. 2013 Nov;5().
doi: 10.4137/BIC.S9455.

Molecular profiling for breast cancer: a comprehensive review

Muaiad Kittaneh 1 Alberto J Montero  Stefan Glück  
  • PMID: 24250234
  •     59 References
  •     64 citations


In recent years advances in molecular biology have launched disruptive innovations in breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. The advent of genomics has revolutionized our understanding of breast cancer as several different biologically and molecularly distinct diseases. This research has led to commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microarray tests that have begun to fundamentally change the way medical oncologists quantify recurrence risk in early stage breast cancer patients. The Genomics era has altered the clinicopathologic paradigm of selecting patients for adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy. Sufficiently powered prospective studies are underway that may establish these molecular assays as elements of standard clinical practice in breast cancer treatment. In this article, we review the strengths and limitations of currently available breast cancer-specific molecular tests.

Keywords: MammaPrint; Oncotype DX; PAM50; early breast cancer; molecular profiling; prognostic and predictive tests.

Prognostic implication of EGFR, KRAS, and TP53 gene mutations in a large cohort of Japanese patients with surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma.
Takayuki Kosaka, Yasushi Yatabe, +2 authors, Tetsuya Mitsudomi.
J Thorac Oncol, 2008 Dec 20; 4(1). PMID: 19096302
TP53 genomics predict higher clinical and pathologic tumor response in operable early-stage breast cancer treated with docetaxel-capecitabine ± trastuzumab.
Stefan Glück, Jeffrey S Ross, +4 authors, Lin Wu.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2011 Mar 05; 132(3). PMID: 21373875
Highly Cited.
Analysis of the MammaPrint breast cancer assay in a predominantly postmenopausal cohort.
Ben S Wittner, Dennis C Sgroi, +9 authors, Sridhar Ramaswamy.
Clin Cancer Res, 2008 May 17; 14(10). PMID: 18483364    Free PMC article.
Identification of conserved gene expression features between murine mammary carcinoma models and human breast tumors.
Jason I Herschkowitz, Karl Simin, +23 authors, Charles M Perou.
Genome Biol, 2007 May 12; 8(5). PMID: 17493263    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Economic analysis of targeting chemotherapy using a 21-gene RT-PCR assay in lymph-node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer.
John Hornberger, Leon E Cosler, Gary H Lyman.
Am J Manag Care, 2005 May 19; 11(5). PMID: 15898220
Robustness, scalability, and integration of a wound-response gene expression signature in predicting breast cancer survival.
Howard Y Chang, Dimitry S A Nuyten, +10 authors, Marc J van de Vijver.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2005 Feb 11; 102(10). PMID: 15701700    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The 70-gene prognosis-signature predicts disease outcome in breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes in an independent validation study.
Stella Mook, Marjanka K Schmidt, +10 authors, TRANSBIG Consortium.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2008 Jul 29; 116(2). PMID: 18661261
The 70-gene signature as a response predictor for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Marieke E Straver, Annuska M Glas, +7 authors, Sjoerd Rodenhuis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2009 Feb 14; 119(3). PMID: 19214742
Supervised risk predictor of breast cancer based on intrinsic subtypes.
Joel S Parker, Michael Mullins, +17 authors, Philip S Bernard.
J Clin Oncol, 2009 Feb 11; 27(8). PMID: 19204204    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
International network of cancer genome projects.
International Cancer Genome Consortium, Thomas J Hudson, +413 authors, Huanming Yang.
Nature, 2010 Apr 16; 464(7291). PMID: 20393554    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Validation and clinical utility of a 70-gene prognostic signature for women with node-negative breast cancer.
Marc Buyse, Sherene Loi, +18 authors, TRANSBIG Consortium.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2006 Sep 07; 98(17). PMID: 16954471
Highly Cited.
The 70-gene prognosis signature predicts early metastasis in breast cancer patients between 55 and 70 years of age.
S Mook, M K Schmidt, +7 authors, L J van 't Veer.
Ann Oncol, 2009 Oct 15; 21(4). PMID: 19825882
Molecular portraits of human breast tumours.
C M Perou, T Sørlie, +15 authors, D Botstein.
Nature, 2000 Aug 30; 406(6797). PMID: 10963602
Highly Cited.
Prediction of risk of distant recurrence using the 21-gene recurrence score in node-negative and node-positive postmenopausal patients with breast cancer treated with anastrozole or tamoxifen: a TransATAC study.
Mitch Dowsett, Jack Cuzick, +11 authors, Steven Shak.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Mar 10; 28(11). PMID: 20212256
Highly Cited.
Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer.
Laura J van 't Veer, Hongyue Dai, +13 authors, Stephen H Friend.
Nature, 2002 Feb 02; 415(6871). PMID: 11823860
Highly Cited.
The triple negative paradox: primary tumor chemosensitivity of breast cancer subtypes.
Lisa A Carey, E Claire Dees, +7 authors, Charles M Perou.
Clin Cancer Res, 2007 Apr 18; 13(8). PMID: 17438091
Highly Cited.
The molecular portraits of breast tumors are conserved across microarray platforms.
Zhiyuan Hu, Cheng Fan, +28 authors, Charles M Perou.
BMC Genomics, 2006 Apr 29; 7. PMID: 16643655    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Biological functions of the genes in the mammaprint breast cancer profile reflect the hallmarks of cancer.
Sun Tian, Paul Roepman, +3 authors, Annuska M Glas.
Biomark Insights, 2010 Dec 15; 5. PMID: 21151591    Free PMC article.
Prognostic value of a combined estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 immunohistochemical score and comparison with the Genomic Health recurrence score in early breast cancer.
Jack Cuzick, Mitch Dowsett, +10 authors, John F Forbes.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Oct 13; 29(32). PMID: 21990413
Highly Cited.
Use of 70-gene signature to predict prognosis of patients with node-negative breast cancer: a prospective community-based feasibility study (RASTER).
Jolien M Bueno-de-Mesquita, Wim H van Harten, +19 authors, Sabine C Linn.
Lancet Oncol, 2007 Nov 29; 8(12). PMID: 18042430
Detection and quantitation of HER-2/neu gene amplification in human breast cancer archival material using fluorescence in situ hybridization.
G Pauletti, W Godolphin, M F Press, D J Slamon.
Oncogene, 1996 Jul 04; 13(1). PMID: 8700555
Highly Cited.
Molecularly targeted therapies for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.
Soley Bayraktar, Stefan Glück.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2013 Jan 30; 138(1). PMID: 23358903
Mammostrat as a tool to stratify breast cancer patients at risk of recurrence during endocrine therapy.
John M S Bartlett, Jeremy Thomas, +12 authors, Udi Chetty.
Breast Cancer Res, 2010 Jul 10; 12(4). PMID: 20615243    Free PMC article.
Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets.
Therese Sorlie, Robert Tibshirani, +13 authors, David Botstein.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2003 Jun 28; 100(14). PMID: 12829800    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
High false-negative rate of HER2 quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the Oncotype DX test: an independent quality assurance study.
David J Dabbs, Molly E Klein, +3 authors, Rohit Bhargava.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Oct 13; 29(32). PMID: 21990395
A comparison of PAM50 intrinsic subtyping with immunohistochemistry and clinical prognostic factors in tamoxifen-treated estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Torsten O Nielsen, Joel S Parker, +12 authors, Matthew J Ellis.
Clin Cancer Res, 2010 Sep 15; 16(21). PMID: 20837693    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Concordance of clinical and molecular breast cancer subtyping in the context of preoperative chemotherapy response.
Jorma J de Ronde, Juliane Hannemann, +7 authors, Sjoerd Rodenhuis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2009 Aug 12; 119(1). PMID: 19669409
Real-world performance of HER2 testing--National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project experience.
Soonmyung Paik, John Bryant, +9 authors, Norman Wolmark.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2002 Jun 06; 94(11). PMID: 12048273
Adjuvant chemotherapy and timing of tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer: a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial.
Kathy S Albain, William E Barlow, +18 authors, Breast Cancer Intergroup of North America.
Lancet, 2009 Dec 17; 374(9707). PMID: 20004966    Free PMC article.
Gene pathways associated with prognosis and chemotherapy sensitivity in molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
Takayuki Iwamoto, Giampaolo Bianchini, +14 authors, Lajos Pusztai.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2010 Dec 31; 103(3). PMID: 21191116
Highly Cited.
Gene expression profiling: decoding breast cancer.
Femke de Snoo, Richard Bender, Annuska Glas, Emiel Rutgers.
Surg Oncol, 2009 Nov 03; 18(4). PMID: 19879448
Breast cancer signatures for invasiveness and prognosis defined by deep sequencing of microRNA.
Stefano Volinia, Marco Galasso, +4 authors, Carlo M Croce.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012 Feb 09; 109(8). PMID: 22315424    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Pharmacogenomic predictor of sensitivity to preoperative chemotherapy with paclitaxel and fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide in breast cancer.
Kenneth R Hess, Keith Anderson, +14 authors, Lajos Pusztai.
J Clin Oncol, 2006 Aug 10; 24(26). PMID: 16896004
Highly Cited.
Metastatic behavior of breast cancer subtypes.
Hagen Kennecke, Rinat Yerushalmi, +5 authors, Karen Gelmon.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 May 26; 28(20). PMID: 20498394
Highly Cited.
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assessment in a case-control study: comparison of fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction performed by central laboratories.
Frederick L Baehner, Ninah Achacoso, +5 authors, Laurel A Habel.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Aug 11; 28(28). PMID: 20697093
Gene expression and benefit of chemotherapy in women with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Soonmyung Paik, Gong Tang, +11 authors, Norman Wolmark.
J Clin Oncol, 2006 May 25; 24(23). PMID: 16720680
Highly Cited.
Tumor gene expression and prognosis in breast cancer patients with 10 or more positive lymph nodes.
Melody A Cobleigh, Bita Tabesh, +7 authors, Steven Shak.
Clin Cancer Res, 2005 Dec 20; 11(24 Pt 1). PMID: 16361546
Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation.
Paul B Chapman, Axel Hauschild, +26 authors, BRIM-3 Study Group.
N Engl J Med, 2011 Jun 07; 364(26). PMID: 21639808    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer.
Soonmyung Paik, Steven Shak, +12 authors, Norman Wolmark.
N Engl J Med, 2004 Dec 14; 351(27). PMID: 15591335
Highly Cited.
Gene expression profiling for the prediction of therapeutic response to docetaxel in patients with breast cancer.
Jenny C Chang, Eric C Wooten, +8 authors, Peter O'Connell.
Lancet, 2003 Aug 09; 362(9381). PMID: 12907009
Highly Cited.
Epidemiology of breast cancer subtypes in two prospective cohort studies of breast cancer survivors.
Marilyn L Kwan, Lawrence H Kushi, +6 authors, Bette J Caan.
Breast Cancer Res, 2009 May 26; 11(3). PMID: 19463150    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Fighting overtreatment in adjuvant breast cancer therapy.
Michael Gnant, Guenther G Steger.
Lancet, 2009 Dec 17; 374(9707). PMID: 20004965
Validation of 70-gene prognosis signature in node-negative breast cancer.
J M Bueno-de-Mesquita, S C Linn, +16 authors, M J van de Vijver.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2008 Sep 27; 117(3). PMID: 18819002
A prospective evaluation of a breast cancer prognosis signature in the observational RASTER study.
C A Drukker, J M Bueno-de-Mesquita, +10 authors, S C Linn.
Int J Cancer, 2013 Feb 02; 133(4). PMID: 23371464    Free PMC article.
Definition and impact of pathologic complete response on prognosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in various intrinsic breast cancer subtypes.
Gunter von Minckwitz, Michael Untch, +14 authors, Sibylle Loibl.
J Clin Oncol, 2012 Apr 18; 30(15). PMID: 22508812
Highly Cited.
Multicenter validation of a gene expression-based prognostic signature in lymph node-negative primary breast cancer.
John A Foekens, David Atkins, +17 authors, Yixin Wang.
J Clin Oncol, 2006 Mar 01; 24(11). PMID: 16505412
The EORTC 10041/BIG 03-04 MINDACT trial is feasible: results of the pilot phase.
Emiel Rutgers, Martine J Piccart-Gebhart, +12 authors, Fatima Cardoso.
Eur J Cancer, 2011 Nov 05; 47(18). PMID: 22051734
The predictive value of the 70-gene signature for adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer.
Michael Knauer, Stella Mook, +7 authors, Laura J van 't Veer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2010 Mar 06; 120(3). PMID: 20204499
Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer.
Aleix Prat, Joel S Parker, +5 authors, Charles M Perou.
Breast Cancer Res, 2010 Sep 04; 12(5). PMID: 20813035    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Gene expression predictors of breast cancer outcomes.
Erich Huang, Skye H Cheng, +10 authors, Andrew T Huang.
Lancet, 2003 May 16; 361(9369). PMID: 12747878
Highly Cited.
A gene-expression signature as a predictor of survival in breast cancer.
Marc J van de Vijver, Yudong D He, +18 authors, René Bernards.
N Engl J Med, 2002 Dec 20; 347(25). PMID: 12490681
Highly Cited.
Breast cancer subtypes and the risk of local and regional relapse.
K David Voduc, Maggie C U Cheang, +3 authors, Hagen Kennecke.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Mar 03; 28(10). PMID: 20194857
Highly Cited.
A 50-gene intrinsic subtype classifier for prognosis and prediction of benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen.
Stephen K Chia, Vivien H Bramwell, +12 authors, Torsten O Nielsen.
Clin Cancer Res, 2012 Jun 20; 18(16). PMID: 22711706    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials.
Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG).
Lancet, 2005 May 17; 365(9472). PMID: 15894097
Highly Cited.
Genome-wide analysis of DNA copy-number changes using cDNA microarrays.
J R Pollack, C M Perou, +6 authors, P O Brown.
Nat Genet, 1999 Sep 02; 23(1). PMID: 10471496
Highly Cited.
Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications.
T Sørlie, C M Perou, +14 authors, A L Børresen-Dale.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2001 Sep 13; 98(19). PMID: 11553815    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
American Society of Clinical Oncology/College Of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.
M Elizabeth H Hammond, Daniel F Hayes, +29 authors, Antonio C Wolff.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Apr 21; 28(16). PMID: 20404251    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Systematic Review.
How basal are triple-negative breast cancers?
François Bertucci, Pascal Finetti, +4 authors, Daniel Birnbaum.
Int J Cancer, 2008 Apr 10; 123(1). PMID: 18398844
Highly Cited.
Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.
Lisa A Carey, Charles M Perou, +14 authors, Robert C Millikan.
JAMA, 2006 Jun 08; 295(21). PMID: 16757721
Highly Cited.
Risk stratification in myelodysplastic syndromes: is there a role for gene expression profiling?
Amer M Zeidan, Thomas Prebet, Ehab Saad Aldin, Steven David Gore.
Expert Rev Hematol, 2014 Feb 25; 7(2). PMID: 24559255    Free PMC article.
Increased MTHFD2 expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.
Feng Liu, Yang Liu, +4 authors, Guoqiang Zhang.
Tumour Biol, 2014 May 30; 35(9). PMID: 24870594
Pathway-based analysis of breast cancer.
Dong Song, Miao Cui, +6 authors, David Y Zhang.
Am J Transl Res, 2014 Jun 18; 6(3). PMID: 24936222    Free PMC article.
Genistein inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of MCF-7 and 3T3-L1 cells via the regulation of ERα expression and induction of apoptosis.
Eun Jeong Choi, Jae Yeon Jung, Gun-Hee Kim.
Exp Ther Med, 2014 Jul 11; 8(2). PMID: 25009600    Free PMC article.
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in breast cancer: targets, trials and biomarkers.
Elisavet Paplomata, Ruth O'Regan.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2014 Jul 25; 6(4). PMID: 25057302    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Characterization of type III TGF-β receptor expression in invasive breast carcinomas: a potential new marker and target for triple negative breast cancer.
Judy C Pang, Nilam K Virani, Kelley M Kidwell, Celina G Kleer.
J Cell Commun Signal, 2014 Aug 20; 8(3). PMID: 25135009    Free PMC article.
Pulmonary adenocarcinoma: implications of the recent advances in molecular biology, treatment and the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification.
Swaroop Revannasiddaiah, Priyanka Thakur, +2 authors, Irappa Madabhavi.
J Thorac Dis, 2014 Oct 29; 6(Suppl 5). PMID: 25349702    Free PMC article.
Modules, networks and systems medicine for understanding disease and aiding diagnosis.
Mika Gustafsson, Colm E Nestor, +14 authors, Mikael Benson.
Genome Med, 2014 Dec 05; 6(10). PMID: 25473422    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Emerging gene-based prognostic tools in early breast cancer: First steps to personalised medicine.
Umar Wazir, Kefah Mokbel.
World J Clin Oncol, 2014 Dec 11; 5(5). PMID: 25493218    Free PMC article.
Association of survivin splice variants with prognosis and treatment of breast cancer.
Anastasia Pavlidou, Christos Kroupis, Kleanthi Dimas.
World J Clin Oncol, 2014 Dec 11; 5(5). PMID: 25493226    Free PMC article.
A framework for genomic biomarker actionability and its use in clinical decision making.
Smruti J Vidwans, Michelle L Turski, +6 authors, Razelle Kurzrock.
Oncoscience, 2015 Jan 17; 1(10). PMID: 25593991    Free PMC article.
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer: a role for insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3?
Hanna A Zielinska, Amit Bahl, Jeff Mp Holly, Claire M Perks.
Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press), 2015 Jan 30; 7. PMID: 25632238    Free PMC article.
Exome analysis reveals differentially mutated gene signatures of stage, grade and subtype in breast cancers.
You Li, Xiaosheng Wang, +3 authors, Chittibabu Guda.
PLoS One, 2015 Mar 25; 10(3). PMID: 25803781    Free PMC article.
Integrative analysis of survival-associated gene sets in breast cancer.
Frederick S Varn, Matthew H Ung, Shao Ke Lou, Chao Cheng.
BMC Med Genomics, 2015 Apr 17; 8. PMID: 25881247    Free PMC article.
Tumor expression, plasma levels and genetic polymorphisms of the coagulation inhibitor TFPI are associated with clinicopathological parameters and survival in breast cancer, in contrast to the coagulation initiator TF.
Mari Tinholt, Hans Kristian Moen Vollan, +9 authors, Nina Iversen.
Breast Cancer Res, 2015 Apr 18; 17. PMID: 25882602    Free PMC article.
Transcript profiling distinguishes complete treatment responders with locally advanced cervical cancer.
Jorge Fernandez-Retana, Federico Lasa-Gonsebatt, +8 authors, Carlos Perez-Plasencia.
Transl Oncol, 2015 May 01; 8(2). PMID: 25926073    Free PMC article.
Role of IGF1R in Breast Cancer Subtypes, Stemness, and Lineage Differentiation.
Susan M Farabaugh, David N Boone, Adrian V Lee.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2015 May 13; 6. PMID: 25964777    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Annexin A1 expression in a pooled breast cancer series: association with tumor subtypes and prognosis.
Marcelo Sobral-Leite, Jelle Wesseling, +44 authors, Marjanka K Schmidt.
BMC Med, 2015 Jul 04; 13. PMID: 26137966    Free PMC article.
Prospective cohort study using the breast cancer spheroid model as a predictor for response to neoadjuvant therapy--the SpheroNEO study.
Kathrin Halfter, Nina Ditsch, +9 authors, Behalf of the SpheroNEO Study Group.
BMC Cancer, 2015 Jul 15; 15. PMID: 26169261    Free PMC article.
Evaluating blood levels of neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and circulating tumor cells as Merkel cell carcinoma biomarkers.
Maria Rita Gaiser, Kenneth Daily, +3 authors, Isaac Brownell.
Oncotarget, 2015 Aug 25; 6(28). PMID: 26299616    Free PMC article.
Consensus on biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumour disease.
Kjell Oberg, Irvin M Modlin, +13 authors, James Goldenring.
Lancet Oncol, 2015 Sep 16; 16(9). PMID: 26370353    Free PMC article.
Evaluation of the Survival Benefit of Different Chemotherapy Regimens in Patients with T1-2N0 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Hyun-Ah Kim, Min-Ki Seong, +6 authors, Korea Breast Cancer Society.
J Breast Cancer, 2015 Oct 17; 18(3). PMID: 26472978    Free PMC article.
The Cancer Genome Atlas Clinical Explorer: a web and mobile interface for identifying clinical-genomic driver associations.
HoJoon Lee, Jennifer Palm, Susan M Grimes, Hanlee P Ji.
Genome Med, 2015 Oct 29; 7. PMID: 26507825    Free PMC article.
Understanding drugs in breast cancer through drug sensitivity screening.
Katharina Uhr, Wendy J C Prager-van der Smissen, +6 authors, John W M Martens.
Springerplus, 2015 Nov 07; 4. PMID: 26543746    Free PMC article.
Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells.
Nguyen Thi Hoai, Ho Viet Duc, +2 authors, Ain Raal.
Pharmacogn Mag, 2015 Dec 15; 11(Suppl 2). PMID: 26664017    Free PMC article.
Aberrant Splicing of Estrogen Receptor, HER2, and CD44 Genes in Breast Cancer.
Kazushi Inoue, Elizabeth A Fry.
Genet Epigenet, 2015 Dec 23; 7. PMID: 26692764    Free PMC article.
Novel Molecular Markers for Breast Cancer.
Kazushi Inoue, Elizabeth A Fry.
Biomark Cancer, 2016 Mar 22; 8. PMID: 26997872    Free PMC article.
Stratification of Digestive Cancers with Different Pathological Features and Survival Outcomes by MicroRNA Expression.
Senwei Tang, William K K Wu, +5 authors, Jun Yu.
Sci Rep, 2016 Apr 16; 6. PMID: 27080237    Free PMC article.
Oncogenic and tumor-suppressive mouse models for breast cancer engaging HER2/neu.
Elizabeth A Fry, Pankaj Taneja, Kazushi Inoue.
Int J Cancer, 2016 Aug 25; 140(3). PMID: 27553713    Free PMC article.
Plasminogen Activator System and Breast Cancer: Potential Role in Therapy Decision Making and Precision Medicine.
Adel Gouri, Aoulia Dekaken, +6 authors, Sadek Benharkat.
Biomark Insights, 2016 Sep 01; 11. PMID: 27578963    Free PMC article.
MUC1-ARF-A Novel MUC1 Protein That Resides in the Nucleus and Is Expressed by Alternate Reading Frame Translation of MUC1 mRNA.
Michael Chalick, Oded Jacobi, +10 authors, Daniel H Wreschner.
PLoS One, 2016 Oct 22; 11(10). PMID: 27768738    Free PMC article.
Clinical applications of mouse models for breast cancer engaging HER2/neu.
Elizabeth A Fry, Pankaj Taneja, Kazushi Inoue.
Integr Cancer Sci Ther, 2017 Jan 31; 3(5). PMID: 28133539    Free PMC article.
Low utility of Oncotype DX® in the clinic.
Luisel J Ricks-Santi, John Tyson McDonald.
Cancer Med, 2017 Feb 02; 6(3). PMID: 28145091    Free PMC article.
DHX32 expression is an indicator of poor breast cancer prognosis.
Meng Wang, Guojun Zhang, +5 authors, Xixiong Kang.
Oncol Lett, 2017 Mar 31; 13(2). PMID: 28356982    Free PMC article.
BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and treatment strategies for breast cancer.
Inês Godet, Daniele M Gilkes.
Integr Cancer Sci Ther, 2017 Jul 15; 4(1). PMID: 28706734    Free PMC article.
Biochemical Testing in Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Vidya Aluri, Joseph S Dillon.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 2017 Aug 02; 46(3). PMID: 28760232    Free PMC article.
Exploitation of Gene Expression and Cancer Biomarkers in Paving the Path to Era of Personalized Medicine.
Hala Fawzy Mohamed Kamel, Hiba Saeed A Bagader Al-Amodi.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics, 2017 Aug 17; 15(4). PMID: 28813639    Free PMC article.
The Role of micro RNAs in Breast Cancer Metastasis: Preclinical Validation and Potential Therapeutic Targets.
Ulrich H Weidle, Steffen Dickopf, +3 authors, Ulrich Brinkmann.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics, 2017 Dec 25; 15(1). PMID: 29275360    Free PMC article.
Fundamentals of siRNA and miRNA therapeutics and a review of targeted nanoparticle delivery systems in breast cancer.
Tamkin Ahmadzada, Glen Reid, David R McKenzie.
Biophys Rev, 2018 Jan 13; 10(1). PMID: 29327101    Free PMC article.
Luminal A Breast Cancer and Molecular Assays: A Review.
Jennifer J Gao, Sandra M Swain.
Oncologist, 2018 Feb 24; 23(5). PMID: 29472313    Free PMC article.
Non-invasive tumor genotyping using radiogenomic biomarkers, a systematic review and oncology-wide pathway analysis.
Robin W Jansen, Paul van Amstel, +10 authors, Marcus C de Jong.
Oncotarget, 2018 May 08; 9(28). PMID: 29732009    Free PMC article.
Potential of Aucklandia Lappa Decne Ethanolic Extract to Trigger Apoptosis of Human T47D and Hela Cells
S S Hasson, A S H Al-Shubi, +5 authors, A A Al-Jabri.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2018 Jul 28; 19(7). PMID: 30051673    Free PMC article.
Development of a Novel Proteomic Risk-Classifier for Prognostication of Patients With Early-Stage Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.
Charusheila Ramkumar, Ljubomir Buturovic, +7 authors, Manjiri M Bakre.
Biomark Insights, 2018 Aug 08; 13. PMID: 30083053    Free PMC article.
Fatty acid oxidation is associated with proliferation and prognosis in breast and other cancers.
Aziz Aiderus, Michael A Black, Anita K Dunbier.
BMC Cancer, 2018 Aug 11; 18(1). PMID: 30092766    Free PMC article.
Turning omics data into therapeutic insights.
Amanda Kedaigle, Ernest Fraenkel.
Curr Opin Pharmacol, 2018 Aug 28; 42. PMID: 30149217    Free PMC article.
Long Noncoding RNA Signature and Disease Outcome in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Tamoxifen.
Gen Wang, Xiaosong Chen, +3 authors, Kunwei Shen.
J Breast Cancer, 2018 Oct 03; 21(3). PMID: 30275856    Free PMC article.
Evaluating the Prediction of Breast Cancer Survival Using Lymph Node Ratio.
Man Hung, Julie Xu, +4 authors, Maren Wright Voss.
J Breast Cancer, 2018 Oct 03; 21(3). PMID: 30275860    Free PMC article.
Controversial issues in radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for early breast cancer in older patients: a systematic review.
Liuwei Tang, Haruo Matsushita, Keiichi Jingu.
J Radiat Res, 2018 Oct 16; 59(6). PMID: 30321392    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Panoptic View of Prognostic Models for Personalized Breast Cancer Management.
Geetanjali Saini, Karuna Mittal, +3 authors, Ritu Aneja.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Sep 11; 11(9). PMID: 31500225    Free PMC article.
The Gene Mutation Spectrum of Breast Cancer Analyzed by Semiconductor Sequencing Platform.
Yanhui Liu, Bo Yang, +2 authors, Hailiang Liu.
Pathol Oncol Res, 2018 Nov 18; 26(1). PMID: 30443844
Comparing blood versus tissue-based biomarkers expression in breast cancer patients.
Mana Oloomi, Neda Moazzezy, Saeid Bouzari.
Heliyon, 2020 Apr 11; 6(4). PMID: 32274439    Free PMC article.
A "Dual" Cell-Level Systems PK-PD Model to Characterize the Bystander Effect of ADC.
Aman P Singh, Dhaval K Shah.
J Pharm Sci, 2019 Feb 23; 108(7). PMID: 30790581    Free PMC article.
Anticancer Activity of Camel Milk via Induction of Autophagic Death in Human Colorectal and Breast Cancer Cells
Roopesh Krishnankutty, Ahmad Iskandarani, +5 authors, Ramzi M Mohammad.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2018 Dec 26; 19(12). PMID: 30583676    Free PMC article.
Profiling of Invasive Breast Carcinoma Circulating Tumour Cells-Are We Ready for the 'Liquid' Revolution?
Marcin Braun, Aleksandra Markiewicz, +2 authors, Hanna Romańska.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Jan 30; 11(2). PMID: 30691008    Free PMC article.
Assessment of Ki-67 as a potential biomarker in patients with breast cancer.
Halla Mohamed Ragab, Nervana Samy, +2 authors, HebatAllah Mohamed Shaaban.
J Genet Eng Biotechnol, 2019 Feb 09; 16(2). PMID: 30733763    Free PMC article.
Comparison of breast cancer prognostic tests CanAssist Breast and Oncotype DX.
Aditya K Sengupta, Aparna Gunda, +4 authors, Manjiri M Bakre.
Cancer Med, 2020 Oct 08; 9(21). PMID: 33027559    Free PMC article.
Resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer: molecular mechanisms and future goals.
Małgorzata Szostakowska, Alicja Trębińska-Stryjewska, Ewa Anna Grzybowska, Anna Fabisiewicz.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2018 Nov 02; 173(3). PMID: 30382472    Free PMC article.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduces the expression rates of ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, and P53 of invasive ductal carcinoma.
Jian-Heng Peng, Xiang Zhang, +4 authors, Yong-Hong Wang.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Jan 12; 98(2). PMID: 30633152    Free PMC article.
Efficacy of an RNA-based multigene assay with core needle biopsy samples for risk evaluation in hormone-positive early breast cancer.
Jeeyeon Lee, Eun Hye Lee, +9 authors, Jin Hyang Jung.
BMC Cancer, 2019 Apr 27; 19(1). PMID: 31023265    Free PMC article.
Predicting stage-specific cancer related genes and their dynamic modules by integrating multiple datasets.
Chaima Aouiche, Bolin Chen, Xuequn Shang.
BMC Bioinformatics, 2019 May 11; 20(Suppl 7). PMID: 31074385    Free PMC article.
Nutritional combinatorial impact on the gut microbiota and plasma short-chain fatty acids levels in the prevention of mammary cancer in Her2/neu estrogen receptor-negative transgenic mice.
Manvi Sharma, Itika Arora, +6 authors, Trygve O Tollefsbol.
PLoS One, 2021 Jan 01; 15(12). PMID: 33382695    Free PMC article.
Are disruptive innovations recognised in the healthcare literature? A systematic review.
Viknesh Sounderajah, Vanash Patel, +6 authors, Hutan Ashrafian.
BMJ Innov, 2021 Jan 26; 7(1). PMID: 33489312    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Comprehensive molecular profiling of Taiwanese breast cancers revealed potential therapeutic targets: prevalence of actionable mutations among 380 targeted sequencing analyses.
Chi-Cheng Huang, Yi-Fang Tsai, +7 authors, Ling-Ming Tseng.
BMC Cancer, 2021 Feb 27; 21(1). PMID: 33632156    Free PMC article.
Genomic Assays in Node Positive Breast Cancer Patients: A Review.
Maroun Bou Zerdan, Maryam Ibrahim, +2 authors, Hazem I Assi.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 06; 10. PMID: 33665165    Free PMC article.