Review
. 2012 Nov; 18(41):5848-61.
doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i41.5848.

Changes of the cytokine profile in inflammatory bowel diseases

Györgyi Műzes 1 Béla Molnár  Zsolt Tulassay  Ferenc Sipos  
Affiliations
  • PMID: 23139600
  •     153 References
  •     85 citations

Abstract

Cytokines are indispensable signals of the mucosa-associated immune system for maintaining normal gut homeostasis. An imbalance of their profile in favour of inflammation initiation may lead to disease states, such as that is observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Although Crohn's disease (CD) is often described as a prototype of T-helper 1-type diseases, and ulcerative colitis (UC) is traditionally viewed as a T-helper 2-mediated condition, the classic paradigm, which categorises cytokines into pro- and anti-inflammatory groups, has recently been changed. The inflammation regulatory pathways may not be mutually exclusive as individual cytokines can have diverse and even opposing functions in various clinical and immunological settings. None the less there are many common immunological responses in IBD that are mediated by cytokines. Although they regulate and influence the development, course and recurrence of the inflammatory process, the concrete pathogenic role of these small signaling molecules is sometimes not unambiguous in the subtypes of the disease. Our aim is to review the current information about pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of traditionally studied and recently discovered cytokines in the pathogenesis of UC and CD. The better understanding of their production and functional activity may lead to the development of new therapeutic modalities.

Keywords: Crohn’s disease; Interleukin-25; Interleukin-33; Interleukin-35; Interleukin-4; Interleukin-8; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14; Tumor necrosis factor-like factor; Ulcerative colitis.

Novel p19 protein engages IL-12p40 to form a cytokine, IL-23, with biological activities similar as well as distinct from IL-12.
B Oppmann, R Lesley, +22 authors, R A Kastelein.
Immunity, 2000 Dec 15; 13(5). PMID: 11114383
Highly Cited.
Interleukin-33 expression is specifically enhanced in inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis.
Ayako Kobori, Yuhki Yagi, +6 authors, Akira Andoh.
J Gastroenterol, 2010 Apr 21; 45(10). PMID: 20405148
Highly Cited.
Molecular characterization of NF-HEV, a nuclear factor preferentially expressed in human high endothelial venules.
Espen S Baekkevold, Myriam Roussigné, +7 authors, Jean-Philippe Girard.
Am J Pathol, 2003 Jun 24; 163(1). PMID: 12819012    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A protective function for interleukin 17A in T cell-mediated intestinal inflammation.
William O'Connor, Masahito Kamanaka, +5 authors, Richard A Flavell.
Nat Immunol, 2009 May 19; 10(6). PMID: 19448631    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Critical role of IL-17 receptor signaling in acute TNBS-induced colitis.
Zili Zhang, Mingquan Zheng, +2 authors, Jay K Kolls.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2006 May 04; 12(5). PMID: 16670527
Highly Cited.
Interleukin-21 triggers effector cell responses in the gut.
Daniela De Nitto, Massimiliano Sarra, Francesco Pallone, Giovanni Monteleone.
World J Gastroenterol, 2010 Aug 03; 16(29). PMID: 20677335    Free PMC article.
Review.
Convergent mechanisms for recognition of divergent cytokines by the shared signaling receptor gp130.
Martin J Boulanger, Alexander J Bankovich, +2 authors, K Christopher Garcia.
Mol Cell, 2003 Oct 07; 12(3). PMID: 14527405
Soluble interleukin-6 receptors in inflammatory bowel disease: relation to circulating interleukin-6.
K Mitsuyama, A Toyonaga, +7 authors, K Tanikawa.
Gut, 1995 Jan 01; 36(1). PMID: 7890234    Free PMC article.
Interleukin-12 and the regulation of innate resistance and adaptive immunity.
Giorgio Trinchieri.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2003 Feb 04; 3(2). PMID: 12563297
Highly Cited. Review.
Suppression of inflammation in ulcerative colitis by interferon-β-1a is accompanied by inhibition of IL-13 production.
Peter J Mannon, Ronald L Hornung, +6 authors, Ivan J Fuss.
Gut, 2010 Oct 26; 60(4). PMID: 20971977    Free PMC article.
Two types of mouse T helper cell. IV. Th2 clones secrete a factor that inhibits cytokine production by Th1 clones.
D F Fiorentino, M W Bond, T R Mosmann.
J Exp Med, 1989 Dec 01; 170(6). PMID: 2531194    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Clinical relevance of serum interleukin-6 in Crohn's disease: single point measurements, therapy monitoring, and prediction of clinical relapse.
W Reinisch, C Gasché, +9 authors, H Lochs.
Am J Gastroenterol, 1999 Aug 13; 94(8). PMID: 10445543
Lessons from genetically engineered animal models. XII. IL-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-) mice and intestinal inflammation.
D M Rennick, M M Fort.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2000 Jun 22; 278(6). PMID: 10859210
Review.
Isolation and characterization of a novel short peptide associated with Crohn's disease.
K Mitsuyama, M Niwa, +5 authors, M Sata.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2011 Jul 30; 166(1). PMID: 21797848    Free PMC article.
Involvement of interleukin-4 and -10 in inflammatory bowel disease.
O H Nielsen, T Køppen, +3 authors, I Kirman.
Dig Dis Sci, 1996 Sep 01; 41(9). PMID: 8794795
The IL-1 family and inflammatory diseases.
C A Dinarello.
Clin Exp Rheumatol, 2004 Mar 03; 20(5 Suppl 27). PMID: 14989423
Highly Cited. Review.
Involvement of interleukin 18 in Crohn's disease: evidence from in vitro analysis of human gut inflammatory cells and from experimental colitis models.
P Maerten, C Shen, +8 authors, J L Ceuppens.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2004 Jan 24; 135(2). PMID: 14738461    Free PMC article.
IL-19 as a potential therapeutic in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
Yasu-Taka Azuma, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Tadayoshi Takeuchi.
Curr Pharm Des, 2011 Nov 23; 17(34). PMID: 22103848
Review.
Disparate CD4+ lamina propria (LP) lymphokine secretion profiles in inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's disease LP cells manifest increased secretion of IFN-gamma, whereas ulcerative colitis LP cells manifest increased secretion of IL-5.
I J Fuss, M Neurath, +5 authors, W Strober.
J Immunol, 1996 Aug 01; 157(3). PMID: 8757634
Highly Cited.
The IL-23/IL-17 axis in inflammation.
Yoichiro Iwakura, Harumichi Ishigame.
J Clin Invest, 2006 May 04; 116(5). PMID: 16670765    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Cytokine blockade in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Clémentine Perrier, Paul Rutgeerts.
Immunotherapy, 2011 Nov 08; 3(11). PMID: 22053885
Review.
Disease-related expression of the IL6/STAT3/SOCS3 signalling pathway in ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis-related carcinogenesis.
Yi Li, Colin de Haar, +6 authors, C Janneke van der Woude.
Gut, 2009 Nov 21; 59(2). PMID: 19926618
Il-6 signaling in inflammatory bowel disease: pathophysiological role and clinical relevance.
Jonas Mudter, Markus F Neurath.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2007 May 04; 13(8). PMID: 17476678
Review.
Proinflammatory cytokines underlying the inflammation of Crohn's disease.
Warren Strober, Fuping Zhang, +2 authors, Stefan Fichtner-Feigl.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol, 2010 May 18; 26(4). PMID: 20473158    Free PMC article.
Inhibition of interleukin-33 signaling attenuates the severity of experimental arthritis.
Gaby Palmer, Dominique Talabot-Ayer, +6 authors, Cem Gabay.
Arthritis Rheum, 2009 Feb 28; 60(3). PMID: 19248109
Highly Cited.
Oxidative state and IL-6 production in intestinal myofibroblasts of Crohn's disease patients.
Serena Catarzi, Fabio Favilli, +5 authors, Teresa Iantomasi.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2011 Jul 12; 17(8). PMID: 21744422
The regulation of T cell homeostasis and autoimmunity by T cell-derived LIGHT.
J Wang, J C Lo, +6 authors, Y X Fu.
J Clin Invest, 2001 Dec 19; 108(12). PMID: 11748260    Free PMC article.
TGF-beta suppresses tumor progression in colon cancer by inhibition of IL-6 trans-signaling.
Christoph Becker, Massimo C Fantini, +15 authors, Markus F Neurath.
Immunity, 2004 Oct 16; 21(4). PMID: 15485627
Highly Cited.
Serum soluble TNF receptor I and II levels correlate with disease activity in IBD patients.
Tanja Spoettl, Martin Hausmann, +6 authors, Gerhard Rogler.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2007 Jan 30; 13(6). PMID: 17260368
Characterization of cytokine expression in the rectal mucosa of ulcerative colitis: correlation with disease activity.
S Inoue, T Matsumoto, +4 authors, M Shimizu.
Am J Gastroenterol, 1999 Sep 14; 94(9). PMID: 10484006
IL-13 signaling through the IL-13alpha2 receptor is involved in induction of TGF-beta1 production and fibrosis.
Stefan Fichtner-Feigl, Warren Strober, +2 authors, Atsushi Kitani.
Nat Med, 2005 Dec 06; 12(1). PMID: 16327802
Highly Cited.
Contribution of IL-33 to induction and augmentation of experimental allergic conjunctivitis.
Saori Matsuba-Kitamura, Tomohiro Yoshimoto, +6 authors, Kenji Nakanishi.
Int Immunol, 2010 May 27; 22(6). PMID: 20501612
Protective role of interleukin-19 gene polymorphisms in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Jesús K Yamamoto-Furusho, Edith Álvarez-León, +3 authors, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón.
Hum Immunol, 2011 Sep 20; 72(11). PMID: 21925224
IL-23 is essential for T cell-mediated colitis and promotes inflammation via IL-17 and IL-6.
David Yen, Jeanne Cheung, +12 authors, Donna Rennick.
J Clin Invest, 2006 May 04; 116(5). PMID: 16670770    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
IL-6 induces NF-kappa B activation in the intestinal epithelia.
Lixin Wang, Baljit Walia, +3 authors, Shanthi V Sitaraman.
J Immunol, 2003 Sep 10; 171(6). PMID: 12960348
Interleukin-4 inhibits the increased production of vascular endothelial growth factor by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
T Griga, U Hebler, +2 authors, B May.
Hepatogastroenterology, 2001 Jan 10; 47(36). PMID: 11149012
Frequently relapsing Crohn's disease is characterized by persistent elevation in interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-2 receptor serum levels during remission.
C Van Kemseke, J Belaiche, E Louis.
Int J Colorectal Dis, 2000 Sep 29; 15(4). PMID: 11008719
Novel cytokine signaling pathways in inflammatory bowel disease: insight into the dichotomous functions of IL-33 during chronic intestinal inflammation.
Luca Pastorelli, Carlo De Salvo, +2 authors, Theresa T Pizarro.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol, 2011 Sep 17; 4(5). PMID: 21922030    Free PMC article.
IL-33 amplifies the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages that contribute to airway inflammation.
Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska, Bartosz Stolarski, +12 authors, Foo Y Liew.
J Immunol, 2009 Oct 21; 183(10). PMID: 19841166
Highly Cited.
Innovative therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease.
Jesus-K Yamamoto-Furusho.
World J Gastroenterol, 2007 Apr 28; 13(13). PMID: 17461487    Free PMC article.
Review.
Human intestinal epithelial cells secrete interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-8 but not interleukin-1 or interleukin-6.
R Daig, G Rogler, +5 authors, T Andus.
Gut, 2000 Feb 15; 46(3). PMID: 10673296    Free PMC article.
New concepts in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease.
Giorgos Bamias, Mark R Nyce, +3 authors, American Physiological Society.
Ann Intern Med, 2005 Dec 21; 143(12). PMID: 16365470
Review.
Endogenous interleukin-10 constrains Th17 cells in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Cailin M Wilke, Lin Wang, +6 authors, Weiping Zou.
J Transl Med, 2011 Dec 20; 9. PMID: 22176654    Free PMC article.
NFIL3 is a regulator of IL-12 p40 in macrophages and mucosal immunity.
Taku Kobayashi, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, +11 authors, Scott E Plevy.
J Immunol, 2011 Mar 09; 186(8). PMID: 21383239    Free PMC article.
Upregulation of interleukin-12 and -17 in active inflammatory bowel disease.
O H Nielsen, I Kirman, +2 authors, B Vainer.
Scand J Gastroenterol, 2003 Apr 08; 38(2). PMID: 12678335
Epithelial-cell recognition of commensal bacteria and maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut.
David Artis.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2008 May 13; 8(6). PMID: 18469830
Highly Cited. Review.
Nonclassical CD1d-restricted NK T cells that produce IL-13 characterize an atypical Th2 response in ulcerative colitis.
Ivan J Fuss, Frank Heller, +9 authors, Warren Strober.
J Clin Invest, 2004 May 18; 113(10). PMID: 15146247    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Induction of IL-13 triggers TGF-beta1-dependent tissue fibrosis in chronic 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis.
Stefan Fichtner-Feigl, Ivan J Fuss, +5 authors, Warren Strober.
J Immunol, 2007 Apr 20; 178(9). PMID: 17442970
Involvement of IL-17A in the pathogenesis of DSS-induced colitis in mice.
Reiko Ito, Masakazu Kita, +10 authors, Osam Mazda.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2008 Sep 18; 377(1). PMID: 18796297
The role of IL-13 and NK T cells in experimental and human ulcerative colitis.
I J Fuss, W Strober.
Mucosal Immunol, 2008 Dec 23; 1 Suppl 1. PMID: 19079225    Free PMC article.
Review.
LIGHT expression by mucosal T cells may regulate IFN-gamma expression in the intestine.
Offer Cohavy, Jaclyn Zhou, +2 authors, Stephan R Targan.
J Immunol, 2004 Jun 24; 173(1). PMID: 15210782
TNF receptor type I-dependent activation of innate responses to reduce intestinal damage-associated mortality.
Emiko Mizoguchi, Yuriko Hachiya, +5 authors, Daniel K Podolsky.
Gastroenterology, 2008 Feb 05; 134(2). PMID: 18242213
Mucosal imbalance of IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist in inflammatory bowel disease. A novel mechanism of chronic intestinal inflammation.
V Casini-Raggi, L Kam, +3 authors, F Cominelli.
J Immunol, 1995 Mar 01; 154(5). PMID: 7868909
Highly Cited.
Ulcerative colitis: immune function, tissue fibrosis and current therapeutic considerations.
Jochen Maul, Martin Zeitz.
Langenbecks Arch Surg, 2011 Apr 12; 397(1). PMID: 21479621
Review.
Update on the management of Crohn's disease.
Anna M Buchner, Wojciech Blonski, Gary R Lichtenstein.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep, 2011 Jul 28; 13(5). PMID: 21792543
Review.
Mucosal T-cell immunoregulation varies in early and late inflammatory bowel disease.
S Kugathasan, L J Saubermann, +6 authors, C Fiocchi.
Gut, 2007 Aug 08; 56(12). PMID: 17682002    Free PMC article.
Investigation of Crohn's disease risk loci in ulcerative colitis further defines their molecular relationship.
Carl A Anderson, Dunecan C O Massey, +31 authors, Miles Parkes.
Gastroenterology, 2008 Dec 11; 136(2). PMID: 19068216    Free PMC article.
Genomic characterization of LIGHT reveals linkage to an immune response locus on chromosome 19p13.3 and distinct isoforms generated by alternate splicing or proteolysis.
S W Granger, K D Butrovich, +2 authors, C F Ware.
J Immunol, 2001 Oct 24; 167(9). PMID: 11673523
Increased response of blood eosinophils to various chemotactic agents in quiescent Crohn disease.
M A Denis, R Louis, +2 authors, E Louis.
Scand J Gastroenterol, 2001 Mar 17; 36(2). PMID: 11252412
A transforming growth factor beta 1 receptor type II mutation in ulcerative colitis-associated neoplasms.
R F Souza, J Lei, +17 authors, S J Meltzer.
Gastroenterology, 1997 Jan 01; 112(1). PMID: 8978341
Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4.
Wendy T Watford, Bruce D Hissong, +3 authors, John J O'Shea.
Immunol Rev, 2004 Nov 18; 202. PMID: 15546391
Highly Cited. Review.
Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
R J Xavier, D K Podolsky.
Nature, 2007 Jul 27; 448(7152). PMID: 17653185
Highly Cited. Review.
The role of matrix metalloproteinases in stromal/epithelial interactions in the gut.
N Sengupta, T T MacDonald.
Physiology (Bethesda), 2007 Dec 13; 22. PMID: 18073413
Review.
Human intestinal epithelial cell-derived interleukin (IL)-18, along with IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15, is a potent synergistic factor for the proliferation of intraepithelial lymphocytes.
A Okazawa, T Kanai, +14 authors, T Hibi.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2004 Apr 17; 136(2). PMID: 15086390    Free PMC article.
Crystal structure of interleukin-19 defines a new subfamily of helical cytokines.
Changsoo Chang, Eugenia Magracheva, +5 authors, Alexander Zdanov.
J Biol Chem, 2002 Oct 31; 278(5). PMID: 12403790
Interleukin-18 is increased only in a minority of patients with active Crohn's disease.
C Schmidt, T Giese, +7 authors, A Stallmach.
Int J Colorectal Dis, 2007 Feb 24; 22(9). PMID: 17318554
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor in inflammatory bowel disease: linking the environment to disease pathogenesis.
Ivan Monteleone, Thomas T MacDonald, Francesco Pallone, Giovanni Monteleone.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol, 2012 Mar 28; 28(4). PMID: 22450895
Review.
Inflamed gut mucosa: downstream of interleukin-10.
Gregor Paul, Vineeta Khare, Christoph Gasche.
Eur J Clin Invest, 2011 Jun 03; 42(1). PMID: 21631466
Review.
Cutting edge: IL-23 cross-regulates IL-12 production in T cell-dependent experimental colitis.
Christoph Becker, Heike Dornhoff, +11 authors, Markus F Neurath.
J Immunol, 2006 Aug 22; 177(5). PMID: 16920909
Expression, localization, and functional activity of TL1A, a novel Th1-polarizing cytokine in inflammatory bowel disease.
Giorgos Bamias, Charles Martin, +10 authors, Fabio Cominelli.
J Immunol, 2003 Oct 22; 171(9). PMID: 14568967
IL-25 induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and Th2-associated pathologies in vivo.
M M Fort, J Cheung, +13 authors, D M Rennick.
Immunity, 2002 Jan 05; 15(6). PMID: 11754819
Highly Cited.
Interleukin-13 is the key effector Th2 cytokine in ulcerative colitis that affects epithelial tight junctions, apoptosis, and cell restitution.
Frank Heller, Peter Florian, +11 authors, Jörg D Schulzke.
Gastroenterology, 2005 Aug 09; 129(2). PMID: 16083712
Highly Cited.
The IL-1-like cytokine IL-33 is constitutively expressed in the nucleus of endothelial cells and epithelial cells in vivo: a novel 'alarmin'?
Christine Moussion, Nathalie Ortega, Jean-Philippe Girard.
PLoS One, 2008 Oct 07; 3(10). PMID: 18836528    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Implication of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in inflammatory intestinal epithelial lesions.
Bernadette Begue, Harald Wajant, +12 authors, Frank M Ruemmele.
Gastroenterology, 2006 Jun 10; 130(7). PMID: 16762619
Interleukin-25 inhibits interleukin-12 production and Th1 cell-driven inflammation in the gut.
Roberta Caruso, Massimiliano Sarra, +6 authors, Giovanni Monteleone.
Gastroenterology, 2009 Jun 10; 136(7). PMID: 19505427
Local and systemic interleukin-18 and interleukin-18-binding protein in children with inflammatory bowel disease.
Steven T Leach, Isabella Messina, +3 authors, Andrew S Day.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2007 Sep 20; 14(1). PMID: 17879274
The extended IL-10 superfamily: IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29.
Scott Commins, John W Steinke, Larry Borish.
J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2008 Apr 15; 121(5). PMID: 18405958
Review.
Role of cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease.
Fausto Sanchez-Munoz, Aaron Dominguez-Lopez, Jesus-K Yamamoto-Furusho.
World J Gastroenterol, 2008 Jul 31; 14(27). PMID: 18666314    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Unusual haplotypic structure of IL8, a susceptibility locus for a common respiratory virus.
J Hull, H Ackerman, +4 authors, D Kwiatkowski.
Am J Hum Genet, 2001 Jun 30; 69(2). PMID: 11431705    Free PMC article.
Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(H)17 lineage.
Paul R Mangan, Laurie E Harrington, +7 authors, Casey T Weaver.
Nature, 2006 May 02; 441(7090). PMID: 16648837
Highly Cited.
Interleukin-12 and Th1 immune response in Crohn's disease: pathogenetic relevance and therapeutic implication.
Ilaria Peluso, Francesco Pallone, Giovanni Monteleone.
World J Gastroenterol, 2006 Sep 29; 12(35). PMID: 17007011    Free PMC article.
Review.
The genetics and immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Judy H Cho.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2008 May 27; 8(6). PMID: 18500230
Highly Cited. Review.
Nuclear interleukin-33 is generally expressed in resting endothelium but rapidly lost upon angiogenic or proinflammatory activation.
Axel M Küchler, Jürgen Pollheimer, +6 authors, Guttorm Haraldsen.
Am J Pathol, 2008 Sep 13; 173(4). PMID: 18787100    Free PMC article.
Interferon-gamma-expressing cells are a major source of interleukin-21 in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Massimiliano Sarra, Ivan Monteleone, +7 authors, Giovanni Monteleone.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2010 Feb 27; 16(8). PMID: 20186935
Transfer of interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 in patients with severe inflammatory bowel disease of the rectum.
M A Rogy, B G Beinhauer, +2 authors, P Pokieser.
Hum Gene Ther, 2000 Aug 24; 11(12). PMID: 10954907
Interleukin-6 family of cytokines and gp130.
T Kishimoto, S Akira, M Narazaki, T Taga.
Blood, 1995 Aug 15; 86(4). PMID: 7632928
Highly Cited. Review.
Interleukin-13 and transforming growth factor β synergise in the pathogenesis of human intestinal fistulae.
Michael Scharl, Sandra Frei, +8 authors, Gerhard Rogler.
Gut, 2012 Jan 31; 62(1). PMID: 22287592
Regulatory T cells in inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.
Györgyi Műzes, Béla Molnár, Ferenc Sipos.
World J Gastroenterol, 2012 Nov 17; 18(40). PMID: 23155308    Free PMC article.
Review.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody for induction of remission in Crohn's disease.
A K Akobeng, M Zachos.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2004 Feb 20; (1). PMID: 14974022
Systematic Review.
Cytokine-regulated accumulation of eosinophils in inflammatory disease.
M Lampinen, M Carlson, L D Håkansson, P Venge.
Allergy, 2004 Jul 03; 59(8). PMID: 15230810
Review.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-induced signals up-regulate IL-22 production and inhibit inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract.
Ivan Monteleone, Angelamaria Rizzo, +6 authors, Giovanni Monteleone.
Gastroenterology, 2011 May 24; 141(1). PMID: 21600206
Highly Cited.
Interleukin-1beta and the autoinflammatory diseases.
Charles A Dinarello.
N Engl J Med, 2009 Jun 06; 360(23). PMID: 19494224
Colonic epithelial upregulation of interleukin 22 (IL-22) in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Jesús K Yamamoto-Furusho, Elizabeth Miranda-Pérez, +3 authors, Rafael Barreto-Zuñiga.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2010 Mar 12; 16(11). PMID: 20222141
Transforming growth factor-beta mediates intestinal healing and susceptibility to injury in vitro and in vivo through epithelial cells.
Paul L Beck, Ian M Rosenberg, +3 authors, Daniel K Podolsky.
Am J Pathol, 2003 Jan 28; 162(2). PMID: 12547717    Free PMC article.
New insights into the regulation of T cells by gamma(c) family cytokines.
Yrina Rochman, Rosanne Spolski, Warren J Leonard.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2009 Jun 23; 9(7). PMID: 19543225    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Role of serum cytokine profile in ulcerative colitis assessment.
Manuel Luis Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Valle García-Sánchez, +4 authors, Federico Gómez-Camacho.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2012 Jan 13; 18(10). PMID: 22238172
Control of matrix metalloproteinase production in human intestinal fibroblasts by interleukin 21.
G Monteleone, R Caruso, +9 authors, F Pallone.
Gut, 2006 May 10; 55(12). PMID: 16682426    Free PMC article.
Interleukin-23 restrains regulatory T cell activity to drive T cell-dependent colitis.
Ana Izcue, Sophie Hue, +5 authors, Fiona Powrie.
Immunity, 2008 Apr 11; 28(4). PMID: 18400195    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) controls inflammatory pathways in the gut.
Daniele Fina, Roberta Caruso, Francesco Pallone, Giovanni Monteleone.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets, 2008 Jan 29; 7(4). PMID: 18220949
Review.
Characterization of the novel ST2/IL-33 system in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Caroll J Beltrán, Lucía E Núñez, +7 authors, Marcela A Hermoso.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2009 Dec 17; 16(7). PMID: 20014018
Highly Cited.
Circulating and gut-resident human Th17 cells express CD161 and promote intestinal inflammation.
Melanie A Kleinschek, Katia Boniface, +10 authors, Robert A Kastelein.
J Exp Med, 2009 Mar 11; 206(3). PMID: 19273624    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A case for regulatory B cells.
Atsushi Mizoguchi, Atul K Bhan.
J Immunol, 2006 Jan 06; 176(2). PMID: 16393950
Highly Cited. Review.
The cytokine interleukin-33 mediates anaphylactic shock.
Peter N Pushparaj, Hwee Kee Tay, +5 authors, Alirio J Melendez.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2009 Jun 10; 106(24). PMID: 19506243    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
IL-33, a recently identified interleukin-1 gene family member, is expressed in human adipocytes.
I Stuart Wood, Bohan Wang, Paul Trayhurn.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2009 Apr 28; 384(1). PMID: 19393621
Over-expression of interleukin 10 in mucosal T cells of patients with active ulcerative colitis.
S Melgar, M M-W Yeung, +6 authors, M-L Hammarstrom.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2003 Sep 17; 134(1). PMID: 12974765    Free PMC article.
STAT6 activation in ulcerative colitis: a new target for prevention of IL-13-induced colon epithelial cell dysfunction.
Michael J Rosen, Mark R Frey, +6 authors, D Brent Polk.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2011 Feb 11; 17(11). PMID: 21308881    Free PMC article.
T cells that cannot respond to TGF-beta escape control by CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells.
Linda Fahlén, Simon Read, +4 authors, Fiona Powrie.
J Exp Med, 2005 Mar 09; 201(5). PMID: 15753207    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Linking genetic susceptibility to Crohn's disease with Th17 cell function: IL-22 serum levels are increased in Crohn's disease and correlate with disease activity and IL23R genotype status.
Silke Schmechel, Astrid Konrad, +6 authors, Stephan Brand.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2007 Nov 21; 14(2). PMID: 18022867
Epithelial-derived IL-33 and its receptor ST2 are dysregulated in ulcerative colitis and in experimental Th1/Th2 driven enteritis.
Luca Pastorelli, Rekha R Garg, +6 authors, Theresa T Pizarro.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2010 Apr 14; 107(17). PMID: 20385815    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Colonic explant production of IL-1and its receptor antagonist is imbalanced in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
S Dionne, I D D'Agata, +2 authors, E G Seidman.
Clin Exp Immunol, 1998 Jul 02; 112(3). PMID: 9649212    Free PMC article.
IL-18: A TH1-inducing, proinflammatory cytokine and new member of the IL-1 family.
C A Dinarello.
J Allergy Clin Immunol, 1999 Jan 20; 103(1 Pt 1). PMID: 9893178
Highly Cited. Review.
Cutting edge: interleukin 17 signals through a heteromeric receptor complex.
Dean Toy, David Kugler, +5 authors, Jacques Peschon.
J Immunol, 2006 Jun 21; 177(1). PMID: 16785495
Highly Cited.
Synergy of IL-23 and Th17 cytokines: new light on inflammatory bowel disease.
Wei Shen, Scott K Durum.
Neurochem Res, 2009 Nov 17; 35(6). PMID: 19915978    Free PMC article.
Review.
Th1/Th17 immune response is induced by mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells in Crohn's disease.
Atsushi Sakuraba, Toshiro Sato, +3 authors, Toshifumi Hibi.
Gastroenterology, 2009 Jul 28; 137(5). PMID: 19632232
Alteration of interleukin 4 production results in the inhibition of T helper type 2 cell-dominated inflammatory bowel disease in T cell receptor alpha chain-deficient mice.
H Iijima, I Takahashi, +4 authors, H Kiyono.
J Exp Med, 1999 Sep 08; 190(5). PMID: 10477546    Free PMC article.
The acute phase response.
H Baumann, J Gauldie.
Immunol Today, 1994 Feb 01; 15(2). PMID: 7512342
Highly Cited. Review.
Inflammatory bowel disease.
Daniel K Podolsky.
N Engl J Med, 2002 Aug 09; 347(6). PMID: 12167685
Highly Cited. Review.
The TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology.
R M Locksley, N Killeen, M J Lenardo.
Cell, 2001 Mar 10; 104(4). PMID: 11239407
Highly Cited. Review.
Immunoregulatory role of interleukin 10 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
S Schreiber, T Heinig, H G Thiele, A Raedler.
Gastroenterology, 1995 May 01; 108(5). PMID: 7729636
Highly Cited.
Interleukin-35 mediates mucosal immune responses that protect against T-cell-dependent colitis.
Stefan Wirtz, Ulrike Billmeier, +2 authors, Markus F Neurath.
Gastroenterology, 2011 Aug 09; 141(5). PMID: 21820391    Free PMC article.
Location of tumour necrosis factor alpha by immunohistochemistry in chronic inflammatory bowel disease.
S H Murch, C P Braegger, J A Walker-Smith, T T MacDonald.
Gut, 1993 Dec 01; 34(12). PMID: 8031350    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
After interleukin-12p40, are interleukin-23 and interleukin-17 the next therapeutic targets for inflammatory bowel disease?
Zili Zhang, David J Hinrichs, +3 authors, Jay K Kolls.
Int Immunopharmacol, 2007 Feb 27; 7(4). PMID: 17321463
Review.
Macrophage-derived IL-18-mediated intestinal inflammation in the murine model of Crohn's disease.
T Kanai, M Watanabe, +12 authors, T Hibi.
Gastroenterology, 2001 Oct 19; 121(4). PMID: 11606501
TL1A produced by lamina propria macrophages induces Th1 and Th17 immune responses in cooperation with IL-23 in patients with Crohn's disease.
Nobuhiko Kamada, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, +9 authors, Toshifumi Hibi.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2009 Oct 17; 16(4). PMID: 19834969
TGF-β limits IL-33 production and promotes the resolution of colitis through regulation of macrophage function.
Reena Rani, Alan G Smulian, +2 authors, De'Broski R Herbert.
Eur J Immunol, 2011 Apr 07; 41(7). PMID: 21469118    Free PMC article.
Review article: the effects of antitumour necrosis factor-α on bone metabolism in inflammatory bowel disease.
S G Veerappan, C A O'Morain, J S Daly, B M Ryan.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2011 Apr 28; 33(12). PMID: 21521250
Review.
Interleukin 4 in inflammatory bowel disease and mucosal immune reactivity.
G A West, T Matsuura, +2 authors, C Fiocchi.
Gastroenterology, 1996 Jun 01; 110(6). PMID: 8964392
TGF-beta-induced Foxp3 inhibits T(H)17 cell differentiation by antagonizing RORgammat function.
Liang Zhou, Jared E Lopes, +9 authors, Dan R Littman.
Nature, 2008 Mar 28; 453(7192). PMID: 18368049    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A unique B2 B cell subset in the intestine.
Yasuyo Shimomura, Atsuhiro Ogawa, +6 authors, Atsushi Mizoguchi.
J Exp Med, 2008 Jun 04; 205(6). PMID: 18519649    Free PMC article.
Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine signalling and its regulation.
Peter C Heinrich, Iris Behrmann, +3 authors, Fred Schaper.
Biochem J, 2003 May 30; 374(Pt 1). PMID: 12773095    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Cytokines in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.
Giorgos Bamias, Garyfallia Kaltsa, Spiros D Ladas.
Discov Med, 2011 May 28; 11(60). PMID: 21616044
Review.
The TNF receptor superfamily of cellular and viral proteins: activation, costimulation, and death.
C A Smith, T Farrah, R G Goodwin.
Cell, 1994 Mar 25; 76(6). PMID: 8137429
Highly Cited. Review.
Mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease.
Stefan Wirtz, Markus F Neurath.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 2007 Sep 11; 59(11). PMID: 17825455
Highly Cited. Review.
Expression of interleukin 1 beta and interleukin 1 beta converting enzyme by intestinal macrophages in health and inflammatory bowel disease.
M E McAlindon, C J Hawkey, Y R Mahida.
Gut, 1998 Apr 16; 42(2). PMID: 9536946    Free PMC article.
Antigen-induced recruitment of eosinophils: importance of CD4+ T cells, IL5, and mast cells.
J T Hom, T Estridge.
Clin Immunol Immunopathol, 1994 Dec 01; 73(3). PMID: 7955558
IL-33 is upregulated in colonocytes of ulcerative colitis.
Jakob Benedict Seidelin, Jacob Tveiten Bjerrum, +3 authors, Ole Haagen Nielsen.
Immunol Lett, 2009 Nov 17; 128(1). PMID: 19913053
Elevation of interleukin-6 in inflammatory bowel disease is macrophage- and epithelial cell-dependent.
K Kusugami, A Fukatsu, +7 authors, T Matsuura.
Dig Dis Sci, 1995 May 01; 40(5). PMID: 7729284
Human leukocyte subpopulations from inflamed gut bind to joint vasculature using distinct sets of adhesion molecules.
M Salmi, S Jalkanen.
J Immunol, 2001 Mar 20; 166(7). PMID: 11254724
The inhibitory cytokine IL-35 contributes to regulatory T-cell function.
Lauren W Collison, Creg J Workman, +7 authors, Dario A A Vignali.
Nature, 2007 Nov 23; 450(7169). PMID: 18033300
Highly Cited.
Expression of interleukin-12-related cytokine transcripts in inflammatory bowel disease: elevated interleukin-23p19 and interleukin-27p28 in Crohn's disease but not in ulcerative colitis.
Carsten Schmidt, Thomas Giese, +5 authors, Andreas Stallmach.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2005 Jan 28; 11(1). PMID: 15674109
Transforming growth factor-beta regulation of immune responses.
Ming O Li, Yisong Y Wan, +2 authors, Richard A Flavell.
Annu Rev Immunol, 2006 Mar 23; 24. PMID: 16551245
Highly Cited. Review.
Constitutive expression of LIGHT on T cells leads to lymphocyte activation, inflammation, and tissue destruction.
R B Shaikh, S Santee, +5 authors, C F Ware.
J Immunol, 2001 Nov 21; 167(11). PMID: 11714797
Sequence variants in IL10, ARPC2 and multiple other loci contribute to ulcerative colitis susceptibility.
Andre Franke, Tobias Balschun, +23 authors, Stefan Schreiber.
Nat Genet, 2008 Oct 07; 40(11). PMID: 18836448
Highly Cited.
IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines.
Jochen Schmitz, Alexander Owyang, +10 authors, Robert A Kastelein.
Immunity, 2005 Nov 16; 23(5). PMID: 16286016
Highly Cited.
The interleukin-23 axis in intestinal inflammation.
Philip P Ahern, Ana Izcue, Kevin J Maloy, Fiona Powrie.
Immunol Rev, 2009 Jan 24; 226. PMID: 19161422
Review.
Analysis of interleukin-27 (EBI3/p28) expression in Epstein-Barr virus- and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-associated lymphomas: heterogeneous expression of EBI3 subunit by tumoral cells.
Frédérique Larousserie, Emilie Bardel, +8 authors, Odile Devergne.
Am J Pathol, 2005 Mar 29; 166(4). PMID: 15793300    Free PMC article.
Interleukin-21 enhances T-helper cell type I signaling and interferon-gamma production in Crohn's disease.
Giovanni Monteleone, Ivan Monteleone, +9 authors, Francesco Pallone.
Gastroenterology, 2005 Mar 15; 128(3). PMID: 15765404
Transforming growth factor beta signalling and matrix metalloproteinases in the mucosa overlying Crohn's disease strictures.
A Di Sabatino, C L Jackson, +10 authors, S L Pender.
Gut, 2009 Feb 10; 58(6). PMID: 19201776
TNF alpha and the TNF receptor superfamily: structure-function relationship(s).
H T Idriss, J H Naismith.
Microsc Res Tech, 2000 Jul 13; 50(3). PMID: 10891884
Highly Cited. Review.
IL-18, a novel immunoregulatory cytokine, is up-regulated in Crohn's disease: expression and localization in intestinal mucosal cells.
T T Pizarro, M H Michie, +6 authors, F Cominelli.
J Immunol, 1999 Jun 03; 162(11). PMID: 10352304
Highly Cited.
IL-22+ CD4+ T cells are associated with therapeutic trichuris trichiura infection in an ulcerative colitis patient.
Mara J Broadhurst, Jacqueline M Leung, +4 authors, P'ng Loke.
Sci Transl Med, 2010 Dec 03; 2(60). PMID: 21123809
Mucosal inflammatory cytokine production by intestinal biopsies in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
J M Reimund, C Wittersheim, +4 authors, B Duclos.
J Clin Immunol, 1996 May 01; 16(3). PMID: 8734357
The orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells.
Ivaylo I Ivanov, Brent S McKenzie, +5 authors, Dan R Littman.
Cell, 2006 Sep 23; 126(6). PMID: 16990136
Highly Cited.
Claudin-1 regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the modulation of Notch-signalling.
Jillian L Pope, Ajaz A Bhat, +6 authors, Punita Dhawan.
Gut, 2013 Jun 15; 63(4). PMID: 23766441    Free PMC article.
Nilotinib-mediated mucosal healing in a rat model of colitis.
Pinar Ataca, Mujde Soyturk, +4 authors, Osman Yilmaz.
World J Gastroenterol, 2013 Oct 12; 19(37). PMID: 24115822    Free PMC article.
Influence of host immunoregulatory genes, ER stress and gut microbiota on the shared pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and Type 1 diabetes.
Altin Gjymishka, Roxana M Coman, Todd M Brusko, Sarah C Glover.
Immunotherapy, 2013 Nov 29; 5(12). PMID: 24283846    Free PMC article.
Review.
Longitudinal analysis of inflammation and microbiota dynamics in a model of mild chronic dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.
Luigia De Fazio, Elena Cavazza, +7 authors, Maria Chiara Valerii.
World J Gastroenterol, 2014 Mar 04; 20(8). PMID: 24587679    Free PMC article.
Intravenous administration of a single-dose free-circulating DNA of colitic origin improves severe murine DSS-colitis.
Ferenc Sipos, Györgyi Műzes, +7 authors, Béla Molnár.
Pathol Oncol Res, 2014 Apr 12; 20(4). PMID: 24723054
The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, enhances the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages.
Maria Ruweka Fernando, Jose Luis Reyes, +2 authors, Derek Mark McKay.
PLoS One, 2014 Apr 17; 9(4). PMID: 24736635    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Cross-sectional analysis of obesity and serum analytes in males identifies sRAGE as a novel biomarker inversely associated with diverticulosis.
Sarah S Comstock, Markita M Lewis, +3 authors, Jenifer I Fenton.
PLoS One, 2014 Apr 18; 9(4). PMID: 24740401    Free PMC article.
Preconditioning with intravenous colitic cell-free DNA prevents DSS-colitis by altering TLR9-associated gene expression profile.
Györgyi Műzes, Ferenc Sipos, +6 authors, Béla Molnár.
Dig Dis Sci, 2014 Sep 14; 59(12). PMID: 25217236
Endometrial regenerative cells as a novel cell therapy attenuate experimental colitis in mice.
Yongcheng Lv, Xiaoxi Xu, +5 authors, Hao Wang.
J Transl Med, 2014 Dec 06; 12. PMID: 25475342    Free PMC article.
Integrated miRNA and mRNA expression profiling in inflamed colon of patients with ulcerative colitis.
Jan Van der Goten, Wiebe Vanhove, +11 authors, Ingrid Arijs.
PLoS One, 2014 Dec 30; 9(12). PMID: 25546151    Free PMC article.
A pharmacokinetic comparison of anrukinzumab, an anti- IL-13 monoclonal antibody, among healthy volunteers, asthma and ulcerative colitis patients.
Fei Hua, Jakob Ribbing, +2 authors, Steven Martin.
Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2015 Jan 24; 80(1). PMID: 25614144    Free PMC article.
Uygur medicine Xipayi Kui Jie'an affects gene expression profiles in intestinal tissue lesions in a rat model of ulcerative colitis.
Kurexi Yunusi, Jingping Zhang, +4 authors, Halmurat Upur.
BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 May 23; 15. PMID: 25997744    Free PMC article.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview of Immune Mechanisms and Biological Treatments.
Bruno Rafael Ramos de Mattos, Maellin Pereira Gracindo Garcia, +6 authors, Patricia Ucelli Simioni.
Mediators Inflamm, 2015 Sep 05; 2015. PMID: 26339135    Free PMC article.
Review.
A Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR)γ Agonist 2-Hydroxyethyl 5-chloro-4,5-didehydrojasmonate Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Colitis.
Jieun Choo, Yunna Lee, +7 authors, Eunok Im.
J Biol Chem, 2015 Sep 06; 290(42). PMID: 26342083    Free PMC article.
Assessment of Disease-Related Therapeutic Protein Drug-Drug Interaction for Etrolizumab in Patients With Moderately to Severely Active Ulcerative Colitis.
Xiaohui Wei, Jane R Kenny, +3 authors, Meina T Tang.
J Clin Pharmacol, 2015 Sep 29; 56(6). PMID: 26412221    Free PMC article.
A novel coumarin, (+)-3'-angeloxyloxy-4'-keto-3',4'-dihydroseselin, isolated from Bupleurum malconense (Chaihu) inhibited NF-κB activity.
Huai-Xue Mu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, +4 authors, Zhao-Xiang Bian.
Chin Med, 2016 Feb 16; 11. PMID: 26877763    Free PMC article.
Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice.
Luigia De Fazio, Enzo Spisni, +7 authors, Maria C Valerii.
Front Pharmacol, 2016 Mar 15; 7. PMID: 26973525    Free PMC article.
A mechanistic PK/PD model for two anti-IL13 antibodies explains the difference in total IL-13 accumulation observed in clinical studies.
Abhinav Tiwari, Marion Kasaian, +2 authors, Fei Hua.
MAbs, 2016 Apr 07; 8(5). PMID: 27049478    Free PMC article.
Mechanism of intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: An observational study.
Xiaofeng Xin, Wei Dai, +4 authors, Min Chen.
Exp Ther Med, 2016 Sep 03; 12(3). PMID: 27588054    Free PMC article.
Mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition is related to intestinal and systemic inflammation: an observational cohort study.
Suzanna Attia, Christian J Versloot, +9 authors, Robert Hj Bandsma.
Am J Clin Nutr, 2016 Nov 03; 104(5). PMID: 27655441    Free PMC article.
Sperm Binding to Oviduct Epithelial Cells Enhances TGFB1 and IL10 Expressions in Epithelial Cells as Well as Neutrophils In Vitro: Prostaglandin E2 As a Main Regulator of Anti-Inflammatory Response in the Bovine Oviduct.
Mohamed Samy Yousef, Mohamed Ali Marey, +6 authors, Akio Miyamoto.
PLoS One, 2016 Sep 24; 11(9). PMID: 27662642    Free PMC article.
Development of an Antigen-driven Colitis Model to Study Presentation of Antigens by Antigen Presenting Cells to T Cells.
Valerio Rossini, Katarina Radulovic, Christian U Riedel, Jan Hendrik Niess.
J Vis Exp, 2016 Sep 30; (115). PMID: 27684040    Free PMC article.
Oral Tolerance Induced by OVA Intake Ameliorates TNBS-Induced Colitis in Mice.
Lisiery N Paiatto, Fernanda G D Silva, +4 authors, Patricia U Simioni.
PLoS One, 2017 Jan 19; 12(1). PMID: 28099498    Free PMC article.
Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside Modulates the In Vitro Inflammatory Crosstalk between Intestinal Epithelial and Endothelial Cells.
Daniela Ferrari, Francesco Cimino, +5 authors, Antonio Speciale.
Mediators Inflamm, 2017 Apr 05; 2017. PMID: 28373746    Free PMC article.
Helminth Immunomodulation in Autoimmune Disease.
Taylor B Smallwood, Paul R Giacomin, +3 authors, John J Miles.
Front Immunol, 2017 May 10; 8. PMID: 28484453    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Show Unique Cytokine Profiles.
Zoltan H Nemeth, Dorian A Bogdanovski, +3 authors, Rolando H Rolandelli.
Cureus, 2017 May 24; 9(4). PMID: 28533995    Free PMC article.
Anti-inflammatory effect of Chang-An-Shuan on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats.
Hong Mi, Feng-Bin Liu, +2 authors, Pei-Wu Li.
BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jun 18; 17(1). PMID: 28619075    Free PMC article.
Uridine Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis in Mice.
Manish Kumar Jeengar, Dinesh Thummuri, +2 authors, Srinivas Uppugunduri.
Sci Rep, 2017 Jun 22; 7(1). PMID: 28634361    Free PMC article.
IL-33 and the intestine: The good, the bad, and the inflammatory.
Zerina Hodzic, Ellen Merrick Schill, Alexa M Bolock, Misty Good.
Cytokine, 2017 Jul 09; 100. PMID: 28687373    Free PMC article.
Review.
Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Ground Cherry (Physalis angulata L.) standardized CO2 phytopharmaceutical preparation.
Luiz Domingues Almeida Junior, Ana Elisa Valencise Quaglio, Celso Acácio Rodrigues de Almeida Costa, Luiz Claudio Di Stasi.
World J Gastroenterol, 2017 Jul 15; 23(24). PMID: 28706419    Free PMC article.
Isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract alleviates ulcerative colitis symptoms in mice.
Youjin Kim, Alex G Wu, +4 authors, Ilya Raskin.
PLoS One, 2017 Sep 19; 12(9). PMID: 28922365    Free PMC article.
Misoprostol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production by Equine Leukocytes.
Emily Medlin Martin, Kristen M Messenger, Mary Katherine Sheats, Samuel L Jones.
Front Vet Sci, 2017 Oct 17; 4. PMID: 29034249    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic effect of imiquimod on dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.
Lu Chen, Zhongyin Zhou, +2 authors, Hongyu Xiang.
PLoS One, 2017 Oct 20; 12(10). PMID: 29049372    Free PMC article.
Investigation of the relationship between the Th17/IL-23 pathway and innate-adaptive immune system in TNBS-induced colitis in rats.
İhsan Karaboga, Selim Demirtas, Turan Karaca.
Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2017 Nov 01; 20(8). PMID: 29085578    Free PMC article.
Implication of G Protein-Coupled Receptor 43 in Intestinal Inflammation: A Mini-Review.
Guan Yang, Siyuan Chen, +5 authors, Wenkai Ren.
Front Immunol, 2018 Jul 11; 9. PMID: 29988393    Free PMC article.
Review.
Pleiotropic Immune Functions of Chemokine Receptor 6 in Health and Disease.
Ranmali Ranasinghe, Rajaraman Eri.
Medicines (Basel), 2018 Jul 14; 5(3). PMID: 30004409    Free PMC article.
Review.
T Cell-Specific Knockout of STAT3 Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Reducing the Inflammatory Response.
Sun-Ho Kwon, Eun-Bi Seo, +5 authors, Sang-Kyu Ye.
Immune Netw, 2018 Sep 06; 18(4). PMID: 30181918    Free PMC article.
The Bisindole Alkaloid Caulerpin, from Seaweeds of the Genus Caulerpa, Attenuated Colon Damage in Murine Colitis Model.
Alessandra M M Lucena, Cássio R M Souza, +8 authors, Janeusa T Souto.
Mar Drugs, 2018 Sep 13; 16(9). PMID: 30205459    Free PMC article.
Hemin reduces inflammation associated with TNBS-induced colitis.
Vanessa Mateus, João Rocha, +2 authors, Rui Pinto.
Clin Exp Gastroenterol, 2018 Oct 03; 11. PMID: 30271188    Free PMC article.
Cancer cachexia induces morphological and inflammatory changes in the intestinal mucosa.
Raquel G F Costa, Paula L Caro, +17 authors, Marília Seelaender.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle, 2019 Jul 16; 10(5). PMID: 31307125    Free PMC article.
Serum cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor profiles and their modulation in inflammatory bowel disease.
Margarita L Martinez-Fierro, Idalia Garza-Veloz, +8 authors, Yolanda Ortiz-Castro.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Oct 01; 98(38). PMID: 31567972    Free PMC article.
Comparison of cytokine and phosphoprotein profiles in idiopathic and Crohn's disease-related perianal fistula.
James B Haddow, Omar Musbahi, Thomas T MacDonald, Charles H Knowles.
World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol, 2019 Nov 22; 10(4). PMID: 31750007    Free PMC article.
The Proteolytic Fraction From Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Latex Displays Anti-Inflammatory Effect in A Mouse Model of Acute TNBS-Induced Colitis.
Ronniel Morais Albuquerque, Marina Passos Pizzitola, +5 authors, Miriam Teresa Paz Lopes.
Sci Rep, 2020 Feb 23; 10(1). PMID: 32080277    Free PMC article.
Long-term in vitro 3D hydrogel co-culture model of inflammatory bowel disease.
Rasha H Dosh, Nicola Jordan-Mahy, Christopher Sammon, Christine L Le Maitre.
Sci Rep, 2019 Feb 14; 9(1). PMID: 30755679    Free PMC article.
Impairment of electroneutral Na+ transport and associated downregulation of NHE3 contributes to the development of diarrhea following in vivo challenge with Brachyspira spp.
Cole B Enns, Brandon A Keith, +2 authors, Matthew E Loewen.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2019 Nov 26; 318(2). PMID: 31760765    Free PMC article.
Advances in Research on Immunoregulation of Macrophages by Plant Polysaccharides.
Miao Yin, Ying Zhang, Hua Li.
Front Immunol, 2019 Feb 26; 10. PMID: 30804942    Free PMC article.
Review.
Curcumin and resveratrol suppress dextran sulfate sodium‑induced colitis in mice.
Lize Zhang, Hui Xue, +4 authors, Dianliang Zhang.
Mol Med Rep, 2019 Mar 01; 19(4). PMID: 30816479    Free PMC article.
Epigenetic regulation of T helper cells and intestinal pathogenicity.
Yuya Hagihara, Yusuke Yoshimatsu, +3 authors, Takanori Kanai.
Semin Immunopathol, 2019 Mar 21; 41(3). PMID: 30891628
Review.
Ginseng berry polysaccharides on inflammation-associated colon cancer: inhibiting T-cell differentiation, promoting apoptosis, and enhancing the effects of 5-fluorouracil.
Chong-Zhi Wang, Lifei Hou, +13 authors, Chun-Su Yuan.
J Ginseng Res, 2020 Mar 10; 44(2). PMID: 32148410    Free PMC article.
Low-dose interleukin-2 alleviates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by recovering intestinal integrity and inhibiting AKT-dependent pathways.
Hana Lee, Ye Seul Son, +15 authors, Mi-Young Son.
Theranostics, 2020 Apr 21; 10(11). PMID: 32308767    Free PMC article.
Divergent Roles for the IL-1 Family in Gastrointestinal Homeostasis and Inflammation.
Craig P McEntee, Conor M Finlay, Ed C Lavelle.
Front Immunol, 2019 Jun 25; 10. PMID: 31231388    Free PMC article.
Review.
Pro-Inflammatory Effects of NX-3 Toxin Are Comparable to Deoxynivalenol and not Modulated by the Co-Occurring Pro-Oxidant Aurofusarin.
Lydia Woelflingseder, Nadia Gruber, Gerhard Adam, Doris Marko.
Microorganisms, 2020 Apr 25; 8(4). PMID: 32326355    Free PMC article.
Effect of cytokine treatment on the expression and secretion of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the smooth muscle of the rat colon.
Mohammad Al Qudah, Mahmoud Alfaqih, +2 authors, Ahmed Al-Dwairi.
Biomed Rep, 2020 May 23; 13(1). PMID: 32440350    Free PMC article.
Potent Inhibitory Effect of BJ-3105, a 6-Alkoxypyridin-3-ol Derivative, on Murine Colitis Is Mediated by Activating AMPK and Inhibiting NOX.
Pallavi Gurung, Sadan Dahal, +4 authors, Byeong-Seon Jeong.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 May 06; 21(9). PMID: 32365634    Free PMC article.
Bilobalide Alleviated Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Experimental Colitis by Inhibiting M1 Macrophage Polarization Through the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.
Heng Zhang, Nengqi Cao, +5 authors, Zhenling Ji.
Front Pharmacol, 2020 Jul 17; 11. PMID: 32670051    Free PMC article.
Synthesis of Interleukin-10 in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis and Helicobacter pylori Infection.
Jesús K Yamamoto-Furusho, Gabriela Fonseca-Camarillo, Carlos A Barrera-Ochoa, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda.
Gastroenterol Res Pract, 2020 Jul 23; 2020. PMID: 32695157    Free PMC article.
A Randomized Clinical Trial of Synbiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Dose-Dependent Effects on Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Fatigue.
Sang-Hoon Lee, Doo-Yeoun Cho, +6 authors, Kyu-Nam Kim.
Korean J Fam Med, 2018 Oct 26; 40(1). PMID: 30360032    Free PMC article.
Dietary Supplementation with Spray-Dried Porcine Plasma Attenuates Colon Inflammation in a Genetic Mouse Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Lluïsa Miró, Concepció Amat, +4 authors, Miquel Moretó.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Sep 19; 21(18). PMID: 32942624    Free PMC article.
Suppression of Inflammatory Cytokines Expression with Bitter Melon (Momordica Charantia) in TNBS-instigated Ulcerative Colitis.
Asli Semiz, Ozden Ozgun Acar, +2 authors, Alaattin Sen.
J Transl Int Med, 2020 Oct 17; 8(3). PMID: 33062594    Free PMC article.
Taming the Sentinels: Microbiome-Derived Metabolites and Polarization of T Cells.
Lukasz Wojciech, Kevin S W Tan, Nicholas R J Gascoigne.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Oct 23; 21(20). PMID: 33086747    Free PMC article.
Review.
Sigma-1 Receptor Engages an Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Feedback Loop Mediated by Peroxiredoxin in Experimental Colitis.
Nikoletta Almási, Szilvia Török, +6 authors, Krisztina Kupai.
Antioxidants (Basel), 2020 Nov 08; 9(11). PMID: 33158023    Free PMC article.
Structured physical activity interventions as a complementary therapy for patients with inflammatory bowel disease - a scoping review and practical implications.
Katharina G Eckert, Isabelle Abbasi-Neureither, Maximilian Köppel, Gerhard Huber.
BMC Gastroenterol, 2019 Jul 04; 19(1). PMID: 31266461    Free PMC article.
Review.
Milk Fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum Ameliorates Indomethacin-Induced Intestinal Inflammation: An Exploratory Study.
Lourdes Santiago-López, Adrián Hernández-Mendoza, +3 authors, Aarón F González-Córdova.
Nutrients, 2019 Jul 19; 11(7). PMID: 31315186    Free PMC article.
An Intestine-on-a-Chip Model of Plug-and-Play Modularity to Study Inflammatory Processes.
Linda Gijzen, Diego Marescotti, +10 authors, Dorota Kurek.
SLAS Technol, 2020 Jun 25; 25(6). PMID: 32576063    Free PMC article.
The Regulation of Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer Development by Type 2 Immune Responses.
Reyes Gamez-Belmonte, Lena Erkert, Stefan Wirtz, Christoph Becker.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Dec 30; 21(24). PMID: 33371444    Free PMC article.
Review.
Colonic mucosal and cytobrush sample cytokine mRNA expression in canine inflammatory bowel disease and their correlation with disease activity, endoscopic and histopathologic score.
Alexandros O Konstantinidis, Katerina K Adamama-Moraitou, +6 authors, Timoleon S Rallis.
PLoS One, 2021 Jan 21; 16(1). PMID: 33471872    Free PMC article.
Intestinal Regulatory T Cells.
Vanessa R Figliuolo da Paz, Deepa R Jamwal, Pawel R Kiela.
Adv Exp Med Biol, 2021 Feb 02; 1278. PMID: 33523448
The JAK Inhibitor Tofacitinib Rescues Intestinal Barrier Defects Caused by Disrupted Epithelial-macrophage Interactions.
Marianne R Spalinger, Anica Sayoc-Becerra, +7 authors, Declan F McCole.
J Crohns Colitis, 2020 Sep 11; 15(3). PMID: 32909045    Free PMC article.
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-induced lupus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a hospital-based cohort study from Korea.
Su Jin Choi, Soo Min Ahn, +7 authors, Yong-Gil Kim.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol, 2021 Mar 23; 14. PMID: 33747126    Free PMC article.
Is LRRK2 the missing link between inflammatory bowel disease and Parkinson's disease?
Mary K Herrick, Malú G Tansey.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis, 2021 Mar 23; 7(1). PMID: 33750819    Free PMC article.
Review.
Intestinal eosinophils: multifaceted roles in tissue homeostasis and disease.
G Coakley, H Wang, N L Harris.
Semin Immunopathol, 2021 Mar 28; 43(3). PMID: 33772336
Review.
Elective Colectomy in a Patient with Active Ulcerative Colitis and Metastatic Melanoma Enabling Successful Treatment with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.
Ana Luisa Perdigoto, Thuy Tran, +8 authors, Harriet M Kluger.
Clin Oncol Case Rep, 2021 Mar 30; 3(5). PMID: 33778814    Free PMC article.
Opportunities to Target T Cell Trafficking in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Eirini Giannoudaki, Siobhan Gargan, +2 authors, Patrick T Walsh.
Front Pediatr, 2021 Apr 06; 9. PMID: 33816403    Free PMC article.
Review.
Chrysophanol Attenuates Manifestations of Immune Bowel Diseases by Regulation of Colorectal Cells and T Cells Activation In Vivo.
Hyun-Su Lee, Gil-Saeng Jeong.
Molecules, 2021 Apr 04; 26(6). PMID: 33802855    Free PMC article.
Regulation of Inflammatory Response by Transmembrane Adaptor Protein LST1.
Matej Fabisik, Jolana Tureckova, +11 authors, Tomas Brdicka.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 15; 12. PMID: 33986741    Free PMC article.
Systems biology approach highlights mechanistic differences between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Pedro A Ruiz Castro, Hasmik Yepiskoposyan, +6 authors, Marja Talikka.
Sci Rep, 2021 Jun 03; 11(1). PMID: 34075172    Free PMC article.
Vaccines in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Brief Review.
Susanna Esposito, Giulia Antoniol, +6 authors, Nicola Principi.
Vaccines (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 9(5). PMID: 34064576    Free PMC article.
Review.
Crohn's Disease Is Associated With Activation of Circulating Innate Lymphoid Cells.
Luca Mazzurana, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, +3 authors, Jenny Mjösberg.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2020 Dec 10; 27(7). PMID: 33295628    Free PMC article.
Aucuboside Inhibits the Generation of Th17 Cells in Mice Colitis.
Chenxue Mei, Xiao Wang, +6 authors, Yuanyuan Wang.
Front Pharmacol, 2021 Aug 03; 12. PMID: 34335262    Free PMC article.
Melatonin Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis in Obese Mice.
Shijia Pan, Fan Hong, +5 authors, Yonggong Zhai.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2021 Aug 29; 14(8). PMID: 34451919    Free PMC article.
Anti-inflammatory effects of DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica, on aceclofenac-induced acute enteritis.
Ju Hwan Kim, Chang Yell Shin, +4 authors, Hak Rim Kim.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol, 2021 Aug 28; 25(5). PMID: 34448461    Free PMC article.
Specific Secondary Bile Acids Control Chicken Necrotic Enteritis.
Mohit Bansal, Tahrir Alenezi, +7 authors, Xiaolun Sun.
Pathogens, 2021 Aug 29; 10(8). PMID: 34451506    Free PMC article.
Cascade of immune mechanism and consequences of inflammatory disorders.
K B Megha, X Joseph, V Akhil, P V Mohanan.
Phytomedicine, 2021 Sep 14; 91. PMID: 34511264    Free PMC article.
Review.
Arbutin Ameliorates Murine Colitis by Inhibiting JAK2 Signaling Pathway.
Liang Wang, Yuntao Feng, +7 authors, Jingyu Wang.
Front Pharmacol, 2021 Oct 02; 12. PMID: 34594215    Free PMC article.
Targeted therapy of irritable bowel syndrome with anti-inflammatory cytokines.
Sunil Kumar, Priyanka Singh, Awanish Kumar.
Clin J Gastroenterol, 2021 Dec 05;. PMID: 34862947
Review.