Journal Article
. 2013 Nov; 73(24):7189-7198.
doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-4174.

OX40 is a potent immune-stimulating target in late-stage cancer patients

Brendan D Curti 1 Magdalena Kovacsovics-Bankowski 1 Nicholas Morris 1 Edwin Walker 1 Lana Chisholm 1 Kevin Floyd 1 Joshua Walker 2 Iliana Gonzalez 1 Tanisha Meeuwsen 1 Bernard A Fox 1 Tarsem Moudgil 1 William Miller 1 Daniel Haley 1 Todd Coffey 1 Brenda Fisher 1 Laurie Delanty-Miller 1 Nicole Rymarchyk 1 Tracy Kelly 1 Todd Crocenzi 1 Eric Bernstein 1 Rachel Sanborn 1 Walter J Urba 1 Andrew D Weinberg 1 
  • PMID: 24177180
  •     36 References
  •     182 citations


OX40 is a potent costimulatory receptor that can potentiate T-cell receptor signaling on the surface of T lymphocytes, leading to their activation by a specifically recognized antigen. In particular, OX40 engagement by ligands present on dendritic cells dramatically increases the proliferation, effector function, and survival of T cells. Preclinical studies have shown that OX40 agonists increase antitumor immunity and improve tumor-free survival. In this study, we performed a phase I clinical trial using a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) that agonizes human OX40 signaling in patients with advanced cancer. Patients treated with one course of the anti-OX40 mAb showed an acceptable toxicity profile and regression of at least one metastatic lesion in 12 of 30 patients. Mechanistically, this treatment increased T and B cell responses to reporter antigen immunizations, led to preferential upregulation of OX40 on CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and increased the antitumor reactivity of T and B cells in patients with melanoma. Our findings clinically validate OX40 as a potent immune-stimulating target for treatment in patients with cancer, providing a generalizable tool to favorably influence the antitumor properties of circulating T cells, B cells, and intratumoral regulatory T cells.

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Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Sep 03; 23(17). PMID: 28864727    Free PMC article.
Immune Checkpoint Blockers and Ovarian Cancer.
Chinmoy K Bose.
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol, 2017 Sep 14; 38(2). PMID: 28900328    Free PMC article.
[Novel Immuno-oncology Therapy: Current Status of Clinical Research and Prospect of Application].
Shijia Zhang, Shengxiang Ren.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi, 2017 Sep 25; 20(9). PMID: 28935020    Free PMC article.
Exploring Synergy in Combinations of Tumor-Derived Vaccines That Harbor 4-1BBL, OX40L, and GM-CSF.
Andrea J Manrique-Rincón, Camila M Beraldo, Jessica M Toscaro, Marcio C Bajgelman.
Front Immunol, 2017 Oct 05; 8. PMID: 28974950    Free PMC article.
Agonist OX40 immunotherapy improves survival in glioma-bearing mice and is complementary with vaccination with irradiated GM-CSF-expressing tumor cells.
Nusrat Jahan, Hammad Talat, William T Curry.
Neuro Oncol, 2017 Oct 11; 20(1). PMID: 29016879    Free PMC article.
Immune engineering: from systems immunology to engineering immunity.
Ning Jiang.
Curr Opin Biomed Eng, 2017 Oct 19; 1. PMID: 29038795    Free PMC article.
Future perspectives in melanoma research "Melanoma Bridge", Napoli, November 30th-3rd December 2016.
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv S Agarwala, +20 authors, Magdalena Thurin.
J Transl Med, 2017 Nov 18; 15(1). PMID: 29145885    Free PMC article.
Immune checkpoints, their control by immunotherapy and ovarian cancer.
Chinmoy K Bose.
Contemp Oncol (Pozn), 2017 Nov 29; 21(3). PMID: 29180924    Free PMC article.
Combination therapy with an OX40L fusion protein and a vaccine targeting the transcription factor twist inhibits metastasis in a murine model of breast cancer.
Anthony S Malamas, Scott A Hammond, Jeffrey Schlom, James W Hodge.
Oncotarget, 2017 Dec 07; 8(53). PMID: 29207606    Free PMC article.
Augmentation of CD134 (OX40)-dependent NK anti-tumour activity is dependent on antibody cross-linking.
Anna H Turaj, Kerry L Cox, +10 authors, Sean H Lim.
Sci Rep, 2018 Feb 06; 8(1). PMID: 29396470    Free PMC article.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signature is inversely associated with T-cell infiltration in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Young Kwang Chae, Sangmin Chang, +6 authors, Marcelo Cruz.
Sci Rep, 2018 Feb 15; 8(1). PMID: 29440769    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Combination immunotherapies implementing adoptive T-cell transfer for advanced-stage melanoma.
Kendra C Foley, Michael I Nishimura, Tamson V Moore.
Melanoma Res, 2018 Mar 10; 28(3). PMID: 29521881    Free PMC article.
Next generation of immune checkpoint therapy in cancer: new developments and challenges.
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, +3 authors, Yanyan Lou.
J Hematol Oncol, 2018 Mar 17; 11(1). PMID: 29544515    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Potent Immune Modulation by MEDI6383, an Engineered Human OX40 Ligand IgG4P Fc Fusion Protein.
Michael D Oberst, Catherine Augé, +19 authors, Scott A Hammond.
Mol Cancer Ther, 2018 Mar 17; 17(5). PMID: 29545330    Free PMC article.
Updates on immunotherapy for colorectal cancer.
Aparna Kalyan, Sheetal Kircher, +2 authors, Al Benson.
J Gastrointest Oncol, 2018 Mar 23; 9(1). PMID: 29564182    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Heterogeneity in Immune Cell Content in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.
Jorien Minnema-Luiting, Heleen Vroman, Joachim Aerts, Robin Cornelissen.
Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Mar 31; 19(4). PMID: 29601534    Free PMC article.
Toxicological and pharmacological assessment of AGEN1884, a novel human IgG1 anti-CTLA-4 antibody.
Randi B Gombos, Ana Gonzalez, +24 authors, Nicholas S Wilson.
PLoS One, 2018 Apr 05; 13(4). PMID: 29617360    Free PMC article.
High OX40 expression in recurrent ovarian carcinoma is indicative for response to repeated chemotherapy.
Michaela Ramser, Simone Eichelberger, +10 authors, Gad Singer.
BMC Cancer, 2018 Apr 18; 18(1). PMID: 29661166    Free PMC article.
Radiation Followed by OX40 Stimulation Drives Local and Abscopal Antitumor Effects in an Anti-PD1-Resistant Lung Tumor Model.
Sharareh Niknam, Hampartsoum B Barsoumian, +15 authors, James W Welsh.
Clin Cancer Res, 2018 May 23; 24(22). PMID: 29784675    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy for Gastric Cancer: Time for a Personalized Approach?
Riccardo Dolcetti, Valli De Re, Vincenzo Canzonieri.
Int J Mol Sci, 2018 May 31; 19(6). PMID: 29844297    Free PMC article.
Tune Up In Situ Autovaccination against Solid Tumors with Oncolytic Viruses.
Teresa Nguyen, Naze G Avci, +2 authors, Hong Jiang.
Cancers (Basel), 2018 Jun 03; 10(6). PMID: 29857493    Free PMC article.
The promise and challenges of immune agonist antibody development in cancer.
Patrick A Mayes, Kenneth W Hance, Axel Hoos.
Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2018 Jun 16; 17(7). PMID: 29904196
Highly Cited. Review.
Immune Characteristics of Chinese Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients: Implications for Cancer Immunotherapies.
Peng-Peng Xu, Chun Sun, +15 authors, Wei-Li Zhao.
EBioMedicine, 2018 Jun 25; 33. PMID: 29936139    Free PMC article.
Restoration of T Cell function in multi-drug resistant bacterial sepsis after interleukin-7, anti-PD-L1, and OX-40 administration.
Lukose K Thampy, Kenneth E Remy, +6 authors, Richard S Hotchkiss.
PLoS One, 2018 Jun 27; 13(6). PMID: 29944697    Free PMC article.
Next generation immune-checkpoints for cancer therapy.
Chiara Donini, Lorenzo D'Ambrosio, +2 authors, Dario Sangiolo.
J Thorac Dis, 2018 Jun 29; 10(Suppl 13). PMID: 29951308    Free PMC article.
Emerging strategies for combination checkpoint modulators in cancer immunotherapy.
Aleksandra Popovic, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Neeha Zaidi.
J Clin Invest, 2018 Aug 02; 128(8). PMID: 30067248    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
A comprehensive review on the role of co-signaling receptors and Treg homeostasis in autoimmunity and tumor immunity.
Prabhakaran Kumar, Palash Bhattacharya, Bellur S Prabhakar.
J Autoimmun, 2018 Sep 04; 95. PMID: 30174217    Free PMC article.
Targeting immune checkpoints in melanoma: an update.
Rodrigo R Munhoz, Alejandro Falcón González, Vanessa A Reed, Michael A Postow.
Melanoma Manag, 2015 Nov 01; 2(4). PMID: 30190862    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Bruno Sangro, Daniel Palmer, Ignacio Melero.
Hepat Oncol, 2014 Oct 01; 1(4). PMID: 30190978    Free PMC article.
New strategies in immunotherapy for lung cancer: beyond PD-1/PD-L1.
Nicolas Villanueva, Lyudmila Bazhenova.
Ther Adv Respir Dis, 2018 Sep 15; 12. PMID: 30215300    Free PMC article.
Dose escalation results from a first-in-human, phase 1 study of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein agonist AMG 228 in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Ben Tran, Richard D Carvajal, +8 authors, Patrick Schöffski.
J Immunother Cancer, 2018 Sep 27; 6(1). PMID: 30253804    Free PMC article.
Expression of the Immune Checkpoint Modulator OX40 in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Is Associated with BCR-ABL Positivity.
Kathrin Rothfelder, Ilona Hagelstein, +6 authors, Daniela Dörfel.
Neoplasia, 2018 Oct 10; 20(11). PMID: 30300827    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T cells in the treatment of disease.
Amir Sharabi, Maria G Tsokos, +3 authors, George C Tsokos.
Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2018 Oct 13; 17(11). PMID: 30310234
Highly Cited. Review.
OX40 (CD134) and OX40 ligand, important immune checkpoints in cancer.
Juan Deng, Sha Zhao, +4 authors, Yayi He.
Onco Targets Ther, 2019 Oct 01; 12. PMID: 31564917    Free PMC article.
The Common Costimulatory and Coinhibitory Signaling Molecules in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Peng Liao, Haofan Wang, +2 authors, Xin-Hua Liang.
Front Immunol, 2019 Nov 12; 10. PMID: 31708918    Free PMC article.
Prognostic profiling of the immune cell microenvironment in Ewing´s Sarcoma Family of Tumors.
David Stahl, Andrew J Gentles, Ralf Thiele, Ines Gütgemann.
Oncoimmunology, 2019 Nov 20; 8(12). PMID: 31741777    Free PMC article.
Targeting Negative and Positive Immune Checkpoints with Monoclonal Antibodies in Therapy of Cancer.
Katsiaryna Marhelava, Zofia Pilch, +2 authors, Radoslaw Zagozdzon.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Nov 14; 11(11). PMID: 31717326    Free PMC article.
High OX-40 expression in the tumor immune infiltrate is a favorable prognostic factor of overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer.
Erminia Massarelli, Vincent K Lam, +13 authors, John V Heymach.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Dec 18; 7(1). PMID: 31843013    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Immune Checkpoints for the Treatment of Solid Tumors.
Nicholas Gravbrot, Kacy Gilbert-Gard, +4 authors, Srinath Sundararajan.
Antibodies (Basel), 2019 Oct 24; 8(4). PMID: 31640266    Free PMC article.
Immune checkpoint-based therapy in myeloid malignancies: a promise yet to be fulfilled.
Jan Philipp Bewersdorf, Maximilian Stahl, Amer M Zeidan.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther, 2019 Mar 20; 19(5). PMID: 30887841    Free PMC article.
Triple combination immunotherapy with GVAX, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody, and agonist anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody is highly effective against murine intracranial glioma.
Nusrat Jahan, Hammad Talat, +2 authors, William T Curry.
Oncoimmunology, 2019 May 10; 8(5). PMID: 31069135    Free PMC article.
Checkpoint blockade in the treatment of breast cancer: current status and future directions.
Lironne Wein, Stephen J Luen, +2 authors, Sherene Loi.
Br J Cancer, 2018 May 29; 119(1). PMID: 29808015    Free PMC article.
An update: emerging drugs to treat squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck.
Yoon Se Lee, Daniel E Johnson, Jennifer R Grandis.
Expert Opin Emerg Drugs, 2018 Nov 01; 23(4). PMID: 30376740    Free PMC article.
The distribution of T-cell subsets and the expression of immune checkpoint receptors and ligands in patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.
Patrick Williams, Sreyashi Basu, +22 authors, Naval G Daver.
Cancer, 2018 Dec 01; 125(9). PMID: 30500073    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunomodulation of the Tumor Microenvironment: Turn Foe Into Friend.
Hanne Locy, Sven de Mey, +3 authors, Sarah K Maenhout.
Front Immunol, 2019 Jan 09; 9. PMID: 30619273    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Stimulating T Cells Against Cancer With Agonist Immunostimulatory Monoclonal Antibodies.
Xue Han, Matthew D Vesely.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol, 2019 Jan 13; 342. PMID: 30635089    Free PMC article.
A CD40 Agonist and PD-1 Antagonist Antibody Reprogram the Microenvironment of Nonimmunogenic Tumors to Allow T-cell-Mediated Anticancer Activity.
Hayley S Ma, Bibhav Poudel, +9 authors, Elizabeth M Jaffee.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2019 Jan 16; 7(3). PMID: 30642833    Free PMC article.
Combining Radiotherapy With Anti-angiogenic Therapy and Immunotherapy; A Therapeutic Triad for Cancer?
Ruben S A Goedegebuure, Leonie K de Klerk, +2 authors, Victor L J L Thijssen.
Front Immunol, 2019 Jan 30; 9. PMID: 30692993    Free PMC article.
Immunosurveillance and Immunoediting of Lung Cancer: Current Perspectives and Challenges.
Kei Kunimasa, Taichiro Goto.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jan 23; 21(2). PMID: 31963413    Free PMC article.
Co-Stimulatory Receptors in Cancers and Their Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Seongju Jeong, Su-Hyung Park.
Immune Netw, 2020 Mar 12; 20(1). PMID: 32158591    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T Cells in Tumor Microenvironment and Approach for Anticancer Immunotherapy.
Jung-Ho Kim, Beom Seok Kim, Sang-Kyou Lee.
Immune Netw, 2020 Mar 12; 20(1). PMID: 32158592    Free PMC article.
A TIGIT-based chimeric co-stimulatory switch receptor improves T-cell anti-tumor function.
Shiran Hoogi, Vasyl Eisenberg, +3 authors, Cyrille J Cohen.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Sep 11; 7(1). PMID: 31500665    Free PMC article.
Using Preclinical Data to Design Combination Clinical Trials of Radiation Therapy and Immunotherapy.
Michael J Gough, Shay Sharon, Marka R Crittenden, Kristina H Young.
Semin Radiat Oncol, 2020 May 10; 30(2). PMID: 32381295    Free PMC article.
New pathways in immune stimulation: targeting OX40.
Carolina Alves Costa Silva, Francesco Facchinetti, Bertrand Routy, Lisa Derosa.
ESMO Open, 2020 May 12; 5(1). PMID: 32392177    Free PMC article.
OX40 and LAG3 are associated with better prognosis in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with anti-programmed death-1 antibody.
Hirofumi Ohmura, Kyoko Yamaguchi, +15 authors, Eishi Baba.
Br J Cancer, 2020 Mar 24; 122(10). PMID: 32203221    Free PMC article.
Anti-OX40 Antibody Directly Enhances The Function of Tumor-Reactive CD8+ T Cells and Synergizes with PI3Kβ Inhibition in PTEN Loss Melanoma.
Weiyi Peng, Leila J Williams, +17 authors, Patrick Hwu.
Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Aug 03; 25(21). PMID: 31371342    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy in Bladder Cancer: Current Methods and Future Perspectives.
Mikołaj Wołącewicz, Rafał Hrynkiewicz, +4 authors, Paulina Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 May 13; 12(5). PMID: 32392774    Free PMC article.
Novel Targets for the Treatment of Melanoma.
Lara Ambrosi, Shaheer Khan, Richard D Carvajal, Jessica Yang.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2019 Nov 07; 21(11). PMID: 31696329
Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways in cancer immunotherapy.
Rachel E O'Neill, Xuefang Cao.
Adv Cancer Res, 2019 Jun 17; 143. PMID: 31202358    Free PMC article.
CD70 expression determines the therapeutic efficacy of expanded human regulatory T cells.
Rebeca Arroyo Hornero, Christos Georgiadis, +8 authors, Joanna Hester.
Commun Biol, 2020 Jul 16; 3(1). PMID: 32665635    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapies and Combination Strategies for Immuno-Oncology.
Cody Barbari, Tyler Fontaine, +4 authors, Rahul R Deshmukh.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jul 19; 21(14). PMID: 32679922    Free PMC article.
Harnessing NK Cell Checkpoint-Modulating Immunotherapies.
Sachin Kumar Singh Chauhan, Ulrike Koehl, Stephan Kloess.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 10; 12(7). PMID: 32640575    Free PMC article.
Advances in Anti-Cancer Immunotherapy: Car-T Cell, Checkpoint Inhibitors, Dendritic Cell Vaccines, and Oncolytic Viruses, and Emerging Cellular and Molecular Targets.
Emilie Alard, Aura-Bianca Butnariu, +5 authors, Md Zahidul Islam Pranjol.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 11; 12(7). PMID: 32645977    Free PMC article.
Combinatorial approach to cancer immunotherapy: strength in numbers.
Anna E Vilgelm, Douglas B Johnson, Ann Richmond.
J Leukoc Biol, 2016 Jun 04; 100(2). PMID: 27256570    Free PMC article.
Costimulatory and coinhibitory immune checkpoint receptors in head and neck cancer: unleashing immune responses through therapeutic combinations.
Ruth J Davis, Robert L Ferris, Nicole C Schmitt.
Cancers Head Neck, 2016 Oct 01; 1. PMID: 31093342    Free PMC article.
The role and therapeutic implications of T cells in cancer of the lung.
Samuel C Neeve, Bruce Ws Robinson, Vanessa S Fear.
Clin Transl Immunology, 2019 Sep 06; 8(8). PMID: 31485330    Free PMC article.
OX40 and OX40L protein expression of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in non-small cell lung cancer and its role in clinical outcome and relationships with other immune biomarkers.
Yayi He, Xiaoshen Zhang, +6 authors, Caicun Zhou.
Transl Lung Cancer Res, 2019 Sep 27; 8(4). PMID: 31555511    Free PMC article.
T-cell agonists in cancer immunotherapy.
Yeonjoo Choi, Yaoyao Shi, +3 authors, Joud Hajjar.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Oct 07; 8(2). PMID: 33020242    Free PMC article.
Overcoming Tumor-Induced Immune Suppression: From Relieving Inhibition to Providing Costimulation with T Cell Agonists.
Dana A Emerson, William L Redmond.
BioDrugs, 2018 Apr 11; 32(3). PMID: 29637478    Free PMC article.
Tumor Microenvironment and Immunotherapy Response in Head and Neck Cancer.
Panagiota Economopoulou, Ioannis Kotsantis, Amanda Psyrri.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Nov 19; 12(11). PMID: 33203092    Free PMC article.
Emerging immunotherapies for bladder cancer.
Joseph W Kim, Yusuke Tomita, Jane Trepel, Andrea B Apolo.
Curr Opin Oncol, 2015 Mar 27; 27(3). PMID: 25811346    Free PMC article.
[Immunotherapy - The New Era of Oncology].
Benjamin Kansy, Stephan Lang.
Laryngorhinootologie, 2018 Jun 16; 97(S 01). PMID: 29905353    Free PMC article.
Beyond conventional immune-checkpoint inhibition - novel immunotherapies for renal cell carcinoma.
David A Braun, Ziad Bakouny, +4 authors, Toni K Choueiri.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2021 Jan 14; 18(4). PMID: 33437048    Free PMC article.
Antibody-Mediated Phosphatidylserine Blockade Enhances the Antitumor Responses to CTLA-4 and PD-1 Antibodies in Melanoma.
Bruce D Freimark, Jian Gong, +9 authors, Xianming Huang.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2016 Apr 06; 4(6). PMID: 27045021    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy in Colorectal Cancer: Current and Future Strategies.
Akira Ooki, Eiji Shinozaki, Kensei Yamaguchi.
J Anus Rectum Colon, 2021 Feb 05; 5(1). PMID: 33537496    Free PMC article.
Update of early phase clinical trials in cancer immunotherapy.
Dae Ho Lee.
BMB Rep, 2021 Jan 08; 54(1). PMID: 33407992    Free PMC article.
Harnessing cancer immunotherapy during the unexploited immediate perioperative period.
Pini Matzner, Elad Sandbank, +3 authors, Shamgar Ben-Eliyahu.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2020 Feb 19; 17(5). PMID: 32066936
Advances in immunotherapy for COVID-19: A comprehensive review.
Masoomeh Masoomikarimi, Behzad Garmabi, +6 authors, Reza Jafari.
Int Immunopharmacol, 2021 Feb 14; 93. PMID: 33581501    Free PMC article.
Neoadjuvant anti-OX40 (MEDI6469) therapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma activates and expands antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating T cells.
Rebekka Duhen, Carmen Ballesteros-Merino, +12 authors, Andrew D Weinberg.
Nat Commun, 2021 Feb 18; 12(1). PMID: 33594075    Free PMC article.
Molecular Profiling of Exceptional Responders to Cancer Therapy.
Marijo Bilusic, Daniel Girardi, +10 authors, Elizabeth Plimack.
Oncologist, 2020 Nov 20; 26(3). PMID: 33210795    Free PMC article.
Nanomaterials-Mediated Immunomodulation for Cancer Therapeutics.
Ajita Jindal, Sounik Sarkar, Aftab Alam.
Front Chem, 2021 Mar 13; 9. PMID: 33708759    Free PMC article.
The Impact of Tregs on the Anticancer Immunity and the Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapies.
Jose M González-Navajas, Dengxia Denise Fan, +4 authors, Jongdae Lee.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 16; 12. PMID: 33717139    Free PMC article.
Galectin-3 inhibition with belapectin combined with anti-OX40 therapy reprograms the tumor microenvironment to favor anti-tumor immunity.
Elizabeth R Sturgill, Annah S Rolig, +6 authors, William L Redmond.
Oncoimmunology, 2021 Mar 16; 10(1). PMID: 33717655    Free PMC article.
In vivo NIR-II structured-illumination light-sheet microscopy.
Feifei Wang, Zhuoran Ma, +6 authors, Hongjie Dai.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2021 Feb 03; 118(6). PMID: 33526701    Free PMC article.
Recruitment and Expansion of Tregs Cells in the Tumor Environment-How to Target Them?
Justine Cinier, Margaux Hubert, +5 authors, Christine Ménétrier-Caux.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 May 01; 13(8). PMID: 33924428    Free PMC article.
Sendai virus-based immunoadjuvant in hydrogel vaccine intensity-modulated dendritic cells activation for suppressing tumorigenesis.
Bin Zheng, Wenchang Peng, +4 authors, Dong Ming.
Bioact Mater, 2021 May 04; 6(11). PMID: 33937591    Free PMC article.
Stay on Target: Reengaging Cancer Vaccines in Combination Immunotherapy.
Benjamin Wolfson, S Elizabeth Franks, James W Hodge.
Vaccines (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 9(5). PMID: 34063388    Free PMC article.
CD137 as an Attractive T Cell Co-Stimulatory Target in the TNFRSF for Immuno-Oncology Drug Development.
Kenji Hashimoto.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 13(10). PMID: 34064598    Free PMC article.
Development of Immunotherapy Combination Strategies in Cancer.
Timothy A Yap, Eileen E Parkes, +3 authors, Hussein A Tawbi.
Cancer Discov, 2021 Apr 04; 11(6). PMID: 33811048    Free PMC article.
Combined OX40 Agonist and PD-1 Inhibitor Immunotherapy Improves the Efficacy of Vascular Targeted Photodynamic Therapy in a Urothelial Tumor Model.
Ricardo G Alvim, Petrina Georgala, +14 authors, Jonathan A Coleman.
Molecules, 2021 Jul 03; 26(12). PMID: 34205347    Free PMC article.
Inflammation and tumor progression: signaling pathways and targeted intervention.
Huakan Zhao, Lei Wu, +4 authors, Yongsheng Li.
Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2021 Jul 13; 6(1). PMID: 34248142    Free PMC article.
OX40 agonist combined with irreversible electroporation synergistically eradicates established tumors and drives systemic antitumor immune response in a syngeneic pancreatic cancer model.
Qi-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Xia Guo, +4 authors, Xiao-Yi Ding.
Am J Cancer Res, 2021 Jul 13; 11(6). PMID: 34249428    Free PMC article.
Boosting Antitumor Response by Costimulatory Strategies Driven to 4-1BB and OX40 T-cell Receptors.
Daniele E Mascarelli, Rhubia S M Rosa, +5 authors, Marcio C Bajgelman.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Jul 20; 9. PMID: 34277638    Free PMC article.
Clinical Research on the Mechanisms Underlying Immune Checkpoints and Tumor Metastasis.
Xi-Yang Tang, An-Ping Shi, +5 authors, Jin-Bo Zhao.
Front Oncol, 2021 Aug 10; 11. PMID: 34367975    Free PMC article.
Pancreatic Cancer and Immunotherapy: A Clinical Overview.
Florentine E F Timmer, Bart Geboers, +12 authors, Tanja D de Gruijl.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Aug 28; 13(16). PMID: 34439292    Free PMC article.
PD-1 and TIGIT Are Highly Co-Expressed on CD8+ T Cells in AML Patient Bone Marrow.
Ling Xu, Lian Liu, +13 authors, Yangqiu Li.
Front Oncol, 2021 Sep 08; 11. PMID: 34490086    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T Cells in Autoimmunity and Cancer: A Duplicitous Lifestyle.
Aikaterini Hatzioannou, Athina Boumpas, +4 authors, Panayotis Verginis.
Front Immunol, 2021 Sep 21; 12. PMID: 34539668    Free PMC article.
Prognostic significance of OX40+ lymphocytes in tumor stroma of surgically resected small-cell lung cancer.
Hiroshi Yokouchi, Hiroshi Nishihara, +21 authors, Hiroshi Isobe.
Oncoimmunology, 2021 Sep 24; 10(1). PMID: 34552823    Free PMC article.
OX40-targeted immune agonist antibodies induce potent antitumor immune responses without inducing liver damage in mice.
Yee C Tee, Stephen J Blake, David J Lynn.
FASEB Bioadv, 2021 Oct 12; 3(10). PMID: 34632317    Free PMC article.
Application of immune checkpoint targets in the anti-tumor novel drugs and traditional Chinese medicine development.
Yuli Wang, Xingyan Zhang, +8 authors, Changxiao Liu.
Acta Pharm Sin B, 2021 Nov 04; 11(10). PMID: 34729298    Free PMC article.
Spatial Mapping and Immunomodulatory Role of the OX40/OX40L Pathway in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Angelo Porciuncula, Micaela Morgado, +5 authors, Kurt A Schalper.
Clin Cancer Res, 2021 Sep 15; 27(22). PMID: 34518312    Free PMC article.
Roles of OX40 and OX40 Ligand in Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome.
Yuki Kawana, Hiraku Suga, +3 authors, Shinichi Sato.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Nov 28; 22(22). PMID: 34830466    Free PMC article.
Directing T-Cell Immune Responses for Cancer Vaccination and Immunotherapy.
Peter Lawrence Smith, Katarzyna Piadel, Angus George Dalgleish.
Vaccines (Basel), 2021 Dec 29; 9(12). PMID: 34960140    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy for Melanoma.
Justin T Moyers, Isabella C Glitza Oliva.
Adv Exp Med Biol, 2022 Jan 02; 1342. PMID: 34972963
A multivariate modeling framework to quantify immune checkpoint context-dependent stimulation on T cells.
Léa Karpf, Coline Trichot, +6 authors, Vassili Soumelis.
Cell Discov, 2022 Jan 06; 8(1). PMID: 34983927    Free PMC article.
Approaches of the Innate Immune System to Ameliorate Adaptive Immunotherapy for B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Their Microenvironment.
Takashi Watanabe.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Jan 12; 14(1). PMID: 35008305    Free PMC article.
Fc-based Duokines: dual-acting costimulatory molecules comprising TNFSF ligands in the single-chain format fused to a heterodimerizing Fc (scDk-Fc).
Nadine Aschmoneit, Katharina Kocher, +4 authors, Roland E Kontermann.
Oncoimmunology, 2022 Jan 28; 11(1). PMID: 35083097    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic targeting miR130b counteracts diffuse large B-cell lymphoma progression via OX40/OX40L-mediated interaction with Th17 cells.
Rui Sun, Pei-Pei Zhang, +14 authors, Wei-Li Zhao.
Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2022 Mar 19; 7(1). PMID: 35301282    Free PMC article.
Future Prospects of Immunotherapy in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Is There Hope in Other Immune Checkpoints Targeting Molecules?
Natalia Krzyżanowska, Kamila Wojas-Krawczyk, Janusz Milanowski, Paweł Krawczyk.
Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Mar 26; 23(6). PMID: 35328510    Free PMC article.
T cell co-stimulation and co-inhibition in cardiovascular disease: a double-edged sword.
Karin H Simons, Alwin de Jong, +3 authors, Paul H A Quax.
Nat Rev Cardiol, 2019 Feb 17; 16(6). PMID: 30770894