. 2013 May; 137(12):1710-22.
doi: 10.5858/arpa.2013-0093-CP.

Validating whole slide imaging for diagnostic purposes in pathology: guideline from the College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center

Liron Pantanowitz 1 John H Sinard  Walter H Henricks  Lisa A Fatheree  Alexis B Carter  Lydia Contis  Bruce A Beckwith  Andrew J Evans  Avtar Lal  Anil V Parwani  College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center  
  • PMID: 23634907
  •     49 References
  •     154 citations


Context: There is increasing interest in using whole slide imaging (WSI) for diagnostic purposes (primary and/or consultation). An important consideration is whether WSI can safely replace conventional light microscopy as the method by which pathologists review histologic sections, cytology slides, and/or hematology slides to render diagnoses. Validation of WSI is crucial to ensure that diagnostic performance based on digitized slides is at least equivalent to that of glass slides and light microscopy. Currently, there are no standard guidelines regarding validation of WSI for diagnostic use.

Objective: To recommend validation requirements for WSI systems to be used for diagnostic purposes.

Design: The College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center convened a nonvendor panel from North America with expertise in digital pathology to develop these validation recommendations. A literature review was performed in which 767 international publications that met search term requirements were identified. Studies outside the scope of this effort and those related solely to technical elements, education, and image analysis were excluded. A total of 27 publications were graded and underwent data extraction for evidence evaluation. Recommendations were derived from the strength of evidence determined from 23 of these published studies, open comment feedback, and expert panel consensus.

Results: Twelve guideline statements were established to help pathology laboratories validate their own WSI systems intended for clinical use. Validation of the entire WSI system, involving pathologists trained to use the system, should be performed in a manner that emulates the laboratory's actual clinical environment. It is recommended that such a validation study include at least 60 routine cases per application, comparing intraobserver diagnostic concordance between digitized and glass slides viewed at least 2 weeks apart. It is important that the validation process confirm that all material present on a glass slide to be scanned is included in the digital image.

Conclusions: Validation should demonstrate that the WSI system under review produces acceptable digital slides for diagnostic interpretation. The intention of validating WSI systems is to permit the clinical use of this technology in a manner that does not compromise patient care.

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[Implementation of the "Digital Pathology in Diagnostics" guideline : Support systems and their functionality].
P Hufnagl, S Lohmann, K Schlüns, N Zerbe.
Pathologe, 2018 Apr 29; 39(3). PMID: 29704046
Validation of digital microscopy in the histopathological diagnoses of oral diseases.
Anna Luíza Damaceno Araújo, Gleyson Kleber Amaral-Silva, +6 authors, Alan Roger Santos-Silva.
Virchows Arch, 2018 Jun 03; 473(3). PMID: 29858684
Accuracy of Digital Pathologic Analysis vs Traditional Microscopy in the Interpretation of Melanocytic Lesions.
Tracy Onega, Raymond L Barnhill, +9 authors, Joann G Elmore.
JAMA Dermatol, 2018 Aug 25; 154(10). PMID: 30140929    Free PMC article.
Conventional Microscopical versus Digital Whole-Slide Imaging-Based Diagnosis of Thin-Layer Cervical Specimens: A Validation Study.
Odille Bongaerts, Carla Clevers, +7 authors, Marius Nap.
J Pathol Inform, 2018 Sep 11; 9. PMID: 30197818    Free PMC article.
Procurement Biopsy Findings Versus Kidney Donor Risk Index for Predicting Renal Allograft Survival.
Isaac E Hall, Chirag R Parikh, +5 authors, Mona D Doshi.
Transplant Direct, 2018 Sep 27; 4(8). PMID: 30255133    Free PMC article.
Innovation in Transplantation: The Digital Era.
Albino Eccher, Matteo Brunelli, +3 authors, Aldo Scarpa.
J Pathol Inform, 2018 Oct 09; 9. PMID: 30294502    Free PMC article.
Validation of Remote Digital Frozen Sections for Cancer and Transplant Intraoperative Services.
Luca Cima, Matteo Brunelli, +14 authors, Albino Eccher.
J Pathol Inform, 2018 Nov 20; 9. PMID: 30450263    Free PMC article.
Complete Routine Remote Digital Pathology Services.
Aleksandar Vodovnik, Mohammad Reza F Aghdam.
J Pathol Inform, 2018 Dec 07; 9. PMID: 30505622    Free PMC article.
Pathology Image Exchange: The Dutch Digital Pathology Platform for Exchange of Whole-Slide Images for Efficient Teleconsultation, Telerevision, and Virtual Expert Panels.
Paul J van Diest, André Huisman, +10 authors, Katrien Grünberg.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2019 Jun 14; 3. PMID: 31194585    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence in digital pathology - new tools for diagnosis and precision oncology.
Kaustav Bera, Kurt A Schalper, +2 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2019 Aug 11; 16(11). PMID: 31399699    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Head and Neck Cancer Detection in Digitized Whole-Slide Histology Using Convolutional Neural Networks.
Martin Halicek, Maysam Shahedi, +4 authors, Baowei Fei.
Sci Rep, 2019 Oct 03; 9(1). PMID: 31575946    Free PMC article.
Digital versus light microscopy assessment of extraprostatic extension in radical prostatectomy samples.
Metka Volavšek, Vanessa Henriques, +7 authors, Antonio Lopez-Beltran.
Virchows Arch, 2019 Oct 08; 475(6). PMID: 31588959
The California Telepathology Service: UCLA's Experience in Deploying a Regional Digital Pathology Subspecialty Consultation Network.
Thomas Chong, M Fernando Palma-Diaz, +10 authors, W Dean Wallace.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Oct 18; 10. PMID: 31620310    Free PMC article.
Clinical Application of a Real-Time Telepathology System for Frozen Section Diagnosis in Comparison With Optical Microscope.
Yu Ting Huang, Salvatore Lorenzo Renne, +5 authors, Luca Di Tommaso.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2019 Oct 23; 6. PMID: 31637244    Free PMC article.
Automated detection and quantification of breast cancer brain metastases in an animal model using democratized machine learning tools.
Dina Sikpa, Jérémie P Fouquet, +3 authors, Martin Lepage.
Sci Rep, 2019 Nov 24; 9(1). PMID: 31758004    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning for Whole Slide Image Analysis: An Overview.
Neofytos Dimitriou, Ognjen Arandjelović, Peter D Caie.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2019 Dec 12; 6. PMID: 31824952    Free PMC article.
Digital Microscopy, Image Analysis, and Virtual Slide Repository.
Famke Aeffner, Hibret A Adissu, +8 authors, Kristin Wilson.
ILAR J, 2018 Dec 12; 59(1). PMID: 30535284    Free PMC article.
Whole Slide Imaging and Its Applications to Histopathological Studies of Liver Disorders.
Rossana C N Melo, Maximilian W D Raas, +3 authors, Thiago P Silva.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2020 Jan 24; 6. PMID: 31970160    Free PMC article.
Commentary: Automated Diagnosis and Gleason Grading of Prostate Cancer - Are Artificial Intelligence Systems Ready for Prime Time?
Anil V Parwani.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Feb 25; 10. PMID: 32089952    Free PMC article.
Tailored for Real-World: A Whole Slide Image Classification System Validated on Uncurated Multi-Site Data Emulating the Prospective Pathology Workload.
Julianna D Ianni, Rajath E Soans, +9 authors, Jason B Lee.
Sci Rep, 2020 Feb 23; 10(1). PMID: 32081956    Free PMC article.
Whole slide imaging compared with light microscopy for primary diagnosis in surgical neuropathology: a validation study.
Ali Alassiri, Amna Almutrafi, +5 authors, Walid Khalbuss.
Ann Saudi Med, 2020 Feb 07; 40(1). PMID: 32026707    Free PMC article.
Impact of a deep learning assistant on the histopathologic classification of liver cancer.
Amirhossein Kiani, Bora Uyumazturk, +18 authors, Jeanne Shen.
NPJ Digit Med, 2020 Mar 07; 3. PMID: 32140566    Free PMC article.
Utilizing Whole Slide Images for Pathology Peer Review and Working Groups.
David E Malarkey, Gabrielle A Willson, +8 authors, Rodney A Miller.
Toxicol Pathol, 2015 Oct 30; 43(8). PMID: 26511845    Free PMC article.
Precise Identification of Cell and Tissue Features Important for Histopathologic Diagnosis by a Whole Slide Imaging System.
Thomas W Bauer, Cynthia Behling, +6 authors, Jinsong Qiu.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Mar 11; 11. PMID: 32154040    Free PMC article.
Machine Learning Takes Laboratory Automation to the Next Level.
Bradley A Ford, Erin McElvania.
J Clin Microbiol, 2020 Feb 07; 58(4). PMID: 32024725    Free PMC article.
Validation of Image Quality and Diagnostic Accuracy Using a Mobile Phone Camera Microscope Adaptor Compared With Glass Slide Review in Teledermatopathology.
Caroline W Laggis, Elizabeth E Bailey, +5 authors, Carrie Kovarik.
Am J Dermatopathol, 2019 Oct 22; 42(5). PMID: 31633596    Free PMC article.
["Digital Pathology in Diagnostics-reporting on digital images" guideline of the Professional Association of German Pathologists].
G Haroske, R Zwönitzer, P Hufnagl, Kommission Digitale Pathologie.
Pathologe, 2018 Nov 07; 39(Suppl 2). PMID: 30397786
Emerging role of deep learning-based artificial intelligence in tumor pathology.
Yahui Jiang, Meng Yang, +2 authors, Yan Sun.
Cancer Commun (Lond), 2020 Apr 12; 40(4). PMID: 32277744    Free PMC article.
Enhancing the Value of Histopathological Assessment of Allograft Biopsy Monitoring.
Michelle A Wood-Trageser, Andrew J Lesniak, Anthony J Demetris.
Transplantation, 2019 Feb 16; 103(7). PMID: 30768568    Free PMC article.
Report on computational assessment of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group.
Mohamed Amgad, Elisabeth Specht Stovgaard, +66 authors, International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2020 May 16; 6. PMID: 32411818    Free PMC article.
Intraoperative frozen section consultation by remote whole-slide imaging analysis -validation and comparison to robotic remote microscopy.
Thomas Menter, Stefan Nicolet, +2 authors, Alexandar Tzankov.
J Clin Pathol, 2019 Nov 14; 73(6). PMID: 31719106    Free PMC article.
Improving Classification of Breast Cancer by Utilizing the Image Pyramids of Whole-Slide Imaging and Multi-Scale Convolutional Neural Networks.
Li Tong, Ying Sha, May D Wang.
Proc COMPSAC, 2020 Jun 20; 2019. PMID: 32558827    Free PMC article.
Validation of a digital pathology system including remote review during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Matthew G Hanna, Victor E Reuter, +21 authors, Meera Hameed.
Mod Pathol, 2020 Jun 24; 33(11). PMID: 32572154    Free PMC article.
Digital Pathology and PD-L1 Testing in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Workshop Record.
Fabio Pagni, Umberto Malapelle, +12 authors, Giancarlo Troncone.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 09; 12(7). PMID: 32635634    Free PMC article.
The Importance of eSlide Macro Images for Primary Diagnosis with Whole Slide Imaging.
Filippo Fraggetta, Yukako Yagi, +6 authors, Liron Pantanowitz.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Jan 22; 9. PMID: 30662792    Free PMC article.
Digital pathology and computational image analysis in nephropathology.
Laura Barisoni, Kyle J Lafata, +2 authors, Ulysses G J Balis.
Nat Rev Nephrol, 2020 Aug 28; 16(11). PMID: 32848206    Free PMC article.
Peritumoral immune infiltrates in primary tumours are not associated with the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study.
Carlos López, Ramón Bosch-Príncep, +21 authors, Maryléne Lejeune.
PeerJ, 2020 Sep 22; 8. PMID: 32953267    Free PMC article.
Twenty Years of Digital Pathology: An Overview of the Road Travelled, What is on the Horizon, and the Emergence of Vendor-Neutral Archives.
Liron Pantanowitz, Ashish Sharma, +3 authors, Joel Saltz.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Jan 05; 9. PMID: 30607307    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive Study of Telecytology Using Robotic Digital Microscope and Single Z-Stack Digital Scan for Fine-Needle Aspiration-Rapid On-Site Evaluation.
Keluo Yao, Rulong Shen, Anil Parwani, Zaibo Li.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Jan 22; 9. PMID: 30662795    Free PMC article.
Multiplexed Immunohistochemistry for Molecular and Immune Profiling in Lung Cancer-Just About Ready for Prime-Time?
Paul Hofman, Cécile Badoual, +8 authors, Marius Ilié.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Mar 02; 11(3). PMID: 30818873    Free PMC article.
Validation of Whole-slide Digitally Imaged Melanocytic Lesions: Does Z-Stack Scanning Improve Diagnostic Accuracy?
Bart Sturm, David Creytens, +9 authors, Jeroen A W M van der Laak.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Apr 12; 10. PMID: 30972225    Free PMC article.
Ki67 Quantitative Interpretation: Insights using Image Analysis.
Zoya Volynskaya, Ozgur Mete, +2 authors, Sylvia L Asa.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Apr 16; 10. PMID: 30984468    Free PMC article.
Agreement in Histological Assessment of Mitotic Activity Between Microscopy and Digital Whole Slide Images Informs Conversion for Clinical Diagnosis.
Bih-Rong Wei, Charles H Halsey, +21 authors, R Mark Simpson.
Acad Pathol, 2019 Jul 20; 6. PMID: 31321298    Free PMC article.
The Landscape of Digital Pathology in Transplantation: From the Beginning to the Virtual E-Slide.
Ilaria Girolami, Anil Parwani, +8 authors, Albino Eccher.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Aug 02; 10. PMID: 31367473    Free PMC article.
Multi-Field-of-View Deep Learning Model Predicts Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Status from Whole-Slide Hematoxylin and Eosin Images.
Lingdao Sha, Boleslaw L Osinski, +7 authors, Stephen S F Yip.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Sep 17; 10. PMID: 31523482    Free PMC article.
Whole-Slide Imaging Allows Pathologists to Work Remotely in Regions with Severe Logistical Constraints Due to Covid-19 Pandemic.
Daniel S Liscia, Donata Bellis, +3 authors, Umberto Dianzani.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Oct 13; 11. PMID: 33042599    Free PMC article.
Display Characteristics and Their Impact on Digital Pathology: A Current Review of Pathologists' Future "Microscope".
Jacob T Abel, Peter Ouillette, +7 authors, David S McClintock.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Oct 13; 11. PMID: 33042602    Free PMC article.
Recommendations for pathologic practice using digital pathology: consensus report of the Korean Society of Pathologists.
Yosep Chong, Dae Cheol Kim, +5 authors, Medical Informatics Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists.
J Pathol Transl Med, 2020 Oct 08; 54(6). PMID: 33027850    Free PMC article.
A narrative review of digital pathology and artificial intelligence: focusing on lung cancer.
Taro Sakamoto, Tomoi Furukawa, +8 authors, Junya Fukuoka.
Transl Lung Cancer Res, 2020 Nov 20; 9(5). PMID: 33209648    Free PMC article.
Digital Pathology: Advantages, Limitations and Emerging Perspectives.
Stephan W Jahn, Markus Plass, Farid Moinfar.
J Clin Med, 2020 Nov 22; 9(11). PMID: 33217963    Free PMC article.
Precision immunoprofiling by image analysis and artificial intelligence.
Viktor H Koelzer, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Jens Rittscher, Kirsten D Mertz.
Virchows Arch, 2018 Nov 25; 474(4). PMID: 30470933    Free PMC article.
The performance of digital microscopy for primary diagnosis in human pathology: a systematic review.
Anna Luíza Damaceno Araújo, Lady Paola Aristizábal Arboleda, +13 authors, Alan Roger Santos-Silva.
Virchows Arch, 2019 Jan 28; 474(3). PMID: 30685784
Systematic Review.
[Digitalization and multiplex IHC as predictive biomarkers for novel immune-therapeutics : New challenges for immunohistochemistry].
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Pathologe, 2019 May 16; 40(3). PMID: 31089796
Quantitative Analysis of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Uncovers Hypoxia-Related Functional Differences in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes.
Orsolya Matolay, Lívia Beke, +6 authors, Gábor Méhes.
Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Jul 18; 20(14). PMID: 31311071    Free PMC article.
A large-scale internal validation study of unsupervised virtual trichrome staining technologies on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis liver biopsies.
Joshua J Levy, Nasim Azizgolshani, +7 authors, Louis J Vaickus.
Mod Pathol, 2020 Dec 11; 34(4). PMID: 33299110    Free PMC article.
(Re) Defining the High-Power Field for Digital Pathology.
David Kim, Liron Pantanowitz, +6 authors, Matthew G Hanna.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Dec 22; 11. PMID: 33343994    Free PMC article.
Comparison of the whole slide imaging and conventional light microscopy in the grading of oral epithelial dysplasia: a multi-institutional study.
P-B Diniz, M Sena-Filho, +4 authors, J Jorge.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal, 2020 Nov 29; 26(1). PMID: 33247580    Free PMC article.
Interchangeability of light and virtual microscopy for histopathological evaluation of prostate cancer.
Renata Zelic, Francesca Giunchi, +12 authors, Andreas Pettersson.
Sci Rep, 2021 Feb 07; 11(1). PMID: 33547336    Free PMC article.

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Rapid Validation of Whole-Slide Imaging for Primary Histopathology Diagnosis.
Megan I Samuelson, Stephanie J Chen, +5 authors, Anand Rajan K D.
Am J Clin Pathol, 2021 Jan 30; 155(5). PMID: 33511392    Free PMC article.
Fully digital pathology laboratory routine and remote reporting of oral and maxillofacial diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic: a validation study.
Anna Luíza Damaceno Araújo, Gleyson Kleber do Amaral-Silva, +15 authors, Pablo Agustin Vargas.
Virchows Arch, 2021 Mar 14; 479(3). PMID: 33713188    Free PMC article.
Multiplexed Immunohistochemistry and Digital Pathology as the Foundation for Next-Generation Pathology in Melanoma: Methodological Comparison and Future Clinical Applications.
Yannick Van Herck, Asier Antoranz, +4 authors, Francesca Maria Bosisio.
Front Oncol, 2021 Apr 16; 11. PMID: 33854972    Free PMC article.
Developing image analysis pipelines of whole-slide images: Pre- and post-processing.
Byron Smith, Meyke Hermsen, +2 authors, Walter Kremers.
J Clin Transl Sci, 2021 May 06; 5(1). PMID: 33948260    Free PMC article.
Digital Slides as an Effective Tool for Programmed Death Ligand 1 Combined Positive Score Assessment and Training: Lessons Learned from the "Programmed Death Ligand 1 Key Learning Program in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma".
Albino Eccher, Gabriella Fontanini, +10 authors, Elena Vigliar.
J Pathol Inform, 2021 May 21; 12. PMID: 34012705    Free PMC article.
Implementation of Collodion Bag Protocol to Improve Whole-slide Imaging of Scant Gynecologic Curettage Specimens.
Iny Jhun, David Levy, +9 authors, Eric Joon Yang.
J Pathol Inform, 2021 May 21; 12. PMID: 34012706    Free PMC article.
Verification and Validation of Digital Pathology (Whole Slide Imaging) for Primary Histopathological Diagnosis: All Wales Experience.
M Babawale, A Gunavardhan, +24 authors, Muhammad Aslam.
J Pathol Inform, 2021 May 21; 12. PMID: 34012708    Free PMC article.
Selection of Representative Histologic Slides in Interobserver Reproducibility Studies: Insights from Expert Review for Ovarian Carcinoma Subtype Classification.
Marios A Gavrielides, Brigitte M Ronnett, +2 authors, Jeffrey D Seidman.
J Pathol Inform, 2021 May 21; 12. PMID: 34012719    Free PMC article.
Digital Versus Optical Diagnosis of Follicular Patterned Thyroid Lesions.
Ayat Aloqaily, Antonio Polonia, +4 authors, Catarina Eloy.
Head Neck Pathol, 2020 Nov 01; 15(2). PMID: 33128731    Free PMC article.
Immunohistochemical Validation of Rare Tissues and Antigens With Low Frequency of Occurrence: Recommendations From The Anatomic Pathology Patient Interest Association (APPIA).
Robert L Lott, Peter V Riccelli, +4 authors, Bryce Portier.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol, 2020 Apr 24; 29(5). PMID: 32324630    Free PMC article.
Requirements for implementation of artificial intelligence in the practice of gastrointestinal pathology.
Hiroshi Yoshida, Tomoharu Kiyuna.
World J Gastroenterol, 2021 Jun 18; 27(21). PMID: 34135556    Free PMC article.
Digital Slide Assessment for Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Combined Positive Score in Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma: Focus on Validation and Vision.
Albino Eccher, Ilaria Girolami, Giancarlo Troncone, Liron Pantanowitz.
Front Artif Intell, 2021 Jun 22; 4. PMID: 34151256    Free PMC article.
Dissecting the Business Case for Adoption and Implementation of Digital Pathology: A White Paper from the Digital Pathology Association.
Giovanni Lujan, Jennifer C Quigley, +16 authors, Doug Bowman.
J Pathol Inform, 2021 Jul 06; 12. PMID: 34221633    Free PMC article.
Image Analysis Using Machine Learning for Automated Detection of Hemoglobin H Inclusions in Blood Smears - A Method for Morphologic Detection of Rare Cells.
Shir Ying Lee, Crystal M E Chen, +6 authors, Christina Y C Yip.
J Pathol Inform, 2021 Jul 06; 12. PMID: 34221634    Free PMC article.
Diagnostic concordance and discordance in digital pathology: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ayesha S Azam, Islam M Miligy, +4 authors, David R J Snead.
J Clin Pathol, 2020 Sep 17; 74(7). PMID: 32934103    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Remote Reporting During a Pandemic Using Digital Pathology Solution: Experience from a Tertiary Care Cancer Center.
Veena Ramaswamy, B N Tejaswini, Sowmya B Uthaiah.
J Pathol Inform, 2021 Jul 17; 12. PMID: 34267985    Free PMC article.
The value of GATA6 immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted diagnosis to predict clinical outcome in advanced pancreatic cancer.
Kai Duan, Gun-Ho Jang, +6 authors, Sandra Fischer.
Sci Rep, 2021 Jul 24; 11(1). PMID: 34294813    Free PMC article.
Integrated digital pathology at scale: A solution for clinical diagnostics and cancer research at a large academic medical center.
Peter J Schüffler, Luke Geneslaw, +29 authors, Thomas J Fuchs.
J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2021 Jul 15; 28(9). PMID: 34260720    Free PMC article.
Tissue Multiplex Analyte Detection in Anatomic Pathology - Pathways to Clinical Implementation.
Keith A Wharton, Douglas Wood, +3 authors, Aleksandra Zuraw.
Front Mol Biosci, 2021 Aug 14; 8. PMID: 34386519    Free PMC article.
Quantitative Image Analysis for Tissue Biomarker Use: A White Paper From the Digital Pathology Association.
Haydee Lara, Zaibo Li, +10 authors, Liron Pantanowitz.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol, 2021 Mar 19; 29(7). PMID: 33734106    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-based transformation of H&E stained tissues into special stains.
Kevin de Haan, Yijie Zhang, +11 authors, Aydogan Ozcan.
Nat Commun, 2021 Aug 14; 12(1). PMID: 34385460    Free PMC article.
WHO/ISUP grading of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma; validation of grading on the digital pathology platform and perspectives on reproducibility of grade.
Lisa Browning, Richard Colling, Clare Verrill.
Diagn Pathol, 2021 Aug 23; 16(1). PMID: 34419085    Free PMC article.
Comparative Assessment of Digital Pathology Systems for Primary Diagnosis.
Sathyanarayanan Rajaganesan, Rajiv Kumar, +5 authors, Sangeeta Desai.
J Pathol Inform, 2021 Aug 28; 12. PMID: 34447605    Free PMC article.
Loss of fidelity in scanned digital images compared to glass slides of brain tumors resected using cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator.
Cathryn R Cadwell, Sarah Bowman, Zoltan G Laszik, Melike Pekmezci.
Brain Pathol, 2021 Feb 13; 31(4). PMID: 33576118    Free PMC article.
Validation of grading of non-invasive urothelial carcinoma by digital pathology for routine diagnosis.
Richard Colling, Hayleigh Colling, Lisa Browning, Clare Verrill.
BMC Cancer, 2021 Sep 08; 21(1). PMID: 34488682    Free PMC article.
Diagnostic Pitfalls of Digital Microscopy Versus Light Microscopy in Gastrointestinal Pathology: A Systematic Review.
Wangpan Shi, Petros Georgiou, +6 authors, Safeera Khan.
Cureus, 2021 Sep 23; 13(8). PMID: 34548958    Free PMC article.
Integrating digital pathology into clinical practice.
Matthew G Hanna, Orly Ardon, +3 authors, Meera R Hameed.
Mod Pathol, 2021 Oct 03;. PMID: 34599281
Digital pathology and artificial intelligence in translational medicine and clinical practice.
Vipul Baxi, Robin Edwards, Michael Montalto, Saurabh Saha.
Mod Pathol, 2021 Oct 07;. PMID: 34611303    Free PMC article.
The Lancet Commission on diagnostics: transforming access to diagnostics.
Kenneth A Fleming, Susan Horton, +29 authors, Kamini Walia.
Lancet, 2021 Oct 10;. PMID: 34626542    Free PMC article.
A Survival Guide for the Rapid Transition to a Fully Digital Workflow: The "Caltagirone Example".
Filippo Fraggetta, Alessandro Caputo, +3 authors, Vincenzo L'Imperio.
Diagnostics (Basel), 2021 Oct 24; 11(10). PMID: 34679614    Free PMC article.