Journal Article
. 2010 Jul;128(1).
doi: 10.1007/s10549-010-1078-6.

Cytokeratin 5 positive cells represent a steroid receptor negative and therapy resistant subpopulation in luminal breast cancers

Peter Kabos 1 James M Haughian  Xinshuo Wang  Wendy W Dye  Christina Finlayson  Anthony Elias  Kathryn B Horwitz  Carol A Sartorius  
  • PMID: 20665103
  •     38 References
  •     56 citations


A majority of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER) positive and have a luminal epithelial phenotype. However, these ER⁺ tumors often contain heterogeneous subpopulations of ER⁻ tumor cells. We previously identified a population of cytokeratin 5 (CK5) positive cells within ER⁺ and progesterone receptor positive (PR⁺) tumors that is both ER⁻PR⁻ and CD44⁺, a marker of breast tumor-initiating cells (TICs). These CK5⁺ cells have properties of TICs in luminal tumor xenografts, and we speculated that they are more resistant to chemo- and anti-ER-targeted therapies than their ER⁺ neighbors. To test this, we used ER⁺PR⁺ T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells. CK5⁺ cells had lower proliferative indices than CK5⁻ cells, were less sensitive to 5-fluorouracil and docetaxel, and cultures became enriched for CK5⁺ cells after treatments. CK5⁺ cells were less prone to drug-induced apoptosis than CK5⁻ cells. In cells treated with 17β-estradiol (E) plus anti-estrogens tamoxifen or fulvestrant, ER protein levels decreased, and CK5 protein levels increased, compared to controls treated with E alone. In ER⁺ tumors from patients treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapies ER gene expression decreased, and CK5 gene expression increased in post compared to pre-treatment tumors. The number of CK5⁺ cells in tumors also increased in post- compared to pre-treatment tumors. We conclude that an ER⁻PR⁻CK5⁺ subpopulation found in many luminal tumors is resistant to standard endocrine and chemotherapies, relative to the majority ER⁺PR⁺CK5⁻ cells. Compounds that effectively target these cells are needed to improve outcome in luminal breast cancers.

Molecular definition of breast tumor heterogeneity.
Michail Shipitsin, Lauren L Campbell, +18 authors, Kornelia Polyak.
Cancer Cell, 2007 Mar 14; 11(3). PMID: 17349583
Highly Cited.
Establishment and characterization of a cell line of human breast carcinoma origin.
I Keydar, L Chen, +5 authors, H J Brenner.
Eur J Cancer, 1979 May 01; 15(5). PMID: 228940
Highly Cited.
Basal-like breast cancer defined by five biomarkers has superior prognostic value than triple-negative phenotype.
Maggie C U Cheang, David Voduc, +5 authors, Torsten O Nielsen.
Clin Cancer Res, 2008 Mar 05; 14(5). PMID: 18316557
Highly Cited.
Sequential estrogen receptor determinations from primary breast cancer and at relapse: prognostic and therapeutic relevance. The International Breast Cancer Study Group (formerly Ludwig Group).
V Spataro, K Price, +7 authors, R D Gelber.
Ann Oncol, 1992 Nov 01; 3(9). PMID: 1450062
Loss of estrogen receptor in recurrent breast cancer is associated with poor response to endocrine therapy.
T Kuukasjärvi, J Kononen, +2 authors, J Isola.
J Clin Oncol, 1996 Sep 01; 14(9). PMID: 8823339
Highly Cited.
Dissociation between steroid receptor expression and cell proliferation in the human breast.
R B Clarke, A Howell, C S Potten, E Anderson.
Cancer Res, 1997 Nov 26; 57(22). PMID: 9371488
Highly Cited.
Biological and prognostic significance of stratified epithelial cytokeratins in infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas.
K Malzahn, M Mitze, M Thoenes, R Moll.
Virchows Arch, 1998 Sep 16; 433(2). PMID: 9737789
Prevalence of CD44+/CD24-/low cells in breast cancer may not be associated with clinical outcome but may favor distant metastasis.
Benny K Abraham, Peter Fritz, +3 authors, Hiltrud Brauch.
Clin Cancer Res, 2005 Feb 15; 11(3). PMID: 15709183
Highly Cited.
Estrogen-receptor biology: continuing progress and therapeutic implications.
C Kent Osborne, Rachel Schiff.
J Clin Oncol, 2005 Mar 10; 23(8). PMID: 15755967
Tumour stem cells and drug resistance.
Michael Dean, Tito Fojo, Susan Bates.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2005 Apr 02; 5(4). PMID: 15803154
Highly Cited. Review.
Biology of progesterone receptor loss in breast cancer and its implications for endocrine therapy.
Xiaojiang Cui, Rachel Schiff, +2 authors, Adrian V Lee.
J Clin Oncol, 2005 Oct 20; 23(30). PMID: 16234531
Highly Cited. Review.
Progestins initiate a luminal to myoepithelial switch in estrogen-dependent human breast tumors without altering growth.
Carol A Sartorius, Djuana M E Harvell, Tianjie Shen, Kathryn B Horwitz.
Cancer Res, 2005 Nov 04; 65(21). PMID: 16266999
Gene expression and benefit of chemotherapy in women with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Soonmyung Paik, Gong Tang, +11 authors, Norman Wolmark.
J Clin Oncol, 2006 May 25; 24(23). PMID: 16720680
Highly Cited.
The response of CD24(-/low)/CD44+ breast cancer-initiating cells to radiation.
Tiffany M Phillips, William H McBride, Frank Pajonk.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2006 Dec 21; 98(24). PMID: 17179479
Highly Cited.
The prognostic role of a gene signature from tumorigenic breast-cancer cells.
Rui Liu, Xinhao Wang, +7 authors, Michael F Clarke.
N Engl J Med, 2007 Jan 19; 356(3). PMID: 17229949
Highly Cited.
Rare steroid receptor-negative basal-like tumorigenic cells in luminal subtype human breast cancer xenografts.
Kathryn B Horwitz, Wendy W Dye, +2 authors, Carol A Sartorius.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2008 Apr 09; 105(15). PMID: 18391223    Free PMC article.
Intrinsic resistance of tumorigenic breast cancer cells to chemotherapy.
Xiaoxian Li, Michael T Lewis, +10 authors, Jenny C Chang.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2008 May 01; 100(9). PMID: 18445819
Highly Cited.
Human breast cancer cell lines contain stem-like cells that self-renew, give rise to phenotypically diverse progeny and survive chemotherapy.
Christine M Fillmore, Charlotte Kuperwasser.
Breast Cancer Res, 2008 Mar 28; 10(2). PMID: 18366788    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The CD44+/CD24- phenotype is enriched in basal-like breast tumors.
Gabriella Honeth, Pär-Ola Bendahl, +7 authors, Cecilia Hegardt.
Breast Cancer Res, 2008 Jun 19; 10(3). PMID: 18559090    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Comparison of HER-2 and hormone receptor expression in primary breast cancers and asynchronous paired metastases: impact on patient management.
Valentina Guarneri, Simona Giovannelli, +8 authors, PierFranco Conte.
Oncologist, 2008 Jul 25; 13(8). PMID: 18650259
Development of resistance to targeted therapies transforms the clinically associated molecular profile subtype of breast tumor xenografts.
Chad J Creighton, Suleiman Massarweh, +6 authors, Rachel Schiff.
Cancer Res, 2008 Sep 17; 68(18). PMID: 18794137    Free PMC article.
ALDH1 is a marker of normal and malignant human mammary stem cells and a predictor of poor clinical outcome.
Christophe Ginestier, Min Hee Hur, +12 authors, Gabriela Dontu.
Cell Stem Cell, 2008 Mar 29; 1(5). PMID: 18371393    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Molecular signatures of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: characteristics of response or intrinsic resistance.
Djuana M E Harvell, Nicole S Spoelstra, +10 authors, Jennifer K Richer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2008 Mar 11; 112(3). PMID: 18327671
Breast cancer cell lines contain functional cancer stem cells with metastatic capacity and a distinct molecular signature.
Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret, Christophe Ginestier, +15 authors, Max S Wicha.
Cancer Res, 2009 Feb 05; 69(4). PMID: 19190339    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Breast cancer subtypes and response to docetaxel in node-positive breast cancer: use of an immunohistochemical definition in the BCIRG 001 trial.
Judith Hugh, John Hanson, +11 authors, Charles Vogel.
J Clin Oncol, 2009 Feb 11; 27(8). PMID: 19204205    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Resistance to endocrine therapy: are breast cancer stem cells the culprits?
Ciara S O'Brien, Sacha J Howell, Gillian Farnie, Robert B Clarke.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 2009 Mar 03; 14(1). PMID: 19252972
Association of reactive oxygen species levels and radioresistance in cancer stem cells.
Maximilian Diehn, Robert W Cho, +20 authors, Michael F Clarke.
Nature, 2009 Feb 06; 458(7239). PMID: 19194462    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Aberrant luminal progenitors as the candidate target population for basal tumor development in BRCA1 mutation carriers.
Elgene Lim, François Vaillant, +18 authors, Geoffrey J Lindeman.
Nat Med, 2009 Aug 04; 15(8). PMID: 19648928
Highly Cited.
Identification of selective inhibitors of cancer stem cells by high-throughput screening.
Piyush B Gupta, Tamer T Onder, +4 authors, Eric S Lander.
Cell, 2009 Aug 18; 138(4). PMID: 19682730    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Residual breast cancers after conventional therapy display mesenchymal as well as tumor-initiating features.
Chad J Creighton, Xiaoxian Li, +20 authors, Jenny C Chang.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2009 Aug 12; 106(33). PMID: 19666588    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Prognostic impact of discordance between triple-receptor measurements in primary and recurrent breast cancer.
C Liedtke, K Broglio, +11 authors, A M Gonzalez-Angulo.
Ann Oncol, 2009 Jul 15; 20(12). PMID: 19596702    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Molecular portraits of human breast tumours.
C M Perou, T Sørlie, +15 authors, D Botstein.
Nature, 2000 Aug 30; 406(6797). PMID: 10963602
Highly Cited.
Common adult stem cells in the human breast give rise to glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages: a new cell biological concept.
Werner Böcker, Roland Moll, +11 authors, Igor B Buchwallow.
Lab Invest, 2002 Jun 18; 82(6). PMID: 12065684
Expression of cytokeratins 17 and 5 identifies a group of breast carcinomas with poor clinical outcome.
Matt van de Rijn, Charles M Perou, +13 authors, Pat Brown.
Am J Pathol, 2002 Dec 06; 161(6). PMID: 12466114    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells.
Muhammad Al-Hajj, Max S Wicha, +2 authors, Michael F Clarke.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2003 Mar 12; 100(7). PMID: 12629218    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.
Werner Boecker, Horst Buerger.
Cell Prolif, 2003 Oct 03; 36 Suppl 1. PMID: 14521517    Free PMC article.
Expression of luminal and basal cytokeratins in human breast carcinoma.
Dalia M Abd El-Rehim, Sarah E Pinder, +5 authors, Ian O Ellis.
J Pathol, 2004 May 14; 203(2). PMID: 15141381
Highly Cited.
Tamoxifen resistance in breast tumors is driven by growth factor receptor signaling with repression of classic estrogen receptor genomic function.
Suleiman Massarweh, C Kent Osborne, +6 authors, Rachel Schiff.
Cancer Res, 2008 Feb 05; 68(3). PMID: 18245484
Highly Cited.
Characterization of the expression of cytokeratins 5, 8, and 14 in mouse thymic epithelial cells during thymus regeneration following acute thymic involution.
Eun Na Lee, Jin Kyeong Park, +4 authors, Sik Yoon.
Anat Cell Biol, 2011 Apr 27; 44(1). PMID: 21519545    Free PMC article.
The induction of KLF5 transcription factor by progesterone contributes to progesterone-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and dedifferentiation.
Rong Liu, Zhongmei Zhou, Dong Zhao, Ceshi Chen.
Mol Endocrinol, 2011 May 14; 25(7). PMID: 21566082    Free PMC article.
Estrogen and progesterone in normal mammary gland development and in cancer.
John Stingl.
Horm Cancer, 2011 Jul 16; 2(2). PMID: 21761331
Progesterone regulation of stem and progenitor cells in normal and malignant breast.
Sunshine Daddario Axlund, Carol A Sartorius.
Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2011 Sep 29; 357(1-2). PMID: 21945473    Free PMC article.
Maintenance of hormone responsiveness in luminal breast cancers by suppression of Notch.
James M Haughian, Mauricio P Pinto, +8 authors, Kathryn B Horwitz.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2011 Oct 05; 109(8). PMID: 21969591    Free PMC article.
The biology of progesterone receptor in the normal mammary gland and in breast cancer.
Alison E Obr, Dean P Edwards.
Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2011 Dec 24; 357(1-2). PMID: 22193050    Free PMC article.
Tumor initiating but differentiated luminal-like breast cancer cells are highly invasive in the absence of basal-like activity.
Jiyoung Kim, René Villadsen, +12 authors, Ole William Petersen.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012 Mar 29; 109(16). PMID: 22454501    Free PMC article.
Acquired resistance to peloruside A and laulimalide is associated with downregulation of vimentin in human ovarian carcinoma cells.
Arun Kanakkanthara, Pisana Rawson, Peter T Northcote, John H Miller.
Pharm Res, 2012 May 16; 29(11). PMID: 22584948
An immunohistochemical method to study breast cancer cell subpopulations and their growth regulation by hormones in three-dimensional cultures.
Mauricio P Pinto, Britta M Jacobsen, Kathryn B Horwitz.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2011 Jan 01; 2. PMID: 22649363    Free PMC article.
Progestin suppression of miR-29 potentiates dedifferentiation of breast cancer cells via KLF4.
D M Cittelly, J Finlay-Schultz, +6 authors, J K Richer.
Oncogene, 2012 Jul 04; 32(20). PMID: 22751119    Free PMC article.
A high-content assay to identify small-molecule modulators of a cancer stem cell population in luminal breast cancer.
Byong Hoon Yoo, Sunshine Daddario Axlund, +4 authors, Daniel V LaBarbera.
J Biomol Screen, 2012 Jul 04; 17(9). PMID: 22751729    Free PMC article.
Patient-derived luminal breast cancer xenografts retain hormone receptor heterogeneity and help define unique estrogen-dependent gene signatures.
Peter Kabos, Jessica Finlay-Schultz, +8 authors, Carol A Sartorius.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2012 Jul 24; 135(2). PMID: 22821401    Free PMC article.
The role of cancer stem cells in breast cancer initiation and progression: potential cancer stem cell-directed therapies.
Panagiota Economopoulou, Virginia G Kaklamani, Kalliopi Siziopikou.
Oncologist, 2012 Sep 04; 17(11). PMID: 22941971    Free PMC article.
Targeting CXCR1/2 significantly reduces breast cancer stem cell activity and increases the efficacy of inhibiting HER2 via HER2-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
Jagdeep K Singh, Gillian Farnie, +5 authors, Robert B Clarke.
Clin Cancer Res, 2012 Nov 15; 19(3). PMID: 23149820    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Progesterone-inducible cytokeratin 5-positive cells in luminal breast cancer exhibit progenitor properties.
Sunshine Daddario Axlund, Byong Hoon Yoo, +4 authors, Carol A Sartorius.
Horm Cancer, 2012 Nov 28; 4(1). PMID: 23184698    Free PMC article.
Estrogen switches pure mucinous breast cancer to invasive lobular carcinoma with mucinous features.
Purevsuren Jambal, Melanie M Badtke, +6 authors, Britta M Jacobsen.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2012 Dec 19; 137(2). PMID: 23247610    Free PMC article.
Emerging targeted agents in metastatic breast cancer.
Dimitrios Zardavas, José Baselga, Martine Piccart.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2013 Mar 06; 10(4). PMID: 23459626
Highly Cited. Review.
Prolactin suppresses a progestin-induced CK5-positive cell population in luminal breast cancer through inhibition of progestin-driven BCL6 expression.
T Sato, T H Tran, +12 authors, H Rui.
Oncogene, 2013 May 28; 33(17). PMID: 23708665    Free PMC article.
Endocrine disrupting activities of the flavonoid nutraceuticals luteolin and quercetin.
Steven K Nordeen, Betty J Bona, +2 authors, Twila A Jackson.
Horm Cancer, 2013 Jul 10; 4(5). PMID: 23836117    Free PMC article.
Prolactin-Stat5 signaling in breast cancer is potently disrupted by acidosis within the tumor microenvironment.
Ning Yang, Chengbao Liu, +12 authors, Hallgeir Rui.
Breast Cancer Res, 2013 Sep 06; 15(5). PMID: 24004716    Free PMC article.
Recent advances reveal IL-8 signaling as a potential key to targeting breast cancer stem cells.
Jagdeep K Singh, Bruno M Simões, +2 authors, Robert B Clarke.
Breast Cancer Res, 2013 Sep 18; 15(4). PMID: 24041156    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Lack of correlation of stem cell markers in breast cancer stem cells.
Y Liu, R Nenutil, +4 authors, P J Coates.
Br J Cancer, 2014 Mar 01; 110(8). PMID: 24577057    Free PMC article.
Live multicellular tumor spheroid models for high-content imaging and screening in cancer drug discovery.
Brian G Reid, Taleen Jerjian, +5 authors, Daniel V Labarbera.
Curr Chem Genom Transl Med, 2014 Mar 07; 8(Suppl 1). PMID: 24596682    Free PMC article.
Evidence for the existence of triple-negative variants in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell population.
Euphemia Leung, Ji Eun Kim, +2 authors, Bruce C Baguley.
Biomed Res Int, 2014 Apr 12; 2014. PMID: 24724101    Free PMC article.
Loss of primary cilia occurs early in breast cancer development.
Ina Menzl, Lauren Lebeau, +5 authors, Kimberly M McDermott.
Cilia, 2014 Jul 06; 3. PMID: 24987519    Free PMC article.
Modeling luminal breast cancer heterogeneity: combination therapy to suppress a hormone receptor-negative, cytokeratin 5-positive subpopulation in luminal disease.
Aaron J Knox, Allison L Scaling, +4 authors, Kathryn B Horwitz.
Breast Cancer Res, 2014 Aug 15; 16(4). PMID: 25116921    Free PMC article.
Progesterone downregulation of miR-141 contributes to expansion of stem-like breast cancer cells through maintenance of progesterone receptor and Stat5a.
J Finlay-Schultz, D M Cittelly, +5 authors, C A Sartorius.
Oncogene, 2014 Sep 23; 34(28). PMID: 25241899    Free PMC article.
Luminal breast cancer metastases and tumor arousal from dormancy are promoted by direct actions of estradiol and progesterone on the malignant cells.
Ndiya Ogba, Nicole G Manning, +7 authors, Kathryn B Horwitz.
Breast Cancer Res, 2014 Dec 06; 16(6). PMID: 25475897    Free PMC article.
A flexible reporter system for direct observation and isolation of cancer stem cells.
Binwu Tang, Asaf Raviv, +11 authors, Lalage M Wakefield.
Stem Cell Reports, 2014 Dec 17; 4(1). PMID: 25497455    Free PMC article.
High level PHGDH expression in breast is predominantly associated with keratin 5-positive cell lineage independently of malignancy.
Irina Gromova, Pavel Gromov, +5 authors, José M A Moreira.
Mol Oncol, 2015 Jun 01; 9(8). PMID: 26026368    Free PMC article.
Steroid induction of therapy-resistant cytokeratin-5-positive cells in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer through a BCL6-dependent mechanism.
C R Goodman, T Sato, +10 authors, H Rui.
Oncogene, 2015 Jun 23; 35(11). PMID: 26096934    Free PMC article.
Impact of progesterone on stem/progenitor cells in the human breast.
Heidi N Hilton, Christine L Clarke.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 2015 Aug 09; 20(1-2). PMID: 26254191
Steroid hormones, steroid receptors, and breast cancer stem cells.
Jessica Finlay-Schultz, Carol A Sartorius.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 2015 Aug 13; 20(1-2). PMID: 26265122    Free PMC article.
MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells Form Differentiated Microtissues in Scaffold-Free Hydrogels.
Marguerite M Vantangoli, Samantha J Madnick, +2 authors, Kim Boekelheide.
PLoS One, 2015 Aug 13; 10(8). PMID: 26267486    Free PMC article.
The network of pluripotency, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and prognosis of breast cancer.
Ioannis A Voutsadakis.
Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press), 2015 Sep 18; 7. PMID: 26379447    Free PMC article.
Cytokeratin 5-Positive Cells Represent a Therapy Resistant subpopulation in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
Bradley R Corr, Jessica Finlay-Schultz, +5 authors, Carol A Sartorius.
Int J Gynecol Cancer, 2015 Oct 27; 25(9). PMID: 26495758    Free PMC article.
High-throughput imaging: Focusing in on drug discovery in 3D.
Linfeng Li, Qiong Zhou, +2 authors, Daniel V LaBarbera.
Methods, 2015 Nov 27; 96. PMID: 26608110    Free PMC article.
Heterogeneity of luminal breast cancer characterised by immunohistochemical expression of basal markers.
Hyuna Sung, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, +33 authors, Xiaohong R Yang.
Br J Cancer, 2015 Dec 19; 114(3). PMID: 26679376    Free PMC article.
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Regulation of EMT Factors by Steroid Nuclear Receptors in Breast Cancer: A Review and in Silico Investigation.
Ioannis A Voutsadakis.
J Clin Med, 2016 Jan 23; 5(1). PMID: 26797644    Free PMC article.
Characterization of patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) as models for estrogen receptor positive (ER+HER2- and ER+HER2+) breast cancers.
Noriko Kanaya, George Somlo, +17 authors, Shiuan Chen.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2016 May 08; 170. PMID: 27154416    Free PMC article.
The Obesity-Breast Cancer Conundrum: An Analysis of the Issues.
Shawna B Matthews, Henry J Thompson.
Int J Mol Sci, 2016 Jun 25; 17(6). PMID: 27338371    Free PMC article.
Keratin 5 overexpression is associated with serous ovarian cancer recurrence and chemotherapy resistance.
Carmela Ricciardelli, Noor A Lokman, +5 authors, Martin K Oehler.
Oncotarget, 2017 Feb 02; 8(11). PMID: 28147318    Free PMC article.
Androgen Receptor Supports an Anchorage-Independent, Cancer Stem Cell-like Population in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Valerie N Barton, Jessica L Christenson, +8 authors, Jennifer K Richer.
Cancer Res, 2017 May 18; 77(13). PMID: 28512248    Free PMC article.
Cross talk between progesterone receptors and retinoic acid receptors in regulation of cytokeratin 5-positive breast cancer cells.
L M Fettig, O McGinn, +3 authors, C A Sartorius.
Oncogene, 2017 Jul 12; 36(44). PMID: 28692043    Free PMC article.
Bromodomain inhibition shows antitumoral activity in mice and human luminal breast cancer.
Montserrat Pérez-Salvia, Laia Simó-Riudalbas, +8 authors, Manel Esteller.
Oncotarget, 2017 Sep 09; 8(31). PMID: 28881673    Free PMC article.
The R-Enantiomer of Ketorolac Delays Mammary Tumor Development in Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus-Polyoma Middle T Antigen (MMTV-PyMT) Mice.
Amanda S Peretti, Dayna Dominguez, +6 authors, Laurie G Hudson.
Am J Pathol, 2017 Nov 25; 188(2). PMID: 29169987    Free PMC article.
Combined drug therapeutic strategies for the effective treatment of Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Naveen K R Chalakur-Ramireddy, Suresh B Pakala.
Biosci Rep, 2018 Jan 05; 38(1). PMID: 29298879    Free PMC article.
Antiestrogen Therapy Increases Plasticity and Cancer Stemness of Prolactin-Induced ERα+ Mammary Carcinomas.
Michael P Shea, Kathleen A O'Leary, +5 authors, Linda A Schuler.
Cancer Res, 2018 Jan 25; 78(7). PMID: 29363543    Free PMC article.
The Role of Steroid Hormones in Breast and Effects on Cancer Stem Cells.
Denis G Alferez, Bruno M Simões, Sacha J Howell, Robert B Clarke.
Curr Stem Cell Rep, 2018 Mar 31; 4(1). PMID: 29600163    Free PMC article.
Cytokeratin 5 alters β-catenin dynamics in breast cancer cells.
Olivia McGinn, Ashley V Ward, +6 authors, Carol A Sartorius.
Oncogene, 2020 Jan 29; 39(12). PMID: 31988452    Free PMC article.
Modifications to glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors alter cell fate in breast cancer.
Katherine A Leehy, Tarah M Regan Anderson, +2 authors, Julie H Ostrander.
J Mol Endocrinol, 2016 Feb 03; 56(3). PMID: 26831511    Free PMC article.
Protection and immune modulation of activated human vaginal epithelial cells by Aurea helianthus extract.
Yoonjin Park, Kyunghwa Lee, +4 authors, SeungGwan Lee.
Sci Rep, 2020 Jun 10; 10(1). PMID: 32513981    Free PMC article.
Alterations in Progesterone Receptor Isoform Balance in Normal and Neoplastic Breast Cells Modulates the Stem Cell Population.
María Sol Recouvreux, María Inés Diaz Bessone, +5 authors, Marina Simian.
Cells, 2020 Sep 17; 9(9). PMID: 32932770    Free PMC article.
Breast cancers, mammary stem cells, and cancer stem cells, characteristics, and hypotheses.
Sebastien Taurin, Haifa Alkhalifa.
Neoplasia, 2020 Nov 04; 22(12). PMID: 33142233    Free PMC article.
HLA-J, a Non-Pseudogene as a New Prognostic Marker for Therapy Response and Survival in Breast Cancer.
Franziska M Würfel, Ralph M Wirtz, +8 authors, Claudio Zamagni.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd, 2020 Nov 12; 80(11). PMID: 33173240    Free PMC article.
Breast Cancer Organoids Model Patient-Specific Response to Drug Treatment.
Elena Campaner, Alessandro Zannini, +8 authors, Giannino Del Sal.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 30; 12(12). PMID: 33371412    Free PMC article.