Review
. 2012 Oct; 23 Suppl 6:vi7-12.
doi: 10.1093/annonc/mds187.

Triple-negative breast cancer: epidemiological considerations and recommendations

P Boyle 1 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 23012306
  •     190 citations

Abstract

Breast cancer is a major problem for global public health. Breast Cancer is the most common incident form of cancer in women around the world. The incidence is increasing while mortality is declining in many high-income countries. The last decade has seen a revolution in the understanding of breast cancer, with new classifications proposed that have significant prognostic value and provide guides to treatment options. Breast cancers that demonstrate the absence of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There is now evidence emerging from epidemiological studies regarding important characteristics of this group of tumours that carry a relatively poorer prognosis than the major breast cancer sub-types. From this review of available data and information, there are some consistent findings that emerge. Women with TNBC experience the peak risk of recurrence within 3 years of diagnosis, and the mortality rates appear to be increased for 5 years after diagnosis. TNBC represents 10%-20% of invasive breast cancers and has been associated with African-American race, deprivation status, younger age at diagnosis, more advanced disease stage, higher grade, high mitotic indices, family history of breast cancer and BRCA1 mutations. TNBC is regularly reported to be three times more common in women of African descent and in pre-menopausal women, and carries a poorer prognosis than other forms of breast cancer. Although prospects for prevention of non-hormone-dependent breast cancer are currently poor, it is still important to understand the aetiology of such tumours. There remains a great deal of work to be done to arrive at a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of breast cancer. Key recommendations are that there is a clear and urgent need to have more epidemiological studies of the breast cancer sub-types to integrate aetiological and lifestyle factors for prevention of incidence and death, and to have more population-based information of the clinical and biological relevance from cancer registries.

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M Aravind Kumar, Vineeta Singh, +2 authors, M Lakshmi Narasu.
Mol Cell Biochem, 2017 Sep 18; 442(1-2). PMID: 28918577
Identification of a HLA-A*0201-restricted immunogenic epitope from the universal tumor antigen DEPDC1.
Anna Tosi, Silvia Dalla Santa, +6 authors, Antonio Rosato.
Oncoimmunology, 2017 Sep 19; 6(8). PMID: 28919988    Free PMC article.
Efficacy and Safety of Vinorelbine Plus Cisplatin vs. Gemcitabine Plus Cisplatin for Treatment of Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Failure with Anthracyclines and Taxanes.
Junbin Wang, Rongsheng Zheng, +3 authors, Weiyan Zou.
Med Sci Monit, 2017 Sep 29; 23. PMID: 28957036    Free PMC article.
Targeted exome sequencing of Korean triple-negative breast cancer reveals homozygous deletions associated with poor prognosis of adjuvant chemotherapy-treated patients.
Hae Min Jeong, Ryong Nam Kim, +13 authors, Young Kee Shin.
Oncotarget, 2017 Oct 06; 8(37). PMID: 28977883    Free PMC article.
GABARAPL1 acts as a potential marker and promotes tumor proliferation and metastasis in triple negative breast cancer.
Li Ran, Tao Hong, +3 authors, Gebo Wen.
Oncotarget, 2017 Nov 02; 8(43). PMID: 29088804    Free PMC article.
Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer with Chinese herbal medicine: A prospective cohort study protocol.
Hui Meng, Nan Peng, +4 authors, Xiaomin Wang.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2017 Nov 03; 96(44). PMID: 29095272    Free PMC article.
Therapy response testing of breast cancer in a 3D high-throughput perfused microfluidic platform.
Henriette L Lanz, Anthony Saleh, +9 authors, Liewei Wang.
BMC Cancer, 2017 Nov 04; 17(1). PMID: 29096610    Free PMC article.
EGFR conjunct FSCN1 as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Chao-Qun Wang, Yang Li, +10 authors, Xiaoni Li.
Sci Rep, 2017 Nov 17; 7(1). PMID: 29142206    Free PMC article.
PRDM14 directly interacts with heat shock proteins HSP90α and glucose-regulated protein 78.
Chiharu Moriya, Hiroaki Taniguchi, +3 authors, Kohzoh Imai.
Cancer Sci, 2017 Nov 28; 109(2). PMID: 29178343    Free PMC article.
Breast Cancer in Ghana: Demonstrating the Need for Population-Based Cancer Registries in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
Abigail S Thomas, Kelley M Kidwell, +6 authors, Sofia D Merajver.
J Glob Oncol, 2017 Dec 16; 3(6). PMID: 29244986    Free PMC article.
Clinical and pathological factors influencing survival in a large cohort of triple-negative breast cancer patients.
Silvana Anna Maria Urru, Silvano Gallus, +25 authors, Sandra Orrù.
BMC Cancer, 2018 Jan 10; 18(1). PMID: 29310602    Free PMC article.
Fundamentals of siRNA and miRNA therapeutics and a review of targeted nanoparticle delivery systems in breast cancer.
Tamkin Ahmadzada, Glen Reid, David R McKenzie.
Biophys Rev, 2018 Jan 13; 10(1). PMID: 29327101    Free PMC article.
Review.
PD-L1 Expression in TNBC: A Predictive Biomarker of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?
Bruna Cerbelli, Angelina Pernazza, +10 authors, Leopoldo Costarelli.
Biomed Res Int, 2018 Feb 02; 2017. PMID: 29387716    Free PMC article.
Barriers to early presentation of breast cancer among women in Soweto, South Africa.
Maureen Joffe, Oluwatosin Ayeni, +6 authors, Herbert Cubasch.
PLoS One, 2018 Feb 03; 13(2). PMID: 29394271    Free PMC article.
Cx26 drives self-renewal in triple-negative breast cancer via interaction with NANOG and focal adhesion kinase.
Praveena S Thiagarajan, Maksim Sinyuk, +19 authors, Justin D Lathia.
Nat Commun, 2018 Feb 10; 9(1). PMID: 29422613    Free PMC article.
Breast cancer in Ethiopia: evidence for geographic difference in the distribution of molecular subtypes in Africa.
Endale Hadgu, Daniel Seifu, +7 authors, Mats G Karlsson.
BMC Womens Health, 2018 Feb 16; 18(1). PMID: 29444670    Free PMC article.
Differences in breast cancer incidence among young women aged 20-49 years by stage and tumor characteristics, age, race, and ethnicity, 2004-2013.
Meredith L Shoemaker, Mary C White, +2 authors, Isabelle Romieu.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2018 Feb 16; 169(3). PMID: 29445940    Free PMC article.
Morphometric analysis of a triple negative breast cancer cell line in hydrogel and monolayer culture environments.
Manasi P Jogalekar, Elba E Serrano.
PeerJ, 2018 Feb 24; 6. PMID: 29473000    Free PMC article.
Functional miRNAs in breast cancer drug resistance.
Weizi Hu, Chunli Tan, +3 authors, Jinhai Tang.
Onco Targets Ther, 2018 Mar 30; 11. PMID: 29593419    Free PMC article.
Review.
MCP-1 is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancers and drives cancer invasiveness and metastasis.
Pranabananda Dutta, Marianna Sarkissyan, +2 authors, Jaydutt V Vadgama.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2018 Mar 30; 170(3). PMID: 29594759    Free PMC article.
Triple Negative Breast Cancer Depends on Sphingosine Kinase 1 (SphK1)/Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P)/Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 3 (S1PR3)/Notch Signaling for Metastasis.
Shushu Wang, Yueyang Liang, +2 authors, Yi Zhang.
Med Sci Monit, 2018 Apr 02; 24. PMID: 29605826    Free PMC article.
CLR 125 Auger Electrons for the Targeted Radiotherapy of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Joseph Grudzinski, Ian Marsh, +8 authors, Bryan Bednarz.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm, 2018 Apr 12; 33(3). PMID: 29641256    Free PMC article.
Prognostic Significance of Reduction in Ki67 Index After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer in Kerman Between 2009 And 2014.
Vahid Moazed, Elham Jafari, +3 authors, Seyyed Amir Ben Razavi.
Iran J Pathol, 2018 May 08; 13(1). PMID: 29731798    Free PMC article.
Age distribution and outcomes in patients undergoing breast cancer resection in Saudi Arabia. A single-institute study.
Balqis Alabdulkarim, Mazen Hassanain, +2 authors, Hana Alkarji.
Saudi Med J, 2018 May 09; 39(5). PMID: 29738005    Free PMC article.
Bioassay-guided isolation of cantharidin from blister beetles and its anticancer activity through inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated STAT3 and Akt pathways.
Jaemoo Chun, Min Kyoung Park, +2 authors, Yeong Shik Kim.
J Nat Med, 2018 Jul 26; 72(4). PMID: 30043217
Panoptic Overview of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Nigeria: Current Challenges and Promising Global Initiatives.
Nikita Wright, Padmashree Rida, +2 authors, Ritu Aneja.
J Glob Oncol, 2018 Aug 08; 4. PMID: 30085829    Free PMC article.
Review.
Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Risk Genes Identified by Multigene Hereditary Cancer Panel Testing.
Hermela Shimelis, Holly LaDuca, +26 authors, Fergus J Couch.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2018 Aug 14; 110(8). PMID: 30099541    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Fisetin Inhibited Growth and Metastasis of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Reversing Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition via PTEN/Akt/GSK3β Signal Pathway.
Jie Li, Xia Gong, +8 authors, Hongyuan Li.
Front Pharmacol, 2018 Aug 16; 9. PMID: 30108501    Free PMC article.
A Single Institution Experience of Incorporation of Cisplatin into Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer of Unknown BRCA Mutation Status.
Ying-Wen Su, Chia-Yen Hung, +2 authors, Po-Sheng Yang.
Clin Med Insights Oncol, 2018 Aug 29; 12. PMID: 30150877    Free PMC article.
A nomogram prediction for the survival of patients with triple negative breast cancer.
Yuxiang Lin, Fangmeng Fu, +4 authors, Chuan Wang.
Oncotarget, 2018 Sep 06; 9(63). PMID: 30181802    Free PMC article.
Association Between BRCA Status and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.
Haixia Chen, Jianming Wu, +5 authors, Xianzhu Li.
Front Pharmacol, 2018 Sep 07; 9. PMID: 30186165    Free PMC article.
High Cytoplasmic CXCR4 Expression Predicts Prolonged Survival in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy.
Bobae Shim, Min-Sun Jin, +2 authors, Han Suk Ryu.
J Pathol Transl Med, 2018 Oct 03; 52(6). PMID: 30269472    Free PMC article.
New Insights into the Role of Exercise in Inhibiting mTOR Signaling in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Deborah Agostini, Valentina Natalucci, +9 authors, Elena Barbieri.
Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2018 Oct 27; 2018. PMID: 30363988    Free PMC article.
Review.
Menopausal Hormone Therapy use and breast cancer risk by receptor subtypes: Results from the New South Wales Cancer Lifestyle and EvaluAtion of Risk (CLEAR) study.
Usha Salagame, Emily Banks, +2 authors, Karen Canfell.
PLoS One, 2018 Nov 08; 13(11). PMID: 30403669    Free PMC article.
Mimetic sHDL nanoparticles: A novel drug-delivery strategy to target triple-negative breast cancer.
Ton Wang, Chitra Subramanian, +7 authors, Mark S Cohen.
Surgery, 2019 Aug 03; 166(6). PMID: 31371177    Free PMC article.
Comparative Proteome Analysis of Breast Cancer Tissues Highlights the Importance of Glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase 1 and Monoacylglycerol Lipase in Breast Cancer Metabolism.
Kubra Karaosmanoglu Yoneten, Murat Kasap, +3 authors, Nihat Zafer Utkan.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics, 2019 Aug 31; 16(5). PMID: 31467232    Free PMC article.
A thiosemicarbazone derivative induces triple negative breast cancer cell apoptosis: possible role of miRNA-125a-5p and miRNA-181a-5p.
Rania El Majzoub, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, +7 authors, Bassam Badran.
Genes Genomics, 2019 Sep 22; 41(12). PMID: 31541355
Eupalinolide J Suppresses the Growth of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells via Targeting STAT3 Signaling Pathway.
Chenghua Lou, Yan Chen, +2 authors, Huajun Zhao.
Front Pharmacol, 2019 Oct 15; 10. PMID: 31607920    Free PMC article.
Expression of the BAD pathway is a marker of triple-negative status and poor outcome.
Bernadette M Boac, Forough Abbasi, +18 authors, Douglas C Marchion.
Sci Rep, 2019 Nov 27; 9(1). PMID: 31767884    Free PMC article.
Strong association of fascin expression with triple negative breast cancer and basal-like phenotype in African-American women.
Ashwini K Esnakula, Luisel Ricks-Santi, +6 authors, Tammey J Naab.
J Clin Pathol, 2013 Aug 30; 67(2). PMID: 23986556    Free PMC article.
Development and Validation of Nomograms for Predicting the Prognosis of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Based on 379 Chinese Patients.
Hao Shi, Xiao-Hui Wang, Jun-Wei Gu, Gui-Long Guo.
Cancer Manag Res, 2020 Jan 11; 11. PMID: 31920392    Free PMC article.
MicroRNAs Involved in Carcinogenesis, Prognosis, Therapeutic Resistance and Applications in Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Lei Ding, Huan Gu, +6 authors, Qinghua Cui.
Cells, 2019 Nov 27; 8(12). PMID: 31766744    Free PMC article.
Review.
Comparison of Clinico-Pathological Presentations of Triple-Negative versus Triple-Positive and HER2 Iraqi Breast Cancer Patients.
Nada A S Alwan, Furat N Tawfeeq.
Open Access Maced J Med Sci, 2020 Feb 06; 7(21). PMID: 32010372    Free PMC article.
Double-positive in triple-negative? How significant is basal cytokeratin expression in breast cancer?
Anusree Majumder, Rajat Jagani, Atoshi Basu.
Med J Armed Forces India, 2020 Feb 06; 76(1). PMID: 32020971    Free PMC article.
The miRNA-449 family mediates doxorubicin resistance in triple-negative breast cancer by regulating cell cycle factors.
Eduardo Tormo, Sandra Ballester, +11 authors, Pilar Eroles.
Sci Rep, 2019 Mar 31; 9(1). PMID: 30926829    Free PMC article.
Estradiol induces BDNF/TrkB signaling in triple-negative breast cancer to promote brain metastases.
Maria J Contreras-Zárate, Nicole L Day, +5 authors, Diana M Cittelly.
Oncogene, 2019 Feb 24; 38(24). PMID: 30796353    Free PMC article.
Transcriptional positive cofactor 4 promotes breast cancer proliferation and metastasis through c-Myc mediated Warburg effect.
Peng Luo, Chi Zhang, +9 authors, Chunmeng Shi.
Cell Commun Signal, 2019 Apr 18; 17(1). PMID: 30992017    Free PMC article.
Strictinin, a novel ROR1-inhibitor, represses triple negative breast cancer survival and migration via modulation of PI3K/AKT/GSK3ß activity.
Norman Fultang, Abhinav Illendula, +5 authors, Bela Peethambaran.
PLoS One, 2019 Jun 01; 14(5). PMID: 31150511    Free PMC article.
The identification of a TNBC liver metastasis gene signature by sequential CTC-xenograft modeling.
Monika Vishnoi, Nikki Haowen Liu, +4 authors, Dario Marchetti.
Mol Oncol, 2019 Jun 20; 13(9). PMID: 31216110    Free PMC article.
A kinase inhibitor screen identifies a dual cdc7/CDK9 inhibitor to sensitise triple-negative breast cancer to EGFR-targeted therapy.
Ronan P McLaughlin, Jichao He, +6 authors, Bob van de Water.
Breast Cancer Res, 2019 Jul 03; 21(1). PMID: 31262335    Free PMC article.
A Sesquiterpenoid from Farfarae Flos Induces Apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells through Inhibition of JAK-STAT3 Signaling.
Hyeri Jang, Hyejin Ko, Kwangho Song, Yeong Shik Kim.
Biomolecules, 2019 Jul 25; 9(7). PMID: 31337063    Free PMC article.
Berberine Impairs the Survival of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells: Cellular and Molecular Analyses.
Lamyae El Khalki, Virginie Maire, Thierry Dubois, Abdelmajid Zyad.
Molecules, 2020 Jan 30; 25(3). PMID: 31991634    Free PMC article.
GP130 Cytokines in Breast Cancer and Bone.
Tolu Omokehinde, Rachelle W Johnson.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Feb 07; 12(2). PMID: 32023849    Free PMC article.
Review.
Molecular Mechanisms of PALB2 Function and Its Role in Breast Cancer Management.
Shijie Wu, Jiaojiao Zhou, +5 authors, Yiding Chen.
Front Oncol, 2020 Mar 19; 10. PMID: 32185139    Free PMC article.
Review.
NPM1 upregulates the transcription of PD-L1 and suppresses T cell activity in triple-negative breast cancer.
Ge Qin, Xin Wang, +18 authors, Wuguo Deng.
Nat Commun, 2020 Apr 05; 11(1). PMID: 32245950    Free PMC article.
Knockdown of lncRNA PCAT6 Enhances Radiosensitivity in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating miR-185-5p/TPD52 Axis.
Rui Shi, Peng Wu, +2 authors, Longjiao Cong.
Onco Targets Ther, 2020 Apr 21; 13. PMID: 32308433    Free PMC article.
LNK promotes the growth and metastasis of triple negative breast cancer via activating JAK/STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathway.
Jianxin Lv, Wei Yu, +4 authors, Chenfei Wang.
Cancer Cell Int, 2020 Apr 24; 20. PMID: 32322171    Free PMC article.
Outcomes of ovarian stimulation and fertility preservation in breast cancer patients with different hormonal receptor profiles.
Jacques Balayla, Togas Tulandi, +4 authors, Alexander Volodarsky-Perel.
J Assist Reprod Genet, 2020 Mar 08; 37(4). PMID: 32144524    Free PMC article.
Narrowing the focus: Therapeutic cell surface targets for refractory triple-negative breast cancer.
Narges K Tafreshi, David L Morse, Marie Catherine Lee.
World J Clin Oncol, 2020 May 02; 11(4). PMID: 32355639    Free PMC article.
Review.
Inhibition of the polyamine synthesis enzyme ornithine decarboxylase sensitizes triple-negative breast cancer cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Renee C Geck, Jackson R Foley, +3 authors, Alex Toker.
J Biol Chem, 2020 Mar 07; 295(19). PMID: 32139506    Free PMC article.
Inhibitory Effects of Tangeretin, A Citrus Peel-Derived Flavonoid, on Breast Cancer Stem Cell Formation through Suppression of Stat3 Signaling.
Yu-Chan Ko, Hack Sun Choi, +4 authors, Dong-Sun Lee.
Molecules, 2020 Jun 07; 25(11). PMID: 32503228    Free PMC article.
CinéBreast-factors influencing the time to first metastatic recurrence in breast cancer: Analysis of real-life data from the French ESME MBC database.
P Gougis, M Carton, +20 authors, C Le Tourneau.
Breast, 2019 Nov 02; 49. PMID: 31675683    Free PMC article.
Breast MRI texture analysis for prediction of BRCA-associated genetic risk.
Georgia Vasileiou, Maria J Costa, +14 authors, Matthias Hammon.
BMC Med Imaging, 2020 Jul 31; 20(1). PMID: 32727387    Free PMC article.
A Six-Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Gene Signature May Predict Metastasis of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Li Yuan Wei, Xiao Jun Zhang, +4 authors, Jin Nan Gao.
Onco Targets Ther, 2020 Aug 06; 13. PMID: 32753890    Free PMC article.
Understanding breast cancer disparities-a multi-scale challenge.
Hannah E Hill, William P Schiemann, Vinay Varadan.
Ann Transl Med, 2020 Aug 15; 8(14). PMID: 32793750    Free PMC article.
Review.
Distinguishing metastatic triple-negative breast cancer from nonmetastatic breast cancer using second harmonic generation imaging and resonance Raman spectroscopy.
Ethan Bendau, Jason Smith, +6 authors, Lingyan Shi.
J Biophotonics, 2020 Mar 29; 13(7). PMID: 32219996    Free PMC article.
WNT signaling pathway regulator-FRAT2 affects oncogenesis and prognosis of basal-like breast cancer.
Yao Zhou, Can Li, +5 authors, Taiyuan Li.
J Thorac Dis, 2020 Aug 18; 12(7). PMID: 32802426    Free PMC article.
Overview of the genetic basis toward early detection of breast cancer.
Sumadee De Silva, Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Eric Hamilton Karunanayake.
Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press), 2019 Feb 06; 11. PMID: 30718964    Free PMC article.
Review.
Triple-negative breast cancer: the reality in Chile and in Latin America.
Christian Caglevic, Jaime Anabalón, +6 authors, Mauricio Mahave.
Ecancermedicalscience, 2019 Feb 23; 13. PMID: 30792810    Free PMC article.
Review.
Precision medicine for locally advanced breast cancer: frontiers and challenges in Latin America.
Joseph A Pinto, César H Saravia, +10 authors, Henry L Gómez.
Ecancermedicalscience, 2019 Feb 23; 13. PMID: 30792813    Free PMC article.
Review.
The effect of neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy in BRCA mutated triple negative breast cancers -systematic review and meta-analysis.
Olga Caramelo, Cristina Silva, +2 authors, Teresa Almeida-Santos.
Hered Cancer Clin Pract, 2019 Apr 10; 17. PMID: 30962858    Free PMC article.
Review.
Clinical and Cyto-Morphological Characterization of Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Chayanika Kala, Mohd Athar, +3 authors, Amitabh Satsangi.
J Cytol, 2019 Apr 18; 36(2). PMID: 30992642    Free PMC article.
Correlation of CD8+ Expression, Foxp3+ Expression, and CD8+/Foxp3+ Ratio with Triple Negative Breast Cancer Stage in Sanglah General Hospital.
I Wayan Sudarsa, Dewa Gede Subawa, Putu Anda Tusta Adiputra, Ida Bagus Tjakra Wibawa Manuaba.
Open Access Maced J Med Sci, 2019 Jun 19; 7(10). PMID: 31210806    Free PMC article.
Perspectives on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Current Treatment Strategies, Unmet Needs, and Potential Targets for Future Therapies.
Gagan K Gupta, Amber L Collier, +13 authors, Amy H Tang.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Aug 28; 12(9). PMID: 32846967    Free PMC article.
Review.
The Survival Outcomes of T1aN0M0 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer With Adjuvant Chemotherapy.
Wen-Fen Fu, Qing-Xia Chen, +2 authors, Chuan-Gui Song.
Front Oncol, 2020 Oct 27; 10. PMID: 33102205    Free PMC article.
Downregulated METTL14 Expression Correlates with Breast Cancer Tumor Grade and Molecular Classification.
Xiao-Fang Dong, Yan Wang, +5 authors, Chao-Qun Wang.
Biomed Res Int, 2020 Nov 03; 2020. PMID: 33134390    Free PMC article.
Thioguanine Induces Apoptosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Regulating PI3K-AKT Pathway.
Daoyu Zhang, Xinglan An, +7 authors, Ziyi Li.
Front Oncol, 2020 Nov 17; 10. PMID: 33194583    Free PMC article.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and mRNA expression of CYP1B1 influence treatment response in triple negative breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Ahmad Aizat Abdul Aziz, Md Salzihan Md Salleh, +5 authors, Ravindran Ankathil.
J Genet, 2018 Dec 18; 97(5). PMID: 30555068
Development and validation of a prognostic nomogram for patients with triple-negative breast cancer with histology of infiltrating duct carcinoma.
Na Jing, Ming-Wei Ma, +7 authors, Hai-Xia Jia.
Ann Transl Med, 2020 Dec 15; 8(21). PMID: 33313192    Free PMC article.
Combined High Resistin and EGFR Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancer.
Yue Zeng, Chih-Hsin Tang, +7 authors, Li-Song Teng.
Biomed Res Int, 2020 Dec 15; 2020. PMID: 33313320    Free PMC article.
Breast Trauma and Triple-Negative Hemorrhagic Cystic Carcinoma: Management and Treatment.
Maria Cotesta, Oreste Claudio Buonomo, +10 authors, Marco Pellicciaro.
Am J Case Rep, 2020 Dec 15; 21. PMID: 33311426    Free PMC article.
Gene Expression Alterations Associated with Oleuropein-Induced Antiproliferative Effects and S-Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
Samia S Messeha, Najla O Zarmouh, Abrar Asiri, Karam F A Soliman.
Nutrients, 2020 Dec 11; 12(12). PMID: 33297339    Free PMC article.
Splicing factors control triple-negative breast cancer cell mitosis through SUN2 interaction and sororin intron retention.
Esmee Koedoot, Eline van Steijn, +5 authors, Bob van de Water.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2021 Mar 03; 40(1). PMID: 33648524    Free PMC article.
Celastrol attenuates the inflammatory response by inhibiting IL‑1β expression in triple‑negative breast cancer cells.
Daeun You, Yisun Jeong, +5 authors, Sangmin Kim.
Oncol Rep, 2021 Apr 14; 45(6). PMID: 33846813    Free PMC article.
Antitumor Activity of Pulvomycin via Targeting Activated-STAT3 Signaling in Docetaxel-Resistant Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
Woong Sub Byun, Eun Seo Bae, +3 authors, Sang Kook Lee.
Biomedicines, 2021 May 01; 9(4). PMID: 33920736    Free PMC article.
Glucocorticoid Receptor: A Multifaceted Actor in Breast Cancer.
Lara Malik Noureddine, Olivier Trédan, +3 authors, Coralie Poulard.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 May 01; 22(9). PMID: 33923160    Free PMC article.
Review.
Prognostic Models for Nonmetastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Based on the Pretreatment Serum Tumor Markers with Machine Learning.
Huihui Chen, Shijie Wu, +6 authors, Yiding Chen.
J Oncol, 2021 Jun 01; 2021. PMID: 34054955    Free PMC article.
Triple-negative breast cancer: promising prognostic biomarkers currently in development.
Jasmine Sukumar, Kelly Gast, +2 authors, Nicole Williams.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther, 2020 Nov 18; 21(2). PMID: 33198517    Free PMC article.