall response rate by RECIST was 26% (complete response [CR], n = 8; partial response [PR], n = 5), and regression of both injected and distant (including visceral) lesions occurred. Ninety-two percent of the responses had been maintained for 7 to 31 months. Ten additional patients had stable disease (SD) for greater than 3 months, and two additional patients had surgical CR. On an extension protocol, two patients subsequently achieved CR by 24 months (one previously PR, one previously SD), and one achieved surgical CR (previously PR). Overall survival was 58% at 1 year and 52% at 24 months.

Conclusion: The 26% response rate, with durability in both injected and uninjected lesions including visceral sites, together with the survival rates, are evidence of systemic effectiveness. This effectiveness, combined with a limited toxicity profile, warrants additional evaluation of JS1/34.5-/47-/GM-CSF in metastatic melanoma. A US Food and Drug Administration-approved phase III investigation is underway.

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Viruses, 2015 Nov 19; 7(11). PMID: 26580645    Free PMC article.
Recombinant vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 is a promising oncolytic vector in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.
Amudhan Pugalenthi, Kelly Mojica, +6 authors, Yuman Fong.
Cancer Gene Ther, 2015 Nov 21; 22(12). PMID: 26584530
Nucleic acid targeting: towards personalized therapy for head and neck cancer.
S M Parsel, J R Grandis, S M Thomas.
Oncogene, 2015 Nov 26; 35(25). PMID: 26592450    Free PMC article.
Talimogene Laherparepvec: First Global Approval.
Sarah L Greig.
Drugs, 2015 Dec 02; 76(1). PMID: 26620366
In situ vaccination: Cancer immunotherapy both personalized and off-the-shelf.
Linda Hammerich, Adam Binder, Joshua D Brody.
Mol Oncol, 2015 Dec 04; 9(10). PMID: 26632446    Free PMC article.
Evidence for Oncolytic Virotherapy: Where Have We Got to and Where Are We Going?
Samantha Turnbull, Emma J West, +3 authors, Christy Ralph.
Viruses, 2015 Dec 04; 7(12). PMID: 26633468    Free PMC article.
Oncolysis by paramyxoviruses: multiple mechanisms contribute to therapeutic efficiency.
Olga V Matveeva, Zong S Guo, Svetlana A Shabalina, Peter M Chumakov.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2015 Dec 08; 2. PMID: 26640816    Free PMC article.
Enhanced therapeutic effect using sequential administration of antigenically distinct oncolytic viruses expressing oncostatin M in a Syrian hamster orthotopic pancreatic cancer model.
Estanislao Nistal-Villan, Maria Bunuales, +8 authors, Ruben Hernandez-Alcoceba.
Mol Cancer, 2015 Dec 17; 14. PMID: 26671477    Free PMC article.
A Multi Targeting Conditionally Replicating Adenovirus Displays Enhanced Oncolysis while Maintaining Expression of Immunotherapeutic Agents.
G Clement Dobbins, Hideyo Ugai, David T Curiel, G Yancey Gillespie.
PLoS One, 2015 Dec 23; 10(12). PMID: 26689910    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic viruses: finally delivering.
Leonard W Seymour, Kerry D Fisher.
Br J Cancer, 2016 Jan 15; 114(4). PMID: 26766734    Free PMC article.
Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses.
Gabriella Campadelli-Fiume, Biljana Petrovic, +4 authors, Valentina Gatta.
Viruses, 2016 Mar 02; 8(3). PMID: 26927159    Free PMC article.
First oncolytic virus approved for melanoma immunotherapy.
Jonathan Pol, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Mar 05; 5(1). PMID: 26942095    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CRISPR-Cas9 as a Powerful Tool for Efficient Creation of Oncolytic Viruses.
Ming Yuan, Eika Webb, Nicholas Robert Lemoine, Yaohe Wang.
Viruses, 2016 Mar 10; 8(3). PMID: 26959050    Free PMC article.
Systemic versus local responses in melanoma patients treated with talimogene laherparepvec from a multi-institutional phase II study.
Howard L Kaufman, Thomas Amatruda, +8 authors, Neil N Senzer.
J Immunother Cancer, 2016 Mar 17; 4. PMID: 26981242    Free PMC article.
Immunogenic cell death by oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 in squamous cell carcinoma cells.
A Takasu, A Masui, +3 authors, Y Yura.
Cancer Gene Ther, 2016 Mar 19; 23(4). PMID: 26987291
Developments in Intralesional Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma.
Sarah Sloot, Omar M Rashid, Arnod A Sarnaik, Jonathan S Zager.
Cancer Control, 2016 Mar 25; 23(1). PMID: 27009452    Free PMC article.
CD8(+) T-cell Immune Evasion Enables Oncolytic Virus Immunotherapy.
Aldo Pourchet, Steven R Fuhrmann, +4 authors, Ian Mohr.
EBioMedicine, 2016 Apr 15; 5. PMID: 27077112    Free PMC article.
Moving oncolytic viruses into the clinic: clinical-grade production, purification, and characterization of diverse oncolytic viruses.
Guy Ungerechts, Sascha Bossow, +6 authors, Dirk M Nettelbeck.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev, 2016 Apr 19; 3. PMID: 27088104    Free PMC article.
Enhanced efficacy with azacytidine and oncolytic BHV-1 in a tolerized cotton rat model of breast adenocarcinoma.
Breanne P Cuddington, Meghan Verschoor, Ali Ashkar, Karen L Mossman.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2015 Jan 01; 2. PMID: 27119103    Free PMC article.
Assessment of current virotherapeutic application schemes: "hit hard and early" versus "killing softly"?
Benjamin Ruf, Ulrich M Lauer.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2015 Jan 01; 2. PMID: 27119110    Free PMC article.
Cancer immunotherapy: the beginning of the end of cancer?
Sofia Farkona, Eleftherios P Diamandis, Ivan M Blasutig.
BMC Med, 2016 May 07; 14. PMID: 27151159    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Phase 1 Study of Intravenous Oncolytic Poxvirus (vvDD) in Patients With Advanced Solid Cancers.
Stephanie Downs-Canner, Zong Sheng Guo, +8 authors, David L Bartlett.
Mol Ther, 2016 May 21; 24(8). PMID: 27203445    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges.
Laure Aurelian.
Onco Targets Ther, 2016 May 27; 9. PMID: 27226725    Free PMC article.
Patterns of Clinical Response with Talimogene Laherparepvec (T-VEC) in Patients with Melanoma Treated in the OPTiM Phase III Clinical Trial.
Robert H I Andtbacka, Merrick Ross, +10 authors, Howard L Kaufman.
Ann Surg Oncol, 2016 Nov 03; 23(13). PMID: 27342831    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus kills stem-like tumor-initiating colon cancer cells.
Susanne G Warner, Dana Haddad, +5 authors, Yuman Fong.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2016 Jun 28; 3. PMID: 27347556    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic virus as a cancer stem cell killer: progress and challenges.
Jingzhen Ding.
Stem Cell Investig, 2014 Jan 01; 1. PMID: 27358868    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic Viruses: Therapeutics With an Identity Crisis.
Caroline J Breitbach, Brian D Lichty, John C Bell.
EBioMedicine, 2016 Jul 14; 9. PMID: 27407036    Free PMC article.
Cutaneous head and neck melanoma in OPTiM, a randomized phase 3 trial of talimogene laherparepvec versus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for the treatment of unresected stage IIIB/IIIC/IV melanoma.
Robert H I Andtbacka, Sanjiv S Agarwala, +9 authors, Howard L Kaufman.
Head Neck, 2016 Jul 14; 38(12). PMID: 27407058    Free PMC article.
Cancer immunotherapy trials: leading a paradigm shift in drug development.
Leisha A Emens, Lisa H Butterfield, +2 authors, Howard L Kaufman.
J Immunother Cancer, 2016 Jul 21; 4. PMID: 27437105    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy in the management of melanoma: current status.
Dylan Alston, Jerry D Brewer.
Immunotargets Ther, 2013 Jan 01; 2. PMID: 27471683    Free PMC article.
Intralesional Immunotherapy for Metastatic Melanoma: The Oldest and Newest Treatment in Oncology.
Mark B Faries.
Crit Rev Oncog, 2016 Aug 03; 21(1-2). PMID: 27481003    Free PMC article.
Oncogenes: The Passport for Viral Oncolysis Through PKR Inhibition.
Janaina Fernandes.
Biomark Cancer, 2016 Aug 04; 8. PMID: 27486347    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic virus therapy: A new era of cancer treatment at dawn.
Hiroshi Fukuhara, Yasushi Ino, Tomoki Todo.
Cancer Sci, 2016 Oct 30; 107(10). PMID: 27486853    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Advanced new strategies for metastatic cancer treatment by therapeutic stem cells and oncolytic virotherapy.
Geon-Tae Park, Kyung-Chul Choi.
Oncotarget, 2016 Aug 06; 7(36). PMID: 27494901    Free PMC article.
Novel melanoma therapy.
Eddy C Hsueh, Kalyan C Gorantla.
Exp Hematol Oncol, 2015 Jan 01; 5. PMID: 27508107    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic virotherapy: the questions and the promise.
Laure Aurelian.
Oncolytic Virother, 2013 Jan 01; 2. PMID: 27512655    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic virus therapy for cancer.
Joe Goldufsky, Shanthi Sivendran, +7 authors, Howard L Kaufman.
Oncolytic Virother, 2013 Jan 01; 2. PMID: 27512656    Free PMC article.
Critical analysis of an oncolytic herpesvirus encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor for the treatment of malignant melanoma.
Tasha Hughes, Robert S Coffin, +2 authors, Howard L Kaufman.
Oncolytic Virother, 2014 Jan 01; 3. PMID: 27512660    Free PMC article.
Applications of coxsackievirus A21 in oncology.
Stephen Bradley, Adam D Jakes, +3 authors, Fiona Errington-Mais.
Oncolytic Virother, 2014 Jan 01; 3. PMID: 27512662    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic virotherapy for human malignant mesothelioma: recent advances.
Nicolas Boisgerault, Carole Achard, +4 authors, Jean-François Fonteneau.
Oncolytic Virother, 2015 Jan 01; 4. PMID: 27512676    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic virotherapy using herpes simplex virus: how far have we come?
Nicolas As Sokolowski, Helen Rizos, Russell J Diefenbach.
Oncolytic Virother, 2015 Jan 01; 4. PMID: 27512683    Free PMC article.
Into the clinic: Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), a first-in-class intratumoral oncolytic viral therapy.
Hasan Rehman, Ann W Silk, Michael P Kane, Howard L Kaufman.
J Immunother Cancer, 2016 Sep 24; 4. PMID: 27660707    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Engineering of double recombinant vaccinia virus with enhanced oncolytic potential for solid tumor virotherapy.
Galina Kochneva, Galina Sivolobova, +7 authors, Olga Koval.
Oncotarget, 2016 Oct 07; 7(45). PMID: 27708236    Free PMC article.
Spotlight on talimogene laherparepvec for the treatment of melanoma lesions in the skin and lymph nodes.
Marlana Orloff.
Oncolytic Virother, 2016 Oct 28; 5. PMID: 27785448    Free PMC article.
The interaction between human papillomavirus and other viruses.
J T Guidry, R S Scott.
Virus Res, 2016 Nov 09; 231. PMID: 27826043    Free PMC article.
Efficacy and safety of talimogene laherparepvec versus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with stage IIIB/C and IVM1a melanoma: subanalysis of the Phase III OPTiM trial.
Kevin J Harrington, Robert Hi Andtbacka, +4 authors, Howard L Kaufman.
Onco Targets Ther, 2016 Nov 30; 9. PMID: 27895500    Free PMC article.
Intralesional treatment of metastatic melanoma: a review of therapeutic options.
Benjamin Weide, Dario Neri, Giuliano Elia.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2017 Jan 13; 66(5). PMID: 28078357    Free PMC article.
Adenoviral Vectors Armed with Cell Fusion-Inducing Proteins as Anti-Cancer Agents.
Joshua Del Papa, Robin J Parks.
Viruses, 2017 Jan 21; 9(1). PMID: 28106842    Free PMC article.
Mesenchymal stromal cells for the delivery of oncolytic viruses in gliomas.
Brittany C Parker Kerrigan, Yuzaburo Shimizu, Michael Andreeff, Frederick F Lang.
Cytotherapy, 2017 Feb 25; 19(4). PMID: 28233640    Free PMC article.
Combining talimogene laherparepvec with immunotherapies in melanoma and other solid tumors.
Reinhard Dummer, Christoph Hoeller, Isabella Pezzani Gruter, Olivier Michielin.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2017 Feb 27; 66(6). PMID: 28238174    Free PMC article.
Talimogene laherparepvec for melanoma.
Aust Prescr, 2017 Mar 02; 40(1). PMID: 28246438    Free PMC article.
Presage of oncolytic virotherapy for oral cancer with herpes simplex virus.
Yoshiaki Yura.
Jpn Dent Sci Rev, 2017 May 10; 53(2). PMID: 28479936    Free PMC article.
Blockade of IDO-kynurenine-AhR metabolic circuitry abrogates IFN-γ-induced immunologic dormancy of tumor-repopulating cells.
Yuying Liu, Xiaoyu Liang, +18 authors, Bo Huang.
Nat Commun, 2017 May 11; 8. PMID: 28488695    Free PMC article.
Taking a Stab at Cancer; Oncolytic Virus-Mediated Anti-Cancer Vaccination Strategies.
Amelia Sadie Aitken, Dominic Guy Roy, Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault.
Biomedicines, 2017 May 26; 5(1). PMID: 28536346    Free PMC article.
Showing the Way: Oncolytic Adenoviruses as Chaperones of Immunostimulatory Adjuncts.
Jing Li Huang, Christopher J LaRocca, Masato Yamamoto.
Biomedicines, 2017 May 26; 4(3). PMID: 28536390    Free PMC article.
Delivering safer immunotherapies for cancer.
Lauren Milling, Yuan Zhang, Darrell J Irvine.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 2017 May 27; 114. PMID: 28545888    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viral Therapy: A Stride toward Selective Targeting of Cancer Cells.
Dhaval S Sanchala, Lokesh K Bhatt, Kedar S Prabhavalkar.
Front Pharmacol, 2017 Jun 01; 8. PMID: 28559846    Free PMC article.
Cancer Immunotherapies: Are They as Effective in the Elderly?
Kate Poropatich, Joel Fontanarosa, +2 authors, Bin Zhang.
Drugs Aging, 2017 Jul 15; 34(8). PMID: 28707274
Oncolytic immunotherapy: unlocking the potential of viruses to help target cancer.
Omid Hamid, Brianna Hoffner, +2 authors, Richard D Carvajal.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2017 Jul 18; 66(10). PMID: 28712033    Free PMC article.
A practical guide to the handling and administration of talimogene laherparepvec in Europe.
Kevin J Harrington, Olivier Michielin, +4 authors, Reinhard Dummer.
Onco Targets Ther, 2017 Aug 18; 10. PMID: 28814886    Free PMC article.
Overcoming resistance to targeted therapy with immunotherapy and combination therapy for metastatic melanoma.
Hilary R Keller, Xin Zhang, +2 authors, James W Wells.
Oncotarget, 2017 Nov 02; 8(43). PMID: 29088901    Free PMC article.
Intratumoral CD40 activation and checkpoint blockade induces T cell-mediated eradication of melanoma in the brain.
Manisha Singh, Christina Vianden, +15 authors, Willem W Overwijk.
Nat Commun, 2017 Nov 14; 8(1). PMID: 29129918    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapeutic Potential of Oncolytic H-1 Parvovirus: Hints of Glioblastoma Microenvironment Conversion towards Immunogenicity.
Assia L Angelova, Milena Barf, +2 authors, Jean Rommelaere.
Viruses, 2017 Dec 16; 9(12). PMID: 29244745    Free PMC article.
Review: Oncolytic virotherapy, updates and future directions.
Christos Fountzilas, Sukeshi Patel, Devalingam Mahalingam.
Oncotarget, 2017 Dec 20; 8(60). PMID: 29254276    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
A novel immunization strategy using cytokine/chemokines induces new effective systemic immune responses, and frequent complete regressions of human metastatic melanoma.
Fred T Valentine, Frederick M Golomb, Matthew Harris, Daniel F Roses.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Jan 09; 7(2). PMID: 29308310    Free PMC article.
Optimizing the Targeting of Mouse Parvovirus 1 to Murine Melanoma Selects for Recombinant Genomes and Novel Mutations in the Viral Capsid Gene.
Matthew Marr, Anthony D'Abramo, +3 authors, Peter Tattersall.
Viruses, 2018 Feb 02; 10(2). PMID: 29385689    Free PMC article.
Adenoviral vector with shield and adapter increases tumor specificity and escapes liver and immune control.
Markus Schmid, Patrick Ernst, +12 authors, Andreas Plückthun.
Nat Commun, 2018 Feb 02; 9(1). PMID: 29386504    Free PMC article.
Talimogene laherparepvec: First in class oncolytic virotherapy.
Robert M Conry, Brian Westbrook, Svetlana McKee, Timothy Graham Norwood.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2018 Feb 09; 14(4). PMID: 29420123    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Potential clinical and immunotherapeutic utility of talimogene laherparepvec for patients with melanoma after disease progression on immune checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF inhibitors.
Jason Chesney, Yoannis Imbert-Fernandez, +4 authors, Nicolas Batty.
Melanoma Res, 2018 Mar 22; 28(3). PMID: 29561296    Free PMC article.
Novel oncolytic chimeric orthopoxvirus causes regression of pancreatic cancer xenografts and exhibits abscopal effect at a single low dose.
Michael P O'Leary, Audrey H Choi, +7 authors, Nanhai G Chen.
J Transl Med, 2018 Apr 28; 16(1). PMID: 29699566    Free PMC article.
TNFa and IL-2 armed adenoviruses enable complete responses by anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade.
V Cervera-Carrascon, M Siurala, +6 authors, A Hemminki.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 May 04; 7(5). PMID: 29721366    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Regional therapies for locoregionally advanced and unresectable melanoma.
Evan S Weitman, Jonathan S Zager.
Clin Exp Metastasis, 2018 May 08; 35(5-6). PMID: 29736626
Tune Up In Situ Autovaccination against Solid Tumors with Oncolytic Viruses.
Teresa Nguyen, Naze G Avci, +2 authors, Hong Jiang.
Cancers (Basel), 2018 Jun 03; 10(6). PMID: 29857493    Free PMC article.
A fully-virulent retargeted oncolytic HSV armed with IL-12 elicits local immunity and vaccine therapy towards distant tumors.
Valerio Leoni, Andrea Vannini, +8 authors, Gabriella Campadelli-Fiume.
PLoS Pathog, 2018 Aug 07; 14(8). PMID: 30080893    Free PMC article.
White paper on microbial anti-cancer therapy and prevention.
Neil S Forbes, Robert S Coffin, +20 authors, Grant McFadden.
J Immunother Cancer, 2018 Aug 08; 6(1). PMID: 30081947    Free PMC article.
The Role of Oncolytic Viruses in the Treatment of Melanoma.
Claire-Audrey Y Bayan, Adriana T Lopez, +11 authors, Yvonne M Saenger.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2018 Aug 27; 20(10). PMID: 30145781    Free PMC article.
Advances in the development of intralesional therapies for melanoma.
Daniel Y Wang, Douglas B Johnson.
Melanoma Manag, 2016 Dec 01; 3(4). PMID: 30190897    Free PMC article.
Talimogene laherparepvec: overview, combination therapy and current practices.
Cristina O'Donoghue, Matthew P Doepker, Jonathan S Zager.
Melanoma Manag, 2016 Dec 01; 3(4). PMID: 30190898    Free PMC article.
Turn Back the TIMe: Targeting Tumor Infiltrating Myeloid Cells to Revert Cancer Progression.
Robin Maximilian Awad, Yannick De Vlaeminck, +2 authors, Karine Breckpot.
Front Immunol, 2018 Sep 21; 9. PMID: 30233579    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The Current Status and Future Prospects of Oncolytic Viruses in Clinical Trials against Melanoma, Glioma, Pancreatic, and Breast Cancers.
Ibrahim Ragab Eissa, Itzel Bustos-Villalobos, +12 authors, Hideki Kasuya.
Cancers (Basel), 2018 Sep 29; 10(10). PMID: 30261620    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic virus immunotherapy: future prospects for oncology.
Junaid Raja, Johannes M Ludwig, +2 authors, Hyun S Kim.
J Immunother Cancer, 2018 Dec 06; 6(1). PMID: 30514385    Free PMC article.
Biodistribution, shedding, and transmissibility of the oncolytic virus talimogene laherparepvec in patients with melanoma.
Robert H I Andtbacka, Thomas Amatruda, +7 authors, Janice M Mehnert.
EBioMedicine, 2019 Aug 15; 47. PMID: 31409575    Free PMC article.
Conceptual Development of Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Gastrointestinal Cancer.
Bilikis Aderonke Abolarinwa, Ridwan Babatunde Ibrahim, Yen-Hua Huang.
Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Sep 22; 20(18). PMID: 31540435    Free PMC article.
Development and Clinical Translation of Approved Gene Therapy Products for Genetic Disorders.
Alireza Shahryari, Marie Saghaeian Jazi, +6 authors, Heiko Lickert.
Front Genet, 2019 Oct 15; 10. PMID: 31608113    Free PMC article.
Biological intratumoral therapy for the high-grade glioma part II: vector- and cell-based therapies and radioimmunotherapy.
Joshua Loya, Charlie Zhang, +2 authors, Santosh Kesari.
CNS Oncol, 2019 Nov 22; 8(3). PMID: 31747784    Free PMC article.
Objective Response Rate Among Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Sarcoma Treated With Talimogene Laherparepvec in Combination With Pembrolizumab: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial.
Ciara M Kelly, Cristina R Antonescu, +23 authors, Sandra P D'Angelo.
JAMA Oncol, 2020 Jan 24; 6(3). PMID: 31971541    Free PMC article.
Mapping the preclinical to clinical evidence and development trajectory of the oncolytic virus talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC): a systematic review.
Manoj Lalu, Garvin J Leung, +4 authors, Dean A Fergusson.
BMJ Open, 2019 Dec 05; 9(12). PMID: 31796474    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Cytokines in the Treatment of Cancer.
Kevin C Conlon, Milos D Miljkovic, Thomas A Waldmann.
J Interferon Cytokine Res, 2018 Jun 12; 39(1). PMID: 29889594    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus and immunotherapy.
Wenqing Ma, Hongbin He, Hongmei Wang.
BMC Immunol, 2018 Dec 20; 19(1). PMID: 30563466    Free PMC article.
Preexisting Virus-Specific T Lymphocytes-Mediated Enhancement of Adenovirus Infections to Human Blood CD14+ Cells.
Fengling Feng, Jin Zhao, +3 authors, Caijun Sun.
Viruses, 2019 Feb 20; 11(2). PMID: 30781810    Free PMC article.
Potentiating Oncolytic Virus-Induced Immune-Mediated Tumor Cell Killing Using Histone Deacetylase Inhibition.
Victoria A Jennings, Gina B Scott, +13 authors, Fiona Errington-Mais.
Mol Ther, 2019 May 06; 27(6). PMID: 31053413    Free PMC article.
Molecular retargeting of antibodies converts immune defense against oncolytic viruses into cancer immunotherapy.
Julia Niemann, Norman Woller, +10 authors, Florian Kühnel.
Nat Commun, 2019 Jul 22; 10(1). PMID: 31324774    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic Virus Encoding a Master Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin 12 in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Hong-My Nguyen, Kirsten Guz-Montgomery, Dipongkor Saha.
Cells, 2020 Feb 14; 9(2). PMID: 32050597    Free PMC article.
Intratumoral Immunotherapy-Update 2019.
Omid Hamid, Rubina Ismail, Igor Puzanov.
Oncologist, 2020 Mar 13; 25(3). PMID: 32162802    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic viruses: overcoming translational challenges.
Jordi Martinez-Quintanilla, Ivan Seah, Melissa Chua, Khalid Shah.
J Clin Invest, 2019 Mar 05; 129(4). PMID: 30829653    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Encoding IL12 Controls Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis.
Shanawaz M Ghouse, Hong-My Nguyen, +2 authors, Dipongkor Saha.
Front Oncol, 2020 Apr 09; 10. PMID: 32266155    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic Viruses for the Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma.
Megan H Trager, Larisa J Geskin, Yvonne M Saenger.
Curr Treat Options Oncol, 2020 Apr 09; 21(4). PMID: 32266483
Immune Conversion of Tumor Microenvironment by Oncolytic Viruses: The Protoparvovirus H-1PV Case Study.
Antonio Marchini, Laurent Daeffler, +2 authors, Jean Rommelaere.
Front Immunol, 2019 Aug 24; 10. PMID: 31440242    Free PMC article.
Viral Vector-Based Melanoma Gene Therapy.
Altijana Hromic-Jahjefendic, Kenneth Lundstrom.
Biomedicines, 2020 Mar 20; 8(3). PMID: 32187995    Free PMC article.
Injectable Therapies for Regional Melanoma.
Norma E Farrow, Margaret Leddy, Karenia Landa, Georgia M Beasley.
Surg Oncol Clin N Am, 2020 Jun 03; 29(3). PMID: 32482318    Free PMC article.
The future of cancer immunotherapy: microenvironment-targeting combinations.
Yonina R Murciano-Goroff, Allison Betof Warner, Jedd D Wolchok.
Cell Res, 2020 May 30; 30(6). PMID: 32467593    Free PMC article.
Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms Behind Intralesional Immunotherapies for Advanced Melanoma.
Dejan Vidovic, Carman Giacomantonio.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 May 28; 12(5). PMID: 32455916    Free PMC article.
Gold Nanoparticle-Assisted Virus Formation by Means of the Delivery of an Oncolytic Adenovirus Genome.
Luis Sendra, Antonio Miguel, +9 authors, Salvador F Aliño.
Nanomaterials (Basel), 2020 Jun 21; 10(6). PMID: 32560474    Free PMC article.
Correlates of response and outcomes with talimogene laherperpvec.
Alice Y Zhou, Daniel Y Wang, +6 authors, Douglas B Johnson.
J Surg Oncol, 2019 Jul 03; 120(3). PMID: 31264725    Free PMC article.
An update on GM-CSF and its potential role in melanoma management.
Robert O Dillman.
Melanoma Manag, 2020 Sep 15; 7(3). PMID: 32922731    Free PMC article.
Prospect of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Enhancing Anti-Tumor Immunity of Oncolytic Herpes Viruses.
Philipp Schuster, Georg Lindner, +2 authors, Barbara Schmidt.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 May 15; 11(5). PMID: 31083559    Free PMC article.
Colorectal Cancer Immunotherapy: Options and Strategies.
Nor Adzimah Johdi, Nur Fazilah Sukor.
Front Immunol, 2020 Oct 13; 11. PMID: 33042104    Free PMC article.
Efficient Delivery and Replication of Oncolytic Virus for Successful Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer.
Masakazu Hamada, Yoshiaki Yura.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Oct 01; 21(19). PMID: 32992948    Free PMC article.
Clinical Application of Oncolytic Viruses: A Systematic Review.
Mary Cook, Aman Chauhan.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Oct 16; 21(20). PMID: 33053757    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Immunovirotherapy: The Blossoming Branch of Multimodal Therapy.
Laura Menotti, Elisa Avitabile.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Nov 11; 21(21). PMID: 33167582    Free PMC article.
Retargeted and Multi-cytokine-Armed Herpes Virus Is a Potent Cancer Endovaccine for Local and Systemic Anti-tumor Treatment.
Maria De Lucia, Gabriella Cotugno, +13 authors, Anna Morena D'Alise.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2020 Nov 20; 19. PMID: 33209980    Free PMC article.
Advances in the treatment of melanoma.
Katie E Lacy, Sophia N Karagiannis, Frank O Nestle.
Clin Med (Lond), 2012 May 17; 12(2). PMID: 22586796    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus tumor targeting and neutralization escape by engineering viral envelope glycoproteins.
Xiao-Qin Liu, Hong-Yi Xin, +11 authors, Hong-Wu Xin.
Drug Deliv, 2019 Feb 26; 25(1). PMID: 30799657    Free PMC article.
Cancer Vaccines: Toward the Next Breakthrough in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Yuka Igarashi, Tetsuro Sasada.
J Immunol Res, 2020 Dec 08; 2020. PMID: 33282961    Free PMC article.
HSV-1 Oncolytic Viruses from Bench to Bedside: An Overview of Current Clinical Trials.
Marilin S Koch, Sean E Lawler, E Antonio Chiocca.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 02; 12(12). PMID: 33255871    Free PMC article.
Inflammatory Cytokines in Cancer: Comprehensive Understanding and Clinical Progress in Gene Therapy.
Tianxia Lan, Li Chen, Xiawei Wei.
Cells, 2021 Jan 13; 10(1). PMID: 33429846    Free PMC article.
Effect of level of hormone-receptor expression on treatment outcomes of "triple-positive" early-stage breast cancer.
Hikmat Abdel-Razeq, Sara Edaily, +8 authors, Ayat Taqash.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2020 Sep 26; 185(2). PMID: 32974788
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Ke-Tao Jin, Wen-Lin Du, +3 authors, Xiao-Zhou Mou.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Feb 07; 13(4). PMID: 33546172    Free PMC article.
Personalizing Oncolytic Virotherapy for Glioblastoma: In Search of Biomarkers for Response.
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Cancers (Basel), 2021 Feb 10; 13(4). PMID: 33557101    Free PMC article.
Vitiligo and Melanoma-Associated Vitiligo: Understanding Their Similarities and Differences.
Brandon E Cohen, Prashiela Manga, Krysta Lin, Nada Elbuluk.
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Targeting macrophages in cancer immunotherapy.
Zhaojun Duan, Yunping Luo.
Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2021 Mar 27; 6(1). PMID: 33767177    Free PMC article.
Talimogene Laherparepvec (T-VEC): An Intralesional Cancer Immunotherapy for Advanced Melanoma.
Pier Francesco Ferrucci, Laura Pala, Fabio Conforti, Emilia Cocorocchio.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(6). PMID: 33803762    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer: chasing the light at the end of the tunnel.
Thomas P Brouwer, Alexander L Vahrmeijer, Noel F C C de Miranda.
Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2021 Mar 13; 44(2). PMID: 33710604    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic Virotherapy for Cancer: Clinical Experience.
Shyambabu Chaurasiya, Yuman Fong, Susanne G Warner.
Biomedicines, 2021 May 01; 9(4). PMID: 33924556    Free PMC article.
In-transit metastatic cutaneous melanoma: current management and future directions.
Ayushi Patel, Michael J Carr, James Sun, Jonathan S Zager.
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Oncolytic Viruses in Combination Therapeutic Approaches with Epigenetic Modulators: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives.
Annalisa Chianese, Biagio Santella, +5 authors, Gianluigi Franci.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jul 03; 13(11). PMID: 34199429    Free PMC article.
Current status of intralesional agents in treatment of malignant melanoma.
Misam Zawit, Umang Swami, +3 authors, Yousef Zakharia.
Ann Transl Med, 2021 Jul 20; 9(12). PMID: 34277838    Free PMC article.
Efficacy and safety of oncolytic viruses in advanced or metastatic cancer: a network meta-analysis.
Ruiyang Xie, Xingang Bi, +3 authors, Jianzhong Shou.
Virol J, 2021 Aug 02; 18(1). PMID: 34332591    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic HSV: Underpinnings of Tumor Susceptibility.
Chase Kangas, Eric Krawczyk, Bin He.
Viruses, 2021 Aug 11; 13(7). PMID: 34372614    Free PMC article.
Intratumoral talimogene laherparepvec injection with concurrent preoperative radiation in patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma of the trunk and extremities: phase IB/II trial.
Varun Monga, Benjamin J Miller, +19 authors, Mohammed Milhem.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Aug 01; 9(7). PMID: 34330766    Free PMC article.
Strategies to sensitize cancer cells to immunotherapy.
Andrew George, Ilyas Sahin, +3 authors, Wafik S El-Deiry.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2021 May 22; 17(8). PMID: 34019474    Free PMC article.
Novel classes of immunotherapy for breast cancer.
Alberto Hernando-Calvo, David W Cescon, Philippe L Bedard.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2021 Oct 09; 191(1). PMID: 34623509
Oncolytic virus therapy in cancer: A current review.
Jonathan Santos Apolonio, Vinícius Lima de Souza Gonçalves, +6 authors, Fabrício Freire de Melo.
World J Virol, 2021 Oct 12; 10(5). PMID: 34631474    Free PMC article.
False positive FDG uptake in melanoma patients treated with talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC).
Evalyn E A P Mulder, Emma H A Stahlie, +10 authors, Dirk J Grünhagen.
J Surg Oncol, 2021 Jul 09; 124(7). PMID: 34235758    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic Viruses and Cancer, Do You Know the Main Mechanism?
Wesam Kooti, Hadi Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh, +3 authors, Masoumeh Bolandian.
Front Oncol, 2022 Jan 11; 11. PMID: 35004284    Free PMC article.
The Application of CRISPR/Cas9 Technology for Cancer Immunotherapy: Current Status and Problems.
Luyao Wang, Yurong Chen, +2 authors, Xiangpeng Dai.
Front Oncol, 2022 Feb 04; 11. PMID: 35111663    Free PMC article.
In situ vaccination using unique TLR9 ligand K3-SPG induces long-lasting systemic immune response and synergizes with systemic and local immunotherapy.
Hirokazu Okada, Ken Takahashi, +8 authors, Hiroshi Seno.
Sci Rep, 2022 Feb 10; 12(1). PMID: 35136110    Free PMC article.
Viral oncolytic immunotherapy in the war on cancer: Infection control considerations.
Elizabeth V Robilotti, Asmita Kumar, Michael S Glickman, Mini Kamboj.
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Talimogene Laherparepvec: Moving From First-In-Class to Best-In-Class.
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Front Mol Biosci, 2022 Mar 12; 9. PMID: 35274007    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Mediated Neutrophil Polarization and Therapeutic Implications.
Sofia Raftopoulou, Paulina Valadez-Cosmes, +2 authors, Julia Kargl.
Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Mar 26; 23(6). PMID: 35328639    Free PMC article.
Talimogene Laherparepvec (T-VEC) and Other Oncolytic Viruses for the Treatment of Melanoma.
Praveen K Bommareddy, Anand Patel, Saamia Hossain, Howard L Kaufman.
Am J Clin Dermatol, 2016 Dec 19; 18(1). PMID: 27988837    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Induces Immunogenic Cell Death Resulting in Maturation of BDCA-1+ Myeloid Dendritic Cells.
Philipp Kalus, Jolien De Munck, +9 authors, Joeri L Aerts.
Int J Mol Sci, 2022 May 15; 23(9). PMID: 35563257    Free PMC article.
Intratumoral therapies and in-situ vaccination for melanoma.
Laura A Huppert, Adil I Daud.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2022 May 14; 18(3). PMID: 35559766    Free PMC article.