Journal Article
. 2013 Apr; 33(1):36-42.

Computational fluid dynamics: a suitable assessment tool for demonstrating the antiobstructive effect of drugs in the therapy of allergic rhinitis

N Achilles 1 N Pasch  A Lintermann  W Schröder  R Mösges  
Affiliations
  • PMID: 23620638
  •     53 References
  •     1 citations

Abstract

This systematic review aims first to summarize the previous areas of application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and then to demonstrate that CFD is also a suitable instrument for generating three-dimensional images that depict drug effects on nasal mucosa. Special emphasis is placed on the three-dimensional visualization of the antiobstructive effect of nasal steroids and antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. In the beginning, CFD technology was only used to demonstrate physiological and pathophysiological airflow conditions in the nose and to aid in preoperative planning and postoperative monitoring of surgical outcome in the field of rhinosurgery. The first studies using CFD examined nasal respiratory physiology, important functions of the nose, such as conditioning and warming of inspired air, and the influence of pathophysiological changes on nasal breathing. Also, postoperative outcome of surgical procedures could be "predicted" using the nasal airflow model. Later studies focused on the three-dimensional visualization of the effect of nasal sprays in healthy subjects and postoperative patients. A completely new approach, however, was the use of CFD in the area of allergic rhinitis and the treatment of its cardinal symptom of nasal obstruction. In two clinical trials, a suitable patient with a positive history of allergic rhinitis was enrolled during a symptom-free period after the pollen season. The patient developed typical allergic rhinitis symptoms after provocation with birch pollen. The 3-D visualization showed that the antiallergic treatment successfully counteracted the effects of nasal allergen provocation on nasal airflow. These observations were attributed to the antiobstructive effect of a nasal steroid (mometasone furoate) and a systemic antihistamine (levocetirizine), respectively. CFD therefore constitutes a non-invasive, precise, reliable and objective examination procedure for generating three-dimensional images that depict the effects of drugs used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; Antihistamine; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD); Levocetirizine; Mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS); Nasal airflow simulation; Nasal obstruction; Nasal steroid.

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