Journal Article
. 2011 Nov;3(108).
doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3002564.

Systematic analysis of breast cancer morphology uncovers stromal features associated with survival

Andrew H Beck 1 Ankur R Sangoi  Samuel Leung  Robert J Marinelli  Torsten O Nielsen  Marc J van de Vijver  Robert B West  Matt van de Rijn  Daphne Koller  
  • PMID: 22072638
  •     222 citations


The morphological interpretation of histologic sections forms the basis of diagnosis and prognostication for cancer. In the diagnosis of carcinomas, pathologists perform a semiquantitative analysis of a small set of morphological features to determine the cancer's histologic grade. Physicians use histologic grade to inform their assessment of a carcinoma's aggressiveness and a patient's prognosis. Nevertheless, the determination of grade in breast cancer examines only a small set of morphological features of breast cancer epithelial cells, which has been largely unchanged since the 1920s. A comprehensive analysis of automatically quantitated morphological features could identify characteristics of prognostic relevance and provide an accurate and reproducible means for assessing prognosis from microscopic image data. We developed the C-Path (Computational Pathologist) system to measure a rich quantitative feature set from the breast cancer epithelium and stroma (6642 features), including both standard morphometric descriptors of image objects and higher-level contextual, relational, and global image features. These measurements were used to construct a prognostic model. We applied the C-Path system to microscopic images from two independent cohorts of breast cancer patients [from the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) cohort, n = 248, and the Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) cohort, n = 328]. The prognostic model score generated by our system was strongly associated with overall survival in both the NKI and the VGH cohorts (both log-rank P ≤ 0.001). This association was independent of clinical, pathological, and molecular factors. Three stromal features were significantly associated with survival, and this association was stronger than the association of survival with epithelial characteristics in the model. These findings implicate stromal morphologic structure as a previously unrecognized prognostic determinant for breast cancer.

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Nuclear shape and orientation features from H&E images predict survival in early-stage estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers.
Cheng Lu, David Romo-Bucheli, +5 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Lab Invest, 2018 Jul 01; 98(11). PMID: 29959421    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive analysis of lung cancer pathology images to discover tumor shape and boundary features that predict survival outcome.
Shidan Wang, Alyssa Chen, +5 authors, Guanghua Xiao.
Sci Rep, 2018 Jul 12; 8(1). PMID: 29991684    Free PMC article.
Scoring the tumor-stroma ratio in colon cancer: procedure and recommendations.
G W van Pelt, S Kjær-Frifeldt, +5 authors, W E Mesker.
Virchows Arch, 2018 Jul 22; 473(4). PMID: 30030621    Free PMC article.
Classification of Tumor Epithelium and Stroma by Exploiting Image Features Learned by Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.
Yue Du, Roy Zhang, +6 authors, Yuchen Qiu.
Ann Biomed Eng, 2018 Jul 28; 46(12). PMID: 30051247    Free PMC article.
Automated Gleason grading of prostate cancer tissue microarrays via deep learning.
Eirini Arvaniti, Kim S Fricker, +7 authors, Manfred Claassen.
Sci Rep, 2018 Aug 15; 8(1). PMID: 30104757    Free PMC article.
Image analysis with deep learning to predict breast cancer grade, ER status, histologic subtype, and intrinsic subtype.
Heather D Couture, Lindsay A Williams, +6 authors, Marc Niethammer.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 Sep 06; 4. PMID: 30182055    Free PMC article.
SparkGIS: Efficient Comparison and Evaluation of Algorithm Results in Tissue Image Analysis Studies.
Furqan Baig, Mudit Mehrotra, +3 authors, Tahsin Kurc.
Biomed Data Manag Graph Online Querying (2015), 2016 Jan 01; 9579. PMID: 30198025    Free PMC article.
Novel digital signatures of tissue phenotypes for predicting distant metastasis in colorectal cancer.
Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, David Snead, +5 authors, Nasir Rajpoot.
Sci Rep, 2018 Sep 14; 8(1). PMID: 30209315    Free PMC article.
Correlating nuclear morphometric patterns with estrogen receptor status in breast cancer pathologic specimens.
Rishi R Rawat, Daniel Ruderman, +2 authors, David B Agus.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 Sep 14; 4. PMID: 30211313    Free PMC article.
Histopathological Image QTL Discovery of Immune Infiltration Variants.
Joseph D Barry, Maud Fagny, +3 authors, John Quackenbush.
iScience, 2018 Sep 22; 5. PMID: 30240647    Free PMC article.
Machine Learning Methods for Histopathological Image Analysis.
Daisuke Komura, Shumpei Ishikawa.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J, 2018 Oct 03; 16. PMID: 30275936    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
PHLI-seq: constructing and visualizing cancer genomic maps in 3D by phenotype-based high-throughput laser-aided isolation and sequencing.
Sungsik Kim, Amos Chungwon Lee, +11 authors, Sunghoon Kwon.
Genome Biol, 2018 Oct 10; 19(1). PMID: 30296938    Free PMC article.
Nanoscale Imaging of Kidney Glomeruli Using Expansion Pathology.
Octavian Bucur, Yongxin Zhao.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2018 Dec 07; 5. PMID: 30519560    Free PMC article.
Computational pathology definitions, best practices, and recommendations for regulatory guidance: a white paper from the Digital Pathology Association.
Esther Abels, Liron Pantanowitz, +9 authors, Cleopatra Kozlowski.
J Pathol, 2019 Jul 30; 249(3). PMID: 31355445    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence in digital pathology - new tools for diagnosis and precision oncology.
Kaustav Bera, Kurt A Schalper, +2 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2019 Aug 11; 16(11). PMID: 31399699    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Automated clear cell renal carcinoma grade classification with prognostic significance.
Katherine Tian, Christopher A Rubadue, +4 authors, Yujing J Heng.
PLoS One, 2019 Oct 04; 14(10). PMID: 31581201    Free PMC article.
Tumor stromal type is associated with stromal PD-L1 expression and predicts outcomes in breast cancer.
Qinglian Zhai, Jiawen Fan, +4 authors, Shusen Wang.
PLoS One, 2019 Oct 05; 14(10). PMID: 31584964    Free PMC article.
Quantitative Histopathology of Stained Tissues using Color Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (cSLIM).
Hassaan Majeed, Adib Keikhosravi, +6 authors, Gabriel Popescu.
Sci Rep, 2019 Oct 13; 9(1). PMID: 31604963    Free PMC article.
Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, Jimmy Lin, +6 authors, Andrew H Beck.
Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging, 2017 Apr 01; 2017. PMID: 31636811    Free PMC article.
A Toolbox for Functional Analysis and the Systematic Identification of Diagnostic and Prognostic Gene Expression Signatures Combining Meta-Analysis and Machine Learning.
Johannes Vey, Lorenz A. Kapsner, +3 authors, Meik Kunz.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Oct 24; 11(10). PMID: 31640282    Free PMC article.
Size and Shape Filtering of Malignant Cell Clusters within Breast Tumors Identifies Scattered Individual Epithelial Cells as the Most Valuable Histomorphological Clue in the Prognosis of Distant Metastasis Risk.
Velicko Vranes, Nemanja Rajković, +6 authors, Nebojša T Milošević.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Oct 28; 11(10). PMID: 31652628    Free PMC article.
Key challenges for delivering clinical impact with artificial intelligence.
Christopher J Kelly, Alan Karthikesalingam, +2 authors, Dominic King.
BMC Med, 2019 Oct 31; 17(1). PMID: 31665002    Free PMC article.
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Digital Assessment of Stained Breast Tissue Images for Comprehensive Tumor and Microenvironment Analysis.
Shachi Mittal, Catalin Stoean, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Rohit Bhargava.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol, 2019 Nov 05; 7. PMID: 31681737    Free PMC article.
Application of convolutional neural networks to breast biopsies to delineate tissue correlates of mammographic breast density.
Maeve Mullooly, Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, +20 authors, Gretchen L Gierach.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2019 Nov 23; 5. PMID: 31754628    Free PMC article.
Automated detection and quantification of breast cancer brain metastases in an animal model using democratized machine learning tools.
Dina Sikpa, Jérémie P Fouquet, +3 authors, Martin Lepage.
Sci Rep, 2019 Nov 24; 9(1). PMID: 31758004    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning for Whole Slide Image Analysis: An Overview.
Neofytos Dimitriou, Ognjen Arandjelović, Peter D Caie.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2019 Dec 12; 6. PMID: 31824952    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Lung Cancer Pathology Image Analysis.
Shidan Wang, Donghan M Yang, +7 authors, Guanghua Xiao.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Oct 31; 11(11). PMID: 31661863    Free PMC article.
ConvPath: A software tool for lung adenocarcinoma digital pathological image analysis aided by a convolutional neural network.
Shidan Wang, Tao Wang, +15 authors, Guanghua Xiao.
EBioMedicine, 2019 Nov 27; 50. PMID: 31767541    Free PMC article.
Next generation diagnostic pathology: use of digital pathology and artificial intelligence tools to augment a pathological diagnosis.
Anil V Parwani.
Diagn Pathol, 2019 Dec 29; 14(1). PMID: 31881972    Free PMC article.
A multiscale Mueller polarimetry module for a stereo zoom microscope.
Adam Gribble, Michael A Pinkert, +6 authors, Alex Vitkin.
Biomed Eng Lett, 2019 Aug 29; 9(3). PMID: 31456893    Free PMC article.
Multi-objective Parameter Auto-tuning for Tissue Image Segmentation Workflows.
Luis F R Taveira, Tahsin Kurc, +4 authors, George Teodoro.
J Digit Imaging, 2018 Nov 08; 32(3). PMID: 30402669    Free PMC article.
All-digital histopathology by infrared-optical hybrid microscopy.
Martin Schnell, Shachi Mittal, +6 authors, Rohit Bhargava.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2020 Feb 06; 117(7). PMID: 32015103    Free PMC article.
Informatics Approaches to Address New Challenges in the Classification of Lymphoid Malignancies.
Jacob Jordan, Jordan S Goldstein, +3 authors, Lee A D Cooper.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2019 Jan 15; 2. PMID: 30637363    Free PMC article.
The use of digital pathology and image analysis in clinical trials.
Robert Pell, Karin Oien, +6 authors, UK National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cellular-Molecular Pathology (CM-Path) quality assurance working group.
J Pathol Clin Res, 2019 Feb 16; 5(2). PMID: 30767396    Free PMC article.
A multimodal approach to cardiovascular risk stratification in patients with type 2 diabetes incorporating retinal, genomic and clinical features.
Ahmed E Fetit, Alexander S Doney, +7 authors, Emanuele Trucco.
Sci Rep, 2019 Mar 07; 9(1). PMID: 30837638    Free PMC article.
Applications of machine learning in drug discovery and development.
Jessica Vamathevan, Dominic Clark, +8 authors, Shanrong Zhao.
Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2019 Apr 13; 18(6). PMID: 30976107    Free PMC article.
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Assessment of Machine Learning Detection of Environmental Enteropathy and Celiac Disease in Children.
Sana Syed, Mohammad Al-Boni, +8 authors, Donald E Brown.
JAMA Netw Open, 2019 Jun 15; 2(6). PMID: 31199451    Free PMC article.
Correlation Analysis of Histopathology and Proteogenomics Data for Breast Cancer.
Xiaohui Zhan, Jun Cheng, +7 authors, Kun Huang.
Mol Cell Proteomics, 2019 Jul 10; 18(8 suppl 1). PMID: 31285282    Free PMC article.
The Current Research Landscape of the Application of Artificial Intelligence in Managing Cerebrovascular and Heart Diseases: A Bibliometric and Content Analysis.
Bach Xuan Tran, Carl A Latkin, +6 authors, Roger C M Ho.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2019 Aug 01; 16(15). PMID: 31362340    Free PMC article.
Computational analysis of morphological and molecular features in gastric cancer tissues.
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Cancer Med, 2020 Feb 06; 9(6). PMID: 32012497    Free PMC article.
Whole slide images reflect DNA methylation patterns of human tumors.
Hong Zheng, Alexandre Momeni, +2 authors, Olivier Gevaert.
NPJ Genom Med, 2020 Mar 21; 5. PMID: 32194984    Free PMC article.
A deep learning-based framework for lung cancer survival analysis with biomarker interpretation.
Lei Cui, Hansheng Li, +5 authors, Jun Feng.
BMC Bioinformatics, 2020 Mar 19; 21(1). PMID: 32183709    Free PMC article.
A disruptive Big data approach to leverage the efficiency in management and clinical decision support in a Hospital.
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Artificial intelligence in sleep medicine: background and implications for clinicians.
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J Clin Sleep Med, 2020 Feb 18; 16(4). PMID: 32065113    Free PMC article.
Computationally Derived Image Signature of Stromal Morphology Is Prognostic of Prostate Cancer Recurrence Following Prostatectomy in African American Patients.
Hersh K Bhargava, Patrick Leo, +11 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Clin Cancer Res, 2020 Mar 07; 26(8). PMID: 32139401    Free PMC article.
Deep learning assessment of breast terminal duct lobular unit involution: Towards automated prediction of breast cancer risk.
Suzanne C Wetstein, Allison M Onken, +13 authors, Mitko Veta.
PLoS One, 2020 Apr 16; 15(4). PMID: 32294107    Free PMC article.
A high-throughput digital script for multiplexed immunofluorescent analysis and quantification of sarcolemmal and sarcomeric proteins in muscular dystrophies.
Dominic Scaglioni, Matthew Ellis, +7 authors, Rahul Phadke.
Acta Neuropathol Commun, 2020 Apr 19; 8(1). PMID: 32303261    Free PMC article.
Emerging technologies for diagnostic pathology.
Octavian Bucur.
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Report on computational assessment of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group.
Mohamed Amgad, Elisabeth Specht Stovgaard, +66 authors, International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2020 May 16; 6. PMID: 32411818    Free PMC article.
Deep learning with multimodal representation for pancancer prognosis prediction.
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Bioinformatics, 2019 Sep 13; 35(14). PMID: 31510656    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence Algorithms to Assess Hormonal Status From Tissue Microarrays in Patients With Breast Cancer.
Gil Shamai, Yoav Binenbaum, +3 authors, Ron Kimmel.
JAMA Netw Open, 2019 Jul 28; 2(7). PMID: 31348505    Free PMC article.
Integrative Analysis of Histopathological Images and Genomic Data Predicts Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Prognosis.
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Expression of receptor activator of NFkB (RANK) drives stemness and resistance to therapy in ER+HER2- breast cancer.
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Oncotarget, 2020 Jun 02; 11(19). PMID: 32477461    Free PMC article.
Identification of topological features in renal tumor microenvironment associated with patient survival.
Jun Cheng, Xiaokui Mo, +3 authors, Kun Huang.
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Compression of dynamic tactile information in the human hand.
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A New Classification of Benign, Premalignant, and Malignant Endometrial Tissues Using Machine Learning Applied to 1413 Candidate Variables.
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Int J Gynecol Pathol, 2019 Jun 04; 39(4). PMID: 31157686    Free PMC article.
Oncogene PRR14 promotes breast cancer through activation of PI3K signal pathway and inhibition of CHEK2 pathway.
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Cell Death Dis, 2020 Jun 17; 11(6). PMID: 32541902    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-based survival prediction for multiple cancer types using histopathology images.
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PLoS One, 2020 Jun 20; 15(6). PMID: 32555646    Free PMC article.
Classifying non-small cell lung cancer types and transcriptomic subtypes using convolutional neural networks.
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J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2020 May 05; 27(5). PMID: 32364237    Free PMC article.
Impact of pre-analytical variables on deep learning accuracy in histopathology.
Andrew D Jones, John Paul Graff, +8 authors, Hooman H Rashidi.
Histopathology, 2019 Feb 26; 75(1). PMID: 30801768    Free PMC article.
A review of big data and medical research.
Mary Mallappallil, Jacob Sabu, Angelika Gruessner, Moro Salifu.
SAGE Open Med, 2020 Jul 09; 8. PMID: 32637104    Free PMC article.
Sensitivity analysis in digital pathology: Handling large number of parameters with compute expensive workflows.
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Comput Biol Med, 2019 May 06; 108. PMID: 31054503    Free PMC article.
Histopathological distinction of non-invasive and invasive bladder cancers using machine learning approaches.
Peng-Nien Yin, Kishan Kc, +5 authors, Feng Cui.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 2020 Jul 19; 20(1). PMID: 32680493    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence in digital breast pathology: Techniques and applications.
Asmaa Ibrahim, Paul Gamble, +4 authors, Emad A Rakha.
Breast, 2020 Jan 15; 49. PMID: 31935669    Free PMC article.
A deep learning model to predict RNA-Seq expression of tumours from whole slide images.
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Nat Commun, 2020 Aug 05; 11(1). PMID: 32747659    Free PMC article.
Deciphering serous ovarian carcinoma histopathology and platinum response by convolutional neural networks.
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BMC Med, 2020 Aug 19; 18(1). PMID: 32807164    Free PMC article.
Use of Single-Cell -Omic Technologies to Study the Gastrointestinal Tract and Diseases, From Single Cell Identities to Patient Features.
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Gastroenterology, 2020 May 18; 159(2). PMID: 32417404    Free PMC article.
Stromal CCL2 Signaling Promotes Mammary Tumor Fibrosis through Recruitment of Myeloid-Lineage Cells.
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Cancers (Basel), 2020 Aug 01; 12(8). PMID: 32731354    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence and Digital Pathology: Challenges and Opportunities.
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J Pathol Inform, 2019 Jan 05; 9. PMID: 30607305    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Twenty Years of Digital Pathology: An Overview of the Road Travelled, What is on the Horizon, and the Emergence of Vendor-Neutral Archives.
Liron Pantanowitz, Ashish Sharma, +3 authors, Joel Saltz.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Jan 05; 9. PMID: 30607307    Free PMC article.
Data-Driven Discovery of Immune Contexture Biomarkers.
Lars Ole Schwen, Emilia Andersson, +6 authors, Oliver Grimm.
Front Oncol, 2019 Jan 09; 8. PMID: 30619761    Free PMC article.
Convolutional neural network initialized active contour model with adaptive ellipse fitting for nuclear segmentation on breast histopathological images.
Jun Xu, Lei Gong, +4 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham), 2019 Mar 07; 6(1). PMID: 30840729    Free PMC article.
Recurrence analysis on prostate cancer patients with Gleason score 7 using integrated histopathology whole-slide images and genomic data through deep neural networks.
Jian Ren, Kubra Karagoz, +4 authors, Xin Qi.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham), 2019 Mar 07; 5(4). PMID: 30840742    Free PMC article.
And They Said It Couldn't Be Done: Predicting Known Driver Mutations From H&E Slides.
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J Pathol Inform, 2019 Jun 01; 10. PMID: 31149368    Free PMC article.
The revolving door for AI and pathologists-docendo discimus?
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J Med Artif Intell, 2019 Aug 03; 2. PMID: 31372599    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence (AI) and big data in cancer and precision oncology.
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Comput Struct Biotechnol J, 2020 Oct 01; 18. PMID: 32994889    Free PMC article.
Combining multiple spatial statistics enhances the description of immune cell localisation within tumours.
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Sci Rep, 2020 Oct 31; 10(1). PMID: 33122646    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence quantified tumour-stroma ratio is an independent predictor for overall survival in resectable colorectal cancer.
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EBioMedicine, 2020 Oct 12; 61. PMID: 33039706    Free PMC article.
Digital Pathology Analysis Quantifies Spatial Heterogeneity of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, and FoxP3 Immune Markers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
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Front Physiol, 2020 Nov 17; 11. PMID: 33192595    Free PMC article.
Integrative Models of Histopathological Image Features and Omics Data Predict Survival in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
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Front Cell Dev Biol, 2020 Nov 17; 8. PMID: 33195188    Free PMC article.
Experimental Assessment of Color Deconvolution and Color Normalization for Automated Classification of Histology Images Stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin.
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Using deep convolutional neural networks to identify and classify tumor-associated stroma in diagnostic breast biopsies.
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Mod Pathol, 2018 Jun 15; 31(10). PMID: 29899550    Free PMC article.
Automatic cell segmentation in histopathological images via two-staged superpixel-based algorithms.
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Med Biol Eng Comput, 2018 Oct 18; 57(3). PMID: 30327998
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Stromal cell ratio based on automated image analysis as a predictor for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer.
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BMC Cancer, 2019 Feb 20; 19(1). PMID: 30777045    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence at the intersection of pathology and radiology in prostate cancer.
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Breast cancer outcome prediction with tumour tissue images and machine learning.
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Reimagining T Staging Through Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Image Processing Approaches in Digital Pathology.
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JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2020 Nov 10; 4. PMID: 33166198    Free PMC article.
Computerized Image Analysis of Tumor Cell Nuclear Morphology Can Improve Patient Selection for Clinical Trials in Localized Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
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J Pathol Inform, 2020 Dec 22; 11. PMID: 33343995    Free PMC article.
Using Image Registration and Machine Learning to Develop a Workstation Tool for Rapid Analysis of Glomeruli in Medical Renal Biopsies.
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The International Collaboration for Cancer Classification and Research.
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Integrative analysis of histopathological images and chromatin accessibility data for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
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A robust unsupervised machine-learning method to quantify the morphological heterogeneity of cells and nuclei.
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Nat Protoc, 2021 Jan 12; 16(2). PMID: 33424024
Large-scale tumor-associated collagen signatures identify high-risk breast cancer patients.
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SuperHistopath: A Deep Learning Pipeline for Mapping Tumor Heterogeneity on Low-Resolution Whole-Slide Digital Histopathology Images.
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Artificial intelligence in musculoskeletal oncological radiology.
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Deep learning identifies morphological features in breast cancer predictive of cancer ERBB2 status and trastuzumab treatment efficacy.
Dmitrii Bychkov, Nina Linder, +10 authors, Johan Lundin.
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Deep Learning Image Analysis of Benign Breast Disease to Identify Subsequent Risk of Breast Cancer.
Adithya D Vellal, Korsuk Sirinukunwattan, +10 authors, Yujing J Heng.
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Computational Staining of Pathology Images to Study the Tumor Microenvironment in Lung Cancer.
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Morphological Heterogeneity in Pancreatic Cancer Reflects Structural and Functional Divergence.
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The Biological Meaning of Radiomic Features.
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Human-interpretable image features derived from densely mapped cancer pathology slides predict diverse molecular phenotypes.
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Predicting Metastasis Risk in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Using Deep Learning Image Analysis.
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Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 16; 10. PMID: 33718106    Free PMC article.
Joint analysis of expression levels and histological images identifies genes associated with tissue morphology.
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Nat Commun, 2021 Mar 13; 12(1). PMID: 33707455    Free PMC article.
Interpretable survival prediction for colorectal cancer using deep learning.
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Artificial intelligence in musculoskeletal oncological radiology.
Matjaz Vogrin, Teodor Trojner, Robi Kelc.
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