. 2013 Feb; 32(5):617-28.
doi: 10.1038/emboj.2013.19.

A new genome-driven integrated classification of breast cancer and its implications

Sarah-Jane Dawson 1 Oscar M Rueda  Samuel Aparicio  Carlos Caldas  
  • PMID: 23395906
  •     65 References
  •     122 citations


Breast cancer is a group of heterogeneous diseases that show substantial variation in their molecular and clinical characteristics. This heterogeneity poses significant challenges not only in breast cancer management, but also in studying the biology of the disease. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the genomic diversity of breast cancer. These advances led to the characterisation of a new genome-driven integrated classification of breast cancer, which substantially refines the existing classification systems currently used. The novel classification integrates molecular information on the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of breast cancer to define 10 integrative clusters, each associated with distinct clinical outcomes and providing new insights into the underlying biology and potential molecular drivers. These findings have profound implications both for the individualisation of treatment approaches, bringing us a step closer to the realisation of personalised cancer management in breast cancer, but also provide a new framework for studying the underlying biology of each novel subtype.

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Proximal and distal regulation of the HYAL1 gene cluster by the estrogen receptor α in breast cancer cells.
Lydia Edjekouane, Samira Benhadjeba, +4 authors, André Tremblay.
Oncotarget, 2016 Oct 21; 7(47). PMID: 27764788    Free PMC article.
Short-term breast cancer survival in relation to ethnicity, stage, grade and receptor status: national cohort study in England.
Henrik Møller, Katherine Henson, +10 authors, Arnie Purushotham.
Br J Cancer, 2016 Oct 26; 115(11). PMID: 27780193    Free PMC article.
Double-edged role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 in breast cancer prognosis: an analysis of 167 breast cancer samples and online data sets.
Fan Yang, Zhi-Min Shao.
Onco Targets Ther, 2016 Nov 09; 9. PMID: 27822058    Free PMC article.
Trastuzumab-associated cardiac events in the Persephone trial.
Helena M Earl, Anne-Laure Vallier, +12 authors, Louise Hiller.
Br J Cancer, 2016 Nov 23; 115(12). PMID: 27875516    Free PMC article.
Interrogating open issues in cancer precision medicine with patient-derived xenografts.
Annette T Byrne, Denis G Alférez, +39 authors, Livio Trusolino.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2017 Jan 21; 17(4). PMID: 28104906
Highly Cited. Review.
Glycoproteins in Claudin-Low Breast Cancer Cell Lines Have a Unique Expression Profile.
Ten-Yang Yen, Spencer Bowen, +3 authors, Leslie C Timpe.
J Proteome Res, 2017 Mar 14; 16(4). PMID: 28287265    Free PMC article.
Value of circulating cell-free DNA analysis as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer: a meta-analysis.
Ziqiang Lin, James Neiswender, +3 authors, Xiuying Hu.
Oncotarget, 2017 May 04; 8(16). PMID: 28460452    Free PMC article.
Genomic profiling of breast secretory carcinomas reveals distinct genetics from other breast cancers and similarity to mammary analog secretory carcinomas.
Gregor Krings, Nancy M Joseph, +12 authors, Yunn-Yi Chen.
Mod Pathol, 2017 May 27; 30(8). PMID: 28548128
let-7b and let-7c microRNAs promote histone H2B ubiquitylation and inhibit cell migration by targeting multiple components of the H2B deubiquitylation machinery.
A Spolverini, G Fuchs, D R Bublik, M Oren.
Oncogene, 2017 Jun 13; 36(42). PMID: 28604753    Free PMC article.
Novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.
Karima Oualla, Heba M El-Zawahry, +7 authors, Tamer M Fouad.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2017 Jul 19; 9(7). PMID: 28717401    Free PMC article.
Triple-negative breast cancer: the importance of molecular and histologic subtyping, and recognition of low-grade variants.
Fresia Pareja, Felipe C Geyer, +3 authors, Jorge S Reis-Filho.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2017 Jul 20; 2. PMID: 28721389    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Associations of two-pore domain potassium channels and triple negative breast cancer subtype in The Cancer Genome Atlas: systematic evaluation of gene expression and methylation.
Keith A Dookeran, Wei Zhang, Leslie Stayner, Maria Argos.
BMC Res Notes, 2017 Sep 14; 10(1). PMID: 28899398    Free PMC article.
New insights into the metastatic behavior after breast cancer surgery, according to well-established clinicopathological variables and molecular subtypes.
Oreste Claudio Buonomo, Emanuele Caredda, +6 authors, Paolo Orsaria.
PLoS One, 2017 Sep 19; 12(9). PMID: 28922402    Free PMC article.
PAM50 Provides Prognostic Information When Applied to the Lymph Node Metastases of Advanced Breast Cancer Patients.
Nicholas P Tobin, Arian Lundberg, +13 authors, TEX Trialists Group.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Oct 04; 23(23). PMID: 28972041    Free PMC article.
Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 expression and its prognostic significance in patients with breast cancer.
Xiao-Yan Lin, Feng-Feng Cai, +6 authors, Ewelina Biskup.
Oncol Lett, 2017 Nov 04; 14(5). PMID: 29098035    Free PMC article.
Lowly methylated region analysis identifies EBF1 as a potential epigenetic modifier in breast cancer.
Nora Fernandez-Jimenez, Athena Sklias, +7 authors, Zdenko Herceg.
Epigenetics, 2017 Nov 04; 12(11). PMID: 29099283    Free PMC article.
Association of Cell-Free DNA Tumor Fraction and Somatic Copy Number Alterations With Survival in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Daniel G Stover, Heather A Parsons, +20 authors, Viktor A Adalsteinsson.
J Clin Oncol, 2018 Jan 04; 36(6). PMID: 29298117    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Disruption of the anaphase-promoting complex confers resistance to TTK inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer.
K L Thu, J Silvester, +9 authors, D W Cescon.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Jan 31; 115(7). PMID: 29378962    Free PMC article.
HER2 is not a cancer subtype but rather a pan-cancer event and is highly enriched in AR-driven breast tumors.
Anneleen Daemen, Gerard Manning.
Breast Cancer Res, 2018 Feb 01; 20(1). PMID: 29382369    Free PMC article.
Prognostic & predictive factors for planning adjuvant chemotherapy of early-stage breast cancer.
Onur Esbah, Berna Oksuzoglu.
Indian J Med Res, 2018 Mar 08; 146(5). PMID: 29512598    Free PMC article.
Associations between genomic stratification of breast cancer and centrally reviewed tumour pathology in the METABRIC cohort.
A Mukherjee, R Russell, +9 authors, E Provenzano.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 Mar 14; 4. PMID: 29532008    Free PMC article.
The multifunctional solute carrier 3A2 (SLC3A2) confers a poor prognosis in the highly proliferative breast cancer subtypes.
Rokaya El Ansari, Madeleine L Craze, +4 authors, Andrew R Green.
Br J Cancer, 2018 Mar 17; 118(8). PMID: 29545595    Free PMC article.
The amino acid transporter SLC7A5 confers a poor prognosis in the highly proliferative breast cancer subtypes and is a key therapeutic target in luminal B tumours.
Rokaya El Ansari, Madeleine L Craze, +5 authors, Andrew R Green.
Breast Cancer Res, 2018 Mar 24; 20(1). PMID: 29566741    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Mediator complex (MED) 7: a biomarker associated with good prognosis in invasive breast cancer, especially ER+ luminal subtypes.
Chitra Joseph, Olivia Macnamara, +10 authors, Abhik Mukherjee.
Br J Cancer, 2018 Mar 29; 118(8). PMID: 29588513    Free PMC article.
Spatial intratumoural heterogeneity in the expression of GIT1 is associated with poor prognostic outcome in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients with synchronous lymph node metastases.
Ibai Goicoechea, Ricardo Rezola, +15 authors, Charles H Lawrie.
F1000Res, 2018 Jun 07; 6. PMID: 29862012    Free PMC article.
Probabilistic graphical models relate immune status with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Andrea Zapater-Moros, Angelo Gámez-Pozo, +9 authors, Juan Ángel Fresno Vara.
Oncotarget, 2018 Jul 03; 9(45). PMID: 29963222    Free PMC article.
Clinicopathologic Factors Related to the Histological Tumor Grade of Breast Cancer in Western China: An Epidemiological Multicenter Study of 8619 Female Patients.
Ke Zheng, Jin-Xiang Tan, +21 authors, Guo-Sheng Ren.
Transl Oncol, 2018 Jul 10; 11(4). PMID: 29982100    Free PMC article.
Dichotomous roles of claudins as tumor promoters or suppressors: lessons from knockout mice.
Hidenori Kage, Per Flodby, Beiyun Zhou, Zea Borok.
Cell Mol Life Sci, 2019 Jul 25; 76(23). PMID: 31332482    Free PMC article.
Berberine attenuates XRCC1-mediated base excision repair and sensitizes breast cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic drugs.
Xingjie Gao, Jing Wang, +8 authors, Weifeng Mao.
J Cell Mol Med, 2019 Jul 25; 23(10). PMID: 31338966    Free PMC article.
Deciphering HER2 Breast Cancer Disease: Biological and Clinical Implications.
Ana Godoy-Ortiz, Alfonso Sanchez-Muñoz, +4 authors, Emilio Alba.
Front Oncol, 2019 Nov 19; 9. PMID: 31737566    Free PMC article.
Tumor diversity and the trade-off between universal cancer tasks.
Jean Hausser, Pablo Szekely, +4 authors, Uri Alon.
Nat Commun, 2019 Nov 30; 10(1). PMID: 31780652    Free PMC article.
Immune gene expression profiling reveals heterogeneity in luminal breast tumors.
Bin Zhu, Lap Ah Tse, +31 authors, Xiaohong R Yang.
Breast Cancer Res, 2019 Dec 21; 21(1). PMID: 31856876    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic and Mechanistic Perspectives of Protein Complexes in Breast Cancer.
Mark P Waterhouse, Rosie Ugur, Walid T Khaled.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2020 Jan 11; 7. PMID: 31921847    Free PMC article.
Diagnostic value of seven biomarkers for breast cancer: an overview with evidence mapping and indirect comparisons of diagnostic test accuracy.
Ya Gao, Ming Liu, +7 authors, Cancer Biomarker Assessment Working Group.
Clin Exp Med, 2020 Jan 03; 20(1). PMID: 31894424
Systematic Review.
The prognostic significance of wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) in breast cancer.
Abrar I Aljohani, Michael S Toss, +8 authors, Emad A Rakha.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2019 Oct 11; 179(1). PMID: 31599393    Free PMC article.
Prospect for Application of PARP Inhibitor in Patients with HER2 Negative Breast Cancer.
Nan Shao, Yawei Shi, +5 authors, Ying Lin.
Int J Biol Sci, 2019 Jun 12; 15(5). PMID: 31182917    Free PMC article.
Resistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer mediated by a reversible drug-tolerant state.
Gloria V Echeverria, Zhongqi Ge, +27 authors, Helen Piwnica-Worms.
Sci Transl Med, 2019 Apr 19; 11(488). PMID: 30996079    Free PMC article.
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Breast cancer treatment and its effects on aging.
Leslie Chang, Lauren S Weiner, +4 authors, Deborah M Kado.
J Geriatr Oncol, 2018 Aug 07; 10(2). PMID: 30078714    Free PMC article.
HDAC5 Inhibitors as a Potential Treatment in Breast Cancer Affecting Very Young Women.
Sara S Oltra, Juan Miguel Cejalvo, +13 authors, María Teresa Martinez.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Feb 14; 12(2). PMID: 32050699    Free PMC article.
Copy number alternations of the 17q23-rs6504950 locus are associated with advanced breast cancers in Taiwanese women.
Chien-Yu Lin, Shu-Fen Yang, Yu-Ling Ho, Cheng-Mao Ho.
Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2020 Apr 10; 32(2). PMID: 32269954    Free PMC article.
The LSD1 inhibitor iadademstat (ORY-1001) targets SOX2-driven breast cancer stem cells: a potential epigenetic therapy in luminal-B and HER2-positive breast cancer subtypes.
Elisabet Cuyàs, Juan Gumuzio, +7 authors, Javier A Menendez.
Aging (Albany NY), 2020 Mar 20; 12(6). PMID: 32191225    Free PMC article.
Breast Cancer: A Molecularly Heterogenous Disease Needing Subtype-Specific Treatments.
Ugo Testa, Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi.
Med Sci (Basel), 2020 Mar 27; 8(1). PMID: 32210163    Free PMC article.
Expressions of miR-21 and miR-210 in Breast Cancer and Their Predictive Values for Prognosis.
Xiaofei Wu.
Iran J Public Health, 2020 Apr 21; 49(1). PMID: 32309220    Free PMC article.
The solute carrier SLC7A8 is a marker of favourable prognosis in ER-positive low proliferative invasive breast cancer.
Rokaya El Ansari, Lutfi Alfarsi, +4 authors, Andrew R Green.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2020 Mar 23; 181(1). PMID: 32200487    Free PMC article.
Myxovirus resistance 1 (MX1) is an independent predictor of poor outcome in invasive breast cancer.
Abrar I Aljohani, Chitra Joseph, +4 authors, Emad A Rakha.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2020 May 01; 181(3). PMID: 32350677    Free PMC article.
Novel insights into breast cancer copy number genetic heterogeneity revealed by single-cell genome sequencing.
Timour Baslan, Jude Kendall, +22 authors, James Hicks.
Elife, 2020 May 14; 9. PMID: 32401198    Free PMC article.
PPFIA1 expression associates with poor response to endocrine treatment in luminal breast cancer.
Lutfi H Alfarsi, Rokaya El Ansari, +4 authors, Andrew R Green.
BMC Cancer, 2020 May 16; 20(1). PMID: 32410585    Free PMC article.
Fbxl17 is rearranged in breast cancer and loss of its activity leads to increased global O-GlcNAcylation.
Bethany Mason, Susanne Flach, +6 authors, Heike Laman.
Cell Mol Life Sci, 2019 Sep 29; 77(13). PMID: 31560077    Free PMC article.
Starvation stress attenuates the miRNA-target interaction in suppressing breast cancer cell proliferation.
Jinhui Lü, Chuyi Zhang, +8 authors, Zuoren Yu.
BMC Cancer, 2020 Jul 08; 20(1). PMID: 32631271    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive characterization of claudin-low breast tumors reflects the impact of the cell-of-origin on cancer evolution.
Roxane M Pommier, Amélien Sanlaville, +10 authors, Alain Puisieux.
Nat Commun, 2020 Jul 11; 11(1). PMID: 32647202    Free PMC article.
Polygenic Risk Scores for Subtyping of Schizophrenia.
Jingchun Chen, Travis Mize, +7 authors, Xiangning Chen.
Schizophr Res Treatment, 2020 Aug 11; 2020. PMID: 32774919    Free PMC article.
Establishment of primary human breast cancer cell lines using "pulsed hypoxia" method and development of metastatic tumor model in immunodeficient mice.
Anna A Nushtaeva, Anastasia A Karpushina, +8 authors, Olga A Koval.
Cancer Cell Int, 2019 Mar 13; 19. PMID: 30858763    Free PMC article.
Clinicopathological and epidemiological significance of breast cancer subtype reclassification based on p53 immunohistochemical expression.
Mustapha Abubakar, Changyuan Guo, +9 authors, Xiaohong R Yang.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2019 Aug 03; 5. PMID: 31372496    Free PMC article.
Circulating tumour DNA in metastatic breast cancer to guide clinical trial enrolment and precision oncology: A cohort study.
Andjelija Zivanovic Bujak, Chen-Fang Weng, +12 authors, Sarah-Jane Dawson.
PLoS Med, 2020 Oct 02; 17(10). PMID: 33001984    Free PMC article.
Targeting TRIM37-driven centrosome dysfunction in 17q23-amplified breast cancer.
Zhong Y Yeow, Bramwell G Lambrus, +17 authors, Andrew J Holland.
Nature, 2020 Sep 11; 585(7825). PMID: 32908313    Free PMC article.
Proline rich 11 (PRR11) overexpression amplifies PI3K signaling and promotes antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer.
Kyung-Min Lee, Angel L Guerrero-Zotano, +13 authors, Carlos L Arteaga.
Nat Commun, 2020 Nov 01; 11(1). PMID: 33127913    Free PMC article.
The nucleolar-related protein Dyskerin pseudouridine synthase 1 (DKC1) predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer.
Khloud A Elsharawy, Omar J Mohammed, +6 authors, Emad A Rakha.
Br J Cancer, 2020 Sep 02; 123(10). PMID: 32868896    Free PMC article.
Multi-Omics Analysis Detects Novel Prognostic Subgroups of Breast Cancer.
Quang-Huy Nguyen, Hung Nguyen, Tin Nguyen, Duc-Hau Le.
Front Genet, 2020 Nov 17; 11. PMID: 33193681    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive Genomic Profile of Heterogeneous Long Follow-Up Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Its Clinical Characteristics Shows DNA Repair Deficiency Has Better Prognostic.
Ernesto Rojas-Jiménez, Javier César Mejía-Gómez, +18 authors, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua.
Genes (Basel), 2020 Nov 25; 11(11). PMID: 33227964    Free PMC article.
Life and cancer without telomerase: ALT and other strategies for making sure ends (don't) meet.
Manasi S Apte, Julia Promisel Cooper.
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 2016 Nov 29; 52(1). PMID: 27892716    Free PMC article.
The Detection and Morphological Analysis of Circulating Tumor and Host Cells in Breast Cancer Xenograft Models.
Loredana Cleris, Maria Grazia Daidone, Emanuela Fina, Vera Cappelletti.
Cells, 2019 Jul 10; 8(7). PMID: 31284534    Free PMC article.
Utility of Circulating Tumor DNA in Different Clinical Scenarios of Breast Cancer.
Alexandra Mesquita, José Luís Costa, Fernando Schmitt.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 20; 12(12). PMID: 33339259    Free PMC article.
Optimum duration of adjuvant trastuzumab in treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive early breast cancer: protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Qiancheng Hu, Xin Wang, +3 authors, Dan Cao.
BMJ Open, 2021 Jan 15; 10(11). PMID: 33444169    Free PMC article.
Survival outcomes are associated with genomic instability in luminal breast cancers.
Lydia King, Andrew Flaus, Emma Holian, Aaron Golden.
PLoS One, 2021 Feb 04; 16(2). PMID: 33534788    Free PMC article.
Chemical carcinogen-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis is a potential model of p21-activated kinase positive female breast cancer.
Emily L Duderstadt, Sarah A McQuaide, Mary A Sanders, David J Samuelson.
Physiol Genomics, 2020 Dec 22; 53(2). PMID: 33346690    Free PMC article.
Landscapes of cellular phenotypic diversity in breast cancer xenografts and their impact on drug response.
Dimitra Georgopoulou, Maurizio Callari, +21 authors, Carlos Caldas.
Nat Commun, 2021 Apr 02; 12(1). PMID: 33790302    Free PMC article.
Assessing the contribution of tumor mutational phenotypes to cancer progression risk.
Yifeng Tao, Ashok Rajaraman, +7 authors, Russell Schwartz.
PLoS Comput Biol, 2021 Mar 13; 17(3). PMID: 33711014    Free PMC article.
The NFIB-ERO1A axis promotes breast cancer metastatic colonization of disseminated tumour cells.
Federica Zilli, Pedro Marques Ramos, +13 authors, Mohamed Bentires-Alj.
EMBO Mol Med, 2021 Mar 23; 13(4). PMID: 33751828    Free PMC article.
Characterisation of PALB2 tumours through whole-exome and whole-transcriptomic analyses.
Pei Sze Ng, Jia Wern Pan, +9 authors, Soo Hwang Teo.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2021 Apr 25; 7(1). PMID: 33893315    Free PMC article.
S100A4 Is Involved in Stimulatory Effects Elicited by the FGF2/FGFR1 Signaling Pathway in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) Cells.
Maria Francesca Santolla, Marianna Talia, Marcello Maggiolini.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 May 06; 22(9). PMID: 33946884    Free PMC article.
Circulating immune cell populations related to primary breast cancer, surgical removal, and radiotherapy revealed by flow cytometry analysis.
Sarah Cattin, Benoît Fellay, +8 authors, Curzio Rüegg.
Breast Cancer Res, 2021 Jun 07; 23(1). PMID: 34090509    Free PMC article.
SLC7A5 serves as a prognostic factor of breast cancer and promotes cell proliferation through activating AKT/mTORC1 signaling pathway.
Yuan Li, Wei Wang, +3 authors, Peilin Huang.
Ann Transl Med, 2021 Jun 25; 9(10). PMID: 34164526    Free PMC article.
Stem cell therapy: A paradigm shift in breast cancer treatment.
Sabiha Khan, Moushumi Suryavanshi, +5 authors, Simran Tandon.
World J Stem Cells, 2021 Aug 10; 13(7). PMID: 34367480    Free PMC article.
The Biological and Clinical Significance of Glutaminase in Luminal Breast Cancer.
Brendah K Masisi, Rokaya El Ansari, +7 authors, Andrew R Green.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Aug 28; 13(16). PMID: 34439127    Free PMC article.