Journal Article
. 2010 Jan; 5(3):173-82.
doi: 10.1186/2049-6958-5-3-173.

Respiratory involvement in inflammatory bowel diseases

Nadia D'Andrea 1 Rossana Vigliarolo  Claudio M Sanguinetti  
Affiliations
  • PMID: 22958334
  •     92 References
  •     13 citations

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) and are due to a dysregulation of the antimicrobial defense normally provided by the intestinal mucosa. This inflammatory process may extend outside the bowel to many organs and also to the respiratory tract. The respiratory involvement in IBD may be completely asymptomatic and detected only at lung function assessment, or it may present as bronchial disease or lung parenchymal alterations. Corticosteroids, both systemic and aerosolized, are the mainstay of the therapeutical approach, while antibiotics must be also administered in the case of infectious and suppurative processes, whose sequels sometimes require surgical intervention. The relatively high incidence of bronchopulmonary complications in IBD suggests the need for a careful investigation of these patients in order to detect a possible respiratory involvement, even when they are asymptomatic.

Disparate CD4+ lamina propria (LP) lymphokine secretion profiles in inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's disease LP cells manifest increased secretion of IFN-gamma, whereas ulcerative colitis LP cells manifest increased secretion of IL-5.
I J Fuss, M Neurath, +5 authors, W Strober.
J Immunol, 1996 Aug 01; 157(3). PMID: 8757634
Highly Cited.
Severe pulmonary disease in association with Crohn's disease in a 13-year-old girl.
L Bentur, J Lachter, +4 authors, E Rosenthal.
Pediatr Pulmonol, 2000 Jan 19; 29(2). PMID: 10639206
The prevalence of extraintestinal diseases in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study.
C N Bernstein, J F Blanchard, P Rawsthorne, N Yu.
Am J Gastroenterol, 2001 Apr 24; 96(4). PMID: 11316157
Highly Cited.
Pulmonary emphysema: quantitative CT during expiration.
P A Gevenois, P De Vuyst, +5 authors, J C Yernault.
Radiology, 1996 Jun 01; 199(3). PMID: 8638012
Overall and cause-specific mortality in Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis of population-based studies.
Dana Duricova, Natalia Pedersen, +3 authors, Tine Jess.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2009 Jul 03; 16(2). PMID: 19572377
Systematic Review.
Transient pulmonary eosinophilia and asthma. A review of 20 cases occurring in 5,702 asthma sufferers.
R M Ford.
Am Rev Respir Dis, 1966 May 01; 93(5). PMID: 5936938
Meta-analysis: mortality in Crohn's disease.
C Canavan, K R Abrams, J F Mayberry.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2007 Apr 04; 25(8). PMID: 17402989
Pulmonary complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
L Kuzela, A Vavrecka, +9 authors, P Kristufek.
Hepatogastroenterology, 1999 Aug 03; 46(27). PMID: 10430329
Serum IgE levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Y Levo, M Shalit, S Wollner, A Fich.
Ann Allergy, 1986 Jan 01; 56(1). PMID: 3946842
Antibody to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers' yeast) in Crohn's disease.
J Main, H McKenzie, +4 authors, D Parratt.
BMJ, 1988 Oct 29; 297(6656). PMID: 3143445    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: correlation of individual CT patterns with functional abnormalities.
D M Hansell, A U Wells, S P Padley, N L Müller.
Radiology, 1996 Apr 01; 199(1). PMID: 8633133
Bronchial hyperreactivity and allergic status in inflammatory bowel disease.
Berrin Bagci Ceyhan, Sait Karakurt, Hikmet Cevik, Murat Sungur.
Respiration, 2003 Feb 14; 70(1). PMID: 12584393
Latent pulmonary function abnormalities in children with Crohn's disease.
A Munck, D Murciano, +2 authors, J Navarro.
Eur Respir J, 1995 Mar 01; 8(3). PMID: 7789480
Pulmonary function abnormalities in respiratory asymptomatic patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Alexandra Dierkes-Globisch, Hans Mohr.
Eur J Intern Med, 2002 Sep 13; 13(6). PMID: 12225784
A key role for autophagy and the autophagy gene Atg16l1 in mouse and human intestinal Paneth cells.
Ken Cadwell, John Y Liu, +15 authors, Herbert W Virgin.
Nature, 2008 Oct 14; 456(7219). PMID: 18849966    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Sulphasalazine and lung toxicity.
S D Parry, C Barbatzas, E T Peel, J R Barton.
Eur Respir J, 2002 May 10; 19(4). PMID: 11999006
Review.
Unusual pulmonary complication of ulcerative colitis with a rapid response to corticosteroids: case report.
G A Hilling, D A Robertson, A H Chalmers, H S Rigby.
Gut, 1994 Jun 01; 35(6). PMID: 8020818    Free PMC article.
[Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia and Crohn's disease].
P Gil-Simón, J Barrio Andrés, +3 authors, A Caro-Patón.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig, 2008 Apr 18; 100(3). PMID: 18416645
CEACAM6 acts as a receptor for adherent-invasive E. coli, supporting ileal mucosa colonization in Crohn disease.
Nicolas Barnich, Frédéric A Carvalho, +8 authors, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud.
J Clin Invest, 2007 May 26; 117(6). PMID: 17525800    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The extra-intestinal complications of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: a study of 700 patients.
A J Greenstein, H D Janowitz, D B Sachar.
Medicine (Baltimore), 1976 Sep 01; 55(5). PMID: 957999
Highly Cited.
Latent pulmonary involvement in Crohn's disease: biological, functional, bronchoalveolar lavage and scintigraphic studies.
P Bonniere, B Wallaert, +6 authors, J C Paris.
Gut, 1986 Aug 01; 27(8). PMID: 3015749    Free PMC article.
[Treatment of Crohn's disease by infliximab. About 20 cases].
Meriem Serghini, Sami Karoui, +5 authors, Azza Filali.
Tunis Med, 2010 Feb 26; 87(9). PMID: 20180377
The epidemiologic and demographic characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease: an analysis of a computerized file of 1400 patients.
B H Rogers, L M Clark, J B Kirsner.
J Chronic Dis, 1971 Dec 01; 24(12). PMID: 5146188
Overall and cause-specific mortality in ulcerative colitis: meta-analysis of population-based inception cohort studies.
Tine Jess, Michael Gamborg, Pia Munkholm, Thorkild I A Sørensen.
Am J Gastroenterol, 2006 Dec 13; 102(3). PMID: 17156150
Review.
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children and adolescents with Crohn's disease.
A Mansi, S Cucchiara, +4 authors, F Santamaria.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2000 Mar 11; 161(3 Pt 1). PMID: 10712362
Clinical and radiological characteristics of lung disease in inflammatory bowel disease.
R Mahadeva, G Walsh, C D Flower, J M Shneerson.
Eur Respir J, 2000 Mar 04; 15(1). PMID: 10678619
Respiratory impairment in inflammatory bowel disease: does it vary with disease activity?
J G Douglas, C F McDonald, +3 authors, G J McHardy.
Respir Med, 1989 Sep 01; 83(5). PMID: 2616823
Unexplained bronchopulmonary disease with inflammatory bowel disease.
S C Kraft, R H Earle, M Roesler, J R Esterly.
Arch Intern Med, 1976 Apr 01; 136(4). PMID: 1267553
Highly Cited.
Small airways function in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
N Tzanakis, M Samiou, +3 authors, N M Siafakas.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 1998 Feb 26; 157(2). PMID: 9476847
New concepts in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease.
Giorgos Bamias, Mark R Nyce, +3 authors, American Physiological Society.
Ann Intern Med, 2005 Dec 21; 143(12). PMID: 16365470
Review.
A case of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia occurring in Crohn's disease.
Pierluigi Carratú, Silvano Dragonieri, +4 authors, Onofrio Resta.
Can Respir J, 2005 Dec 07; 12(8). PMID: 16331316
Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with airways disease.
A A Raj, S S Birring, +3 authors, I D Pavord.
Respir Med, 2008 Mar 07; 102(5). PMID: 18321696
Alterations in pulmonary function in inflammatory bowel disease are frequent and persist during remission.
K R Herrlinger, M K Noftz, +3 authors, K Fellermann.
Am J Gastroenterol, 2002 Feb 28; 97(2). PMID: 11866276
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and analysis of induced sputum cells in Crohn's disease.
R M Bartholo, C Zaltman, +6 authors, J R Lapa-e-Silva.
Braz J Med Biol Res, 2005 Mar 24; 38(2). PMID: 15785830
Methotrexate-induced pneumonitis in a patient with Crohn's disease.
Giovanna Margagnoni, Valeria Papi, +2 authors, Claudio Papi.
J Crohns Colitis, 2010 Dec 03; 4(2). PMID: 21122509
Increased pulmonary and intestinal permeability in Crohn's disease.
A Adenis, J F Colombel, +4 authors, A Cortot.
Gut, 1992 May 01; 33(5). PMID: 1612487    Free PMC article.
A genome-wide association scan of nonsynonymous SNPs identifies a susceptibility variant for Crohn disease in ATG16L1.
Jochen Hampe, Andre Franke, +18 authors, Stefan Schreiber.
Nat Genet, 2007 Jan 04; 39(2). PMID: 17200669
Highly Cited.
Pulmonary function tests and high-resolution CT in the detection of pulmonary involvement in inflammatory bowel disease.
Necla Songür, Yildiran Songür, +4 authors, Baki Hekimoglu.
J Clin Gastroenterol, 2003 Sep 25; 37(4). PMID: 14506385
Increased frequency of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
E Louis, R Louis, +4 authors, J Belaiche.
Allergy, 1995 Sep 01; 50(9). PMID: 8546267
Bronchiectasis following colectomy for Crohn's disease.
T E Eaton, N Lambie, A U Wells.
Thorax, 1998 Aug 26; 53(6). PMID: 9713458    Free PMC article.
Mapping of a susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease on chromosome 16.
J P Hugot, P Laurent-Puig, +14 authors, G Thomas.
Nature, 1996 Feb 29; 379(6568). PMID: 8587604
Highly Cited.
Subclinical alveolar involvement in ulcerative colitis.
Sebnem Gursoy, Kadri Guven, +5 authors, Mehmet Yucesoy.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2005 Apr 02; 11(4). PMID: 15803027
Mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.
K Tanigawa, K Sugiyama, +7 authors, H Takagi.
Respiration, 1999 Feb 12; 66(1). PMID: 9973695
Review.
Evidence of lymphocyte alveolitis in Crohn's disease.
B Wallaert, J F Colombel, +4 authors, C Voisin.
Chest, 1985 Mar 01; 87(3). PMID: 3971763
Autophagy in thymic epithelium shapes the T-cell repertoire and is essential for tolerance.
Jelena Nedjic, Martin Aichinger, +2 authors, Ludger Klein.
Nature, 2008 Aug 15; 455(7211). PMID: 18701890
Highly Cited.
Lung function in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
N Tzanakis, D Bouros, +4 authors, N Siafakas.
Respir Med, 1998 Aug 06; 92(3). PMID: 9692115
Treatment of ulcerative colitis.
D Ludwig, E F Stange.
Hepatogastroenterology, 2000 Feb 26; 47(31). PMID: 10690588
Review.
Inflammatory bowel disease.
Clara Abraham, Judy H Cho.
N Engl J Med, 2009 Nov 20; 361(21). PMID: 19923578    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Large airway disease associated with inflammatory bowel disease.
A Spira, R Grossman, M Balter.
Chest, 1998 Jun 19; 113(6). PMID: 9631822
Quantitative computed tomography detects air trapping due to asthma.
K B Newman, D A Lynch, +2 authors, J D Newell.
Chest, 1994 Jul 01; 106(1). PMID: 8020254
Pulmonary manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.
Ian Storch, David Sachar, Seymour Katz.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2003 May 29; 9(2). PMID: 12769444
Review.
Thoracic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.
Hugh Black, Mark Mendoza, Susan Murin.
Chest, 2007 Feb 14; 131(2). PMID: 17296657
Review.
Pulmonary migratory infiltrates and pachypleuritis in a patient with Crohn's disease.
M Faller, B Gasser, +2 authors, E Quoix.
Respiration, 2000 Aug 15; 67(4). PMID: 10940806
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among 7 and 11 year old schoolchildren and association with asthma.
R D Clifford, M Radford, J B Howell, S T Holgate.
Arch Dis Child, 1989 Aug 01; 64(8). PMID: 2782926    Free PMC article.
[Two cases of tuberculosis after treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with infliximab].
Naoki Takasaka, Emiko Toyota, +3 authors, Shinobu Akagawa.
Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi, 2010 Feb 19; 48(1). PMID: 20163024
Prevalence of atopy is unrelated to presence of inflammatory bowel disease.
R Troncone, T G Merrett, A Ferguson.
Clin Allergy, 1988 Mar 01; 18(2). PMID: 3365856
Molecular basis of epithelial barrier regulation: from basic mechanisms to clinical application.
Jerrold R Turner.
Am J Pathol, 2006 Dec 07; 169(6). PMID: 17148655    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Constrictive bronchiolitis and ulcerative colitis.
H Ward, K L Fisher, +3 authors, D W Cockcroft.
Can Respir J, 1999 May 13; 6(2). PMID: 10322103
Increased expression of interleukin 17 in inflammatory bowel disease.
S Fujino, A Andoh, +5 authors, Y Fujiyama.
Gut, 2002 Dec 13; 52(1). PMID: 12477762    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Bacterial flagellin is a dominant antigen in Crohn disease.
Michael J Lodes, Yingzi Cong, +5 authors, Robert M Hershberg.
J Clin Invest, 2004 May 05; 113(9). PMID: 15124021    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The lung in inflammatory bowel disease.
P Camus, F Piard, +2 authors, T V Colby.
Medicine (Baltimore), 1993 May 01; 72(3). PMID: 8502168
Review.
Immune-related systemic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. A prospective study of 792 patients.
F T Veloso, J Carvalho, F Magro.
J Clin Gastroenterol, 1996 Jul 01; 23(1). PMID: 8835896
Drug-specific risk of tuberculosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-TNF therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR).
W G Dixon, K L Hyrich, +6 authors, BSR Biologics Register.
Ann Rheum Dis, 2009 Oct 27; 69(3). PMID: 19854715    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
[Methotrexate-induced pneumonitis in a woman with Crohn's disease].
T Brechmann, C Heyer, W Schmiegel.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr, 2007 Aug 24; 132(34-35). PMID: 17713885
Differential effects of NOD2 variants on Crohn's disease risk and phenotype in diverse populations: a metaanalysis.
Michael Economou, Thomas A Trikalinos, +2 authors, John P A Ioannidis.
Am J Gastroenterol, 2004 Dec 02; 99(12). PMID: 15571588
Highly Cited.
Changes in pulmonary function in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Aliaë A R Mohamed-Hussein, Nadia A S Mohamed, Mohamed-Eltaher A R Ibrahim.
Respir Med, 2006 Oct 20; 101(5). PMID: 17049827
Ulcerative colitis: no rise in mortality in a European-wide population based cohort 10 years after diagnosis.
O Höie, L J Schouten, +10 authors, European Collaborative Study Group of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD).
Gut, 2006 Oct 10; 56(4). PMID: 17028127    Free PMC article.
Ulcerative colitis presenting with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia in a pediatric patient.
L Mahajan, M Kay, +2 authors, J Goldfarb.
Am J Gastroenterol, 1997 Nov 15; 92(11). PMID: 9362212
Review.
Bronchial disease in ulcerative colitis.
T Higenbottam, G M Cochrane, +3 authors, W Seymour.
Thorax, 1980 Aug 01; 35(8). PMID: 7444824    Free PMC article.
Severe tracheobronchial stenosis in a patient with Crohn's disease.
T Kuźniar, C Sleiman, +6 authors, M Fournier.
Eur Respir J, 2000 Mar 04; 15(1). PMID: 10678648
Salicylate-induced pulmonary edema. Clinical features and prognosis.
J E Heffner, S A Sahn.
Ann Intern Med, 1981 Oct 01; 95(4). PMID: 7283290
Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia in a patient with ulcerative colitis.
C R Swinburn, G J Jackson, +3 authors, P A Corris.
Thorax, 1988 Sep 01; 43(9). PMID: 3194883    Free PMC article.
Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor alpha-neutralizing agent.
J Keane, S Gershon, +5 authors, M M Braun.
N Engl J Med, 2001 Oct 13; 345(15). PMID: 11596589
Highly Cited.
CARD15/NOD2 mutational analysis and genotype-phenotype correlation in 612 patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Suzanne Lesage, Habib Zouali, +19 authors, GETAID Group.
Am J Hum Genet, 2002 Mar 05; 70(4). PMID: 11875755    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Granulomatous bronchiolitis of Crohn's disease successfully treated with inhaled budesonide.
T K Trow, D G Morris, C R Miller, R J Homer.
Thorax, 2009 May 30; 64(6). PMID: 19478123
Lung involvement in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Nurhan Sarioğlu, Nurten Türkel, +7 authors, Arzu Yorgancioğlu.
Ann Saudi Med, 2006 Oct 05; 26(5). PMID: 17019097    Free PMC article.
Is it possible to detect ulcerative colitis-related respiratory syndrome early?
F Karadag, M H Ozhan, +3 authors, A Veral.
Respirology, 2002 Feb 15; 6(4). PMID: 11844126
Inflammatory bowel disease and the lung: is there a link between surgery and bronchiectasis?
Michael G Kelly, Frank A Frizelle, +3 authors, A Craig Lynch.
Int J Colorectal Dis, 2006 Apr 21; 21(8). PMID: 16625374
Cause of death in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
C Cucino, A Sonnenberg.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2001 Aug 23; 7(3). PMID: 11515852
The lung in inflammatory bowel disease.
P Camus, T V Colby.
Eur Respir J, 2000 Mar 04; 15(1). PMID: 10678613
Diffuse panbronchiolitis preceding ulcerative colitis.
S J Desai, G N Gephardt, J K Stoller.
Chest, 1989 Jun 01; 95(6). PMID: 2721273
International collaboration provides convincing linkage replication in complex disease through analysis of a large pooled data set: Crohn disease and chromosome 16.
J Cavanaugh, IBD International Genetics Consortium.
Am J Hum Genet, 2001 Apr 20; 68(5). PMID: 11309682    Free PMC article.
Idiopathic chronic cough: association with organ specific autoimmune disease and bronchoalveolar lymphocytosis.
S S Birring, C E Brightling, +3 authors, I D Pavord.
Thorax, 2003 Dec 04; 58(12). PMID: 14645977    Free PMC article.
THE COURSE AND PROGNOSIS OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS. III. COMPLICATIONS.
F C EDWARDS, S C TRUELOVE.
Gut, 1964 Feb 01; 5. PMID: 14127503    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Functional consequences of NOD2 (CARD15) mutations.
Clara Abraham, Judy H Cho.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2006 Jun 29; 12(7). PMID: 16804402
Review.
Granulomatous bronchiolitis associated with Crohn's disease.
O Vandenplas, S Casel, +3 authors, E Marchand.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 1998 Nov 17; 158(5 Pt 1). PMID: 9817724
The clustering of other chronic inflammatory diseases in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study.
Charles N Bernstein, Andre Wajda, James F Blanchard.
Gastroenterology, 2005 Sep 07; 129(3). PMID: 16143122
Highly Cited.
Sulfasalazine pneumonitis.
M Averbuch, Z Halpern, +2 authors, Y Levo.
Am J Gastroenterol, 1985 May 01; 80(5). PMID: 2859799
Unveiling the roles of autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity.
Beth Levine, Vojo Deretic.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2007 Sep 04; 7(10). PMID: 17767194    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Nod2-dependent regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in the intestinal tract.
Koichi S Kobayashi, Mathias Chamaillard, +4 authors, Richard A Flavell.
Science, 2005 Feb 05; 307(5710). PMID: 15692051
Highly Cited.
The immunological and genetic basis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Gerd Bouma, Warren Strober.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2003 Jul 24; 3(7). PMID: 12876555
Highly Cited. Review.
Inflammatory bowel disease and smoking: a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic implications.
Tanja Birrenbach, Ulrich Böcker.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2005 Jan 01; 10(6). PMID: 15626903
Review.
Methotrexate-induced pneumonitis in Crohn's disease. Case report and review of the literature.
Nadia D'Andrea, Luca Triolo, +2 authors, Claudio M Sanguinetti.
Multidiscip Respir Med, 2010 Jan 01; 5(5). PMID: 22958737    Free PMC article.
Expiratory CT scan in patients with normal inspiratory CT scan: a finding of obliterative bronchiolitis and other causes of bronchiolar obstruction.
Michele Gaeta, Fabio Minutoli, +5 authors, Salvatore Privitera.
Multidiscip Respir Med, 2013 Jul 10; 8(1). PMID: 23835554    Free PMC article.
Gut-lung crosstalk in pulmonary involvement with inflammatory bowel diseases.
Hui Wang, Jing-Shi Liu, +8 authors, Jun-Ming Luo.
World J Gastroenterol, 2013 Nov 05; 19(40). PMID: 24187454    Free PMC article.
Review.
Pulmonary manifestations of Crohn's disease.
De-Gan Lu, Xiao-Qing Ji, +2 authors, Cai-Qing Zhang.
World J Gastroenterol, 2014 Jan 15; 20(1). PMID: 24415866    Free PMC article.
Review.
Cutaneous Vasculitis, Interstitial Pneumonia with Crazy-Paving Appearance, and Positive pANCA in a Patient with Severe Crohn's Disease.
Guang-Liang Chen, Juan Wang, +3 authors, Shuang Ye.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med, 2014 Nov 06; 2014. PMID: 25371834    Free PMC article.
The Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Intestinal Barrier Protection of HU210 Differentially Depend on TLR4 Signaling in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Murine Colitis.
Sisi Lin, Yongyu Li, +5 authors, Jakub Fichna.
Dig Dis Sci, 2016 Dec 21; 62(2). PMID: 27995407
Pulmonary dysfunction in 114 patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Yujie Zhao, Junshan Wang, +3 authors, Xiaomin Sun.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2017 May 05; 96(18). PMID: 28471982    Free PMC article.
Ulcerative colitis with acute pleurisy: A case report and review of the literature.
Shuming Lu, Lihua Wang, +4 authors, Hua Meng.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2017 Jul 27; 96(30). PMID: 28746225    Free PMC article.
Review.
[Aspects of pulmonary involvement in inflammatory bowel disease].
A Moeser, M Lerche, H Wirtz, A Stallmach.
Internist (Berl), 2018 Aug 18; 59(9). PMID: 30116854
Review.
Risk of Malignant Cancers in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Simone Y Loo, Maria Vutcovici, +4 authors, Paul Brassard.
J Crohns Colitis, 2019 Mar 16; 13(10). PMID: 30874294    Free PMC article.
Pediatric Patient With Ulcerative Colitis-Associated Bronchiectasis.
Abigail Russi, Neepa Gurbani, +2 authors, Francis R LeBlanc.
ACG Case Rep J, 2020 Jun 18; 7(4). PMID: 32548193    Free PMC article.
Tracheobronchitis with stridor in a patient with ulcerative colitis.
Zahava C Farkas, Sevak Keshishyan, +7 authors, Wilbert S Aronow.
Ann Transl Med, 2019 Jan 01; 6(22). PMID: 30596075    Free PMC article.
Silent hypoxia in COVID-19: a gut microbiota connection.
Akshita B Gopal, Soumyadeep Chakraborty, +7 authors, Asima Bhattacharyya.
Curr Opin Physiol, 2021 Jul 13; 23. PMID: 34250324    Free PMC article.
Review.