Journal Article
. 2013 Nov; 210(13):2803-11.
doi: 10.1084/jem.20130678.

Intratumoral IL-12 combined with CTLA-4 blockade elicits T cell-mediated glioma rejection

Johannes Vom Berg 1 Melissa Vrohlings  Sergio Haller  Aladin Haimovici  Paulina Kulig  Anna Sledzinska  Michael Weller  Burkhard Becher  
  • PMID: 24277150
  •     32 References
  •     87 citations


Glioblastomas (GBs) are the most aggressive form of primary brain cancer and virtually incurable. Accumulation of regulatory T (T reg) cells in GBs is thought to contribute to the dampening of antitumor immunity. Using a syngeneic mouse model for GB, we tested whether local delivery of cytokines could render the immunosuppressive GB microenvironment conducive to an antitumor immune response. IL-12 but not IL-23 reversed GB-induced immunosuppression and led to tumor clearance. In contrast to models of skin or lung cancer, IL-12-mediated glioma rejection was T cell dependent and elicited potent immunological memory. To translate these findings into a clinically relevant setting, we allowed for GB progression before initiating therapy. Combined intratumoral IL-12 application with systemic blockade of the co-inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 on T cells led to tumor eradication even at advanced disease stages where monotherapy with either IL-12 or CTLA-4 blockade failed. The combination of IL-12 and CTLA-4 blockade acts predominantly on CD4(+) cells, causing a drastic decrease in FoxP3(+) T reg cells and an increase in effector T (T eff) cells. Our data provide compelling preclinical findings warranting swift translation into clinical trials in GB and represent a promising approach to increase response rates of CTLA-4 blockade in solid tumors.

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IL-7 coupled with IL-12 increases intratumoral T cell clonality, leading to complete regression of non-immunogenic tumors.
Mamoru Tasaki, Midori Yamashita, +2 authors, Shinsuke Nakao.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2021 Apr 29; 70(12). PMID: 33909103    Free PMC article.
Intratumoral expression of IL-12 from lentiviral or RNA vectors acts synergistically with TLR4 agonist (GLA) to generate anti-tumor immunological memory.
Jardin A Leleux, Tina C Albershardt, +5 authors, Peter Berglund.
PLoS One, 2021 Dec 03; 16(12). PMID: 34855754    Free PMC article.
Glioma targeted therapy: insight into future of molecular approaches.
Keyang Yang, Zhijing Wu, +11 authors, Quan Cheng.
Mol Cancer, 2022 Feb 10; 21(1). PMID: 35135556    Free PMC article.
Autophagy-based unconventional secretion of HMGB1 in glioblastoma promotes chemosensitivity to temozolomide through macrophage M1-like polarization.
Zhuang Li, Wen-Juan Fu, +14 authors, Xiao-Hong Yao.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2022 Feb 24; 41(1). PMID: 35193644    Free PMC article.
HLA-G and Other Immune Checkpoint Molecules as Targets for Novel Combined Immunotherapies.
Fabio Morandi, Irma Airoldi.
Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Mar 26; 23(6). PMID: 35328349    Free PMC article.
The War Is on: The Immune System against Glioblastoma-How Can NK Cells Drive This Battle?
Lucas Henrique Rodrigues da Silva, Luana Correia Croda Catharino, +2 authors, José Alexandre Marzagão Barbuto.
Biomedicines, 2022 Feb 26; 10(2). PMID: 35203609    Free PMC article.
Opening of the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Responses to Immunotherapy in Preclinical Glioma Models.
Aria Sabbagh, Kevin Beccaria, +18 authors, Amy B Heimberger.
Clin Cancer Res, 2021 May 26; 27(15). PMID: 34031054    Free PMC article.
Emerging therapies for glioblastoma: current state and future directions.
Liang Rong, Ni Li, Zhenzhen Zhang.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2022 Apr 17; 41(1). PMID: 35428347    Free PMC article.
Identification of an endoplasmic reticulum stress-related signature associated with clinical prognosis and immune therapy in glioma.
Lianxin Li, Zhihao Yang, +4 authors, Bing Zhao.
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