Journal Article
. 2014 Jan;5(4).
doi: 10.1007/s12609-013-0125-9.

Breast Cancer Biomarkers: Utility in Clinical Practice

Fanny Le Du 1 Naoto T Ueno 2 Ana M Gonzalez-Angulo 3 
  • PMID: 24416469
  •     90 References
  •     2 citations


Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. For the past decades, new technical tools have been developed for biomarkers at the DNA, RNA and protein levels to better understand the biology of breast cancer. This progress is essential to classify the disease into clinically relevant subtypes, which may lead to new therapeutic opportunities. Novel biomarker development is paramount to deliver personalized cancer therapies. Further, tumor evolution, being natural or under treatment pressure, should be monitored and "liquid biopsies" by detecting circulating tumor cells or circulating free tumor DNA in blood samples will become an important option. This paper reviews the new generation of biomarkers and the current evidence to demonstrate their analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Breast cancer; Clinical utility; Prediction; Prognosis.

Integrating comparative effectiveness design elements and endpoints into a phase III, randomized clinical trial (SWOG S1007) evaluating oncotypeDX-guided management for women with breast cancer involving lymph nodes.
Scott D Ramsey, William E Barlow, +6 authors, Gabriel N Hortobagyi.
Contemp Clin Trials, 2012 Sep 25; 34(1). PMID: 23000081    Free PMC article.
Prognostic impact of discordance between triple-receptor measurements in primary and recurrent breast cancer.
C Liedtke, K Broglio, +11 authors, A M Gonzalez-Angulo.
Ann Oncol, 2009 Jul 15; 20(12). PMID: 19596702    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers expressed in circulating tumour cells of early and metastatic breast cancer patients.
Galatea Kallergi, Maria A Papadaki, +3 authors, Sophia Agelaki.
Breast Cancer Res, 2011 Jun 15; 13(3). PMID: 21663619    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Characterization of metastatic breast cancer patients with nondetectable circulating tumor cells.
Michal Mego, Ugo De Giorgi, +7 authors, Massimo Cristofanilli.
Int J Cancer, 2010 Sep 22; 129(2). PMID: 20857493
Utility of prognostic genomic tests in breast cancer practice: The IMPAKT 2012 Working Group Consensus Statement.
H A Azim, S Michiels, +9 authors, C Swanton.
Ann Oncol, 2013 Jan 23; 24(3). PMID: 23337633    Free PMC article.
Review: incidence and clinical significance of Bevacizumab-related non-surgical and surgical serious adverse events in metastatic colorectal cancer.
D Hompes, T Ruers.
Eur J Surg Oncol, 2011 Jul 19; 37(9). PMID: 21764243
The 70-gene signature as a response predictor for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Marieke E Straver, Annuska M Glas, +7 authors, Sjoerd Rodenhuis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2009 Feb 14; 119(3). PMID: 19214742
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness features in circulating tumor cells from breast cancer patients.
Cristina Raimondi, Angela Gradilone, +8 authors, Paola Gazzaniga.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2011 Feb 08; 130(2). PMID: 21298334
Highly Cited.
Adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer.
Dennis Slamon, Wolfgang Eiermann, +21 authors, Breast Cancer International Research Group.
N Engl J Med, 2011 Oct 14; 365(14). PMID: 21991949    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Mammostrat as an immunohistochemical multigene assay for prediction of early relapse risk in the tamoxifen versus exemestane adjuvant multicenter trial pathology study.
John M S Bartlett, Kenneth J Bloom, +13 authors, Daniel Rea.
J Clin Oncol, 2012 Oct 10; 30(36). PMID: 23045591
Supervised risk predictor of breast cancer based on intrinsic subtypes.
Joel S Parker, Michael Mullins, +17 authors, Philip S Bernard.
J Clin Oncol, 2009 Feb 11; 27(8). PMID: 19204204    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Validation and clinical utility of a 70-gene prognostic signature for women with node-negative breast cancer.
Marc Buyse, Sherene Loi, +18 authors, TRANSBIG Consortium.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2006 Sep 07; 98(17). PMID: 16954471
Highly Cited.
Multifactorial approach to predicting resistance to anthracyclines.
Christine Desmedt, Angelo Di Leo, +25 authors, Christos Sotiriou.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Mar 23; 29(12). PMID: 21422418
CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen response in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer: the breast international group 1-98 trial.
Meredith M Regan, Brian Leyland-Jones, +18 authors, Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 Collaborative Group.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2012 Mar 08; 104(6). PMID: 22395644    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Detection of aberrant promoter methylation of GSTP1, RASSF1A, and RARβ2 in serum DNA of patients with breast cancer by a newly established one-step methylation-specific PCR assay.
Noriaki Yamamoto, Takahiro Nakayama, +7 authors, Shinzaburo Noguchi.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2011 May 20; 132(1). PMID: 21594664
A population-based study of tumor gene expression and risk of breast cancer death among lymph node-negative patients.
Laurel A Habel, Steven Shak, +12 authors, Charles P Quesenberry.
Breast Cancer Res, 2006 Jun 02; 8(3). PMID: 16737553    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Prediction of risk of distant recurrence using the 21-gene recurrence score in node-negative and node-positive postmenopausal patients with breast cancer treated with anastrozole or tamoxifen: a TransATAC study.
Mitch Dowsett, Jack Cuzick, +11 authors, Steven Shak.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Mar 10; 28(11). PMID: 20212256
Highly Cited.
A new molecular predictor of distant recurrence in ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer adds independent information to conventional clinical risk factors.
Martin Filipits, Margaretha Rudas, +25 authors, EP Investigators.
Clin Cancer Res, 2011 Aug 03; 17(18). PMID: 21807638
Highly Cited.
Decentral gene expression analysis for ER+/Her2- breast cancer: results of a proficiency testing program for the EndoPredict assay.
Carsten Denkert, Ralf Kronenwett, +23 authors, Manfred Dietel.
Virchows Arch, 2012 Mar 01; 460(3). PMID: 22371223    Free PMC article.
Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer.
Laura J van 't Veer, Hongyue Dai, +13 authors, Stephen H Friend.
Nature, 2002 Feb 02; 415(6871). PMID: 11823860
Highly Cited.
Prognostic value of a combined estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 immunohistochemical score and comparison with the Genomic Health recurrence score in early breast cancer.
Jack Cuzick, Mitch Dowsett, +10 authors, John F Forbes.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Oct 13; 29(32). PMID: 21990413
Highly Cited.
TP53 status for prediction of sensitivity to taxane versus non-taxane neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer (EORTC 10994/BIG 1-00): a randomised phase 3 trial.
Hervé Bonnefoi, Martine Piccart, +19 authors, EORTC 10994/BIG 1-00 Study Investigators.
Lancet Oncol, 2011 May 17; 12(6). PMID: 21570352    Free PMC article.
Use of 70-gene signature to predict prognosis of patients with node-negative breast cancer: a prospective community-based feasibility study (RASTER).
Jolien M Bueno-de-Mesquita, Wim H van Harten, +19 authors, Sabine C Linn.
Lancet Oncol, 2007 Nov 29; 8(12). PMID: 18042430
Detection of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer may improve through enrichment with anti-CD146.
Bianca Mostert, Jaco Kraan, +9 authors, Stefan Sleijfer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2010 Apr 10; 127(1). PMID: 20379845
Prognostic utility of the breast cancer index and comparison to Adjuvant! Online in a clinical case series of early breast cancer.
Rachel C Jankowitz, Kristine Cooper, +5 authors, Adam Brufsky.
Breast Cancer Res, 2011 Oct 18; 13(5). PMID: 21999244    Free PMC article.
Tumour seeding following percutaneous needle biopsy: the real story!
E G Robertson, G Baxter.
Clin Radiol, 2011 Jul 26; 66(11). PMID: 21784421
Pathologic complete response rates in young women with BRCA1-positive breast cancers after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Tomasz Byrski, Jacek Gronwald, +10 authors, Steven Narod.
J Clin Oncol, 2009 Dec 17; 28(3). PMID: 20008645
Highly Cited.
Loss of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression in metastatic sites of HER2-overexpressing primary breast tumors.
Naoki Niikura, Jun Liu, +7 authors, Naoto T Ueno.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Nov 30; 30(6). PMID: 22124109    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Molecular subclasses of breast cancer: how do we define them? The IMPAKT 2012 Working Group Statement.
S Guiu, S Michiels, +11 authors, J S Reis-Filho.
Ann Oncol, 2012 Nov 21; 23(12). PMID: 23166150
Highly Cited. Review.
Assessment of Ki67 in breast cancer: recommendations from the International Ki67 in Breast Cancer working group.
Mitch Dowsett, Torsten O Nielsen, +19 authors, International Ki-67 in Breast Cancer Working Group.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2011 Oct 01; 103(22). PMID: 21960707    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Chemotherapy response and recurrence-free survival in neoadjuvant breast cancer depends on biomarker profiles: results from the I-SPY 1 TRIAL (CALGB 150007/150012; ACRIN 6657).
Laura J Esserman, Donald A Berry, +32 authors, I-SPY 1 TRIAL Investigators.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2011 Dec 27; 132(3). PMID: 22198468    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Final results of a multicenter phase II clinical trial evaluating the activity of single-agent lapatinib in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer and HER2-positive circulating tumor cells. A proof-of-concept study.
Marta Pestrin, Silvia Bessi, +13 authors, Angelo Di Leo.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2012 Apr 06; 134(1). PMID: 22476856
Mammostrat as a tool to stratify breast cancer patients at risk of recurrence during endocrine therapy.
John M S Bartlett, Jeremy Thomas, +12 authors, Udi Chetty.
Breast Cancer Res, 2010 Jul 10; 12(4). PMID: 20615243    Free PMC article.
Clinically used breast cancer markers such as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 are unstable throughout tumor progression.
Linda Sofie Lindström, Eva Karlsson, +6 authors, Jonas Bergh.
J Clin Oncol, 2012 Jun 20; 30(21). PMID: 22711854
Highly Cited.
Prognostic utility of HOXB13:IL17BR and molecular grade index in early-stage breast cancer patients from the Stockholm trial.
P-L Jerevall, X-J Ma, +9 authors, O Stål.
Br J Cancer, 2011 May 12; 104(11). PMID: 21559019    Free PMC article.
Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing.
Marco Gerlinger, Andrew J Rowan, +28 authors, Charles Swanton.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Mar 09; 366(10). PMID: 22397650    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Free circulating tumor DNA as a diagnostic marker for breast cancer.
D Hashad, A Sorour, A Ghazal, I Talaat.
J Clin Lab Anal, 2012 Nov 13; 26(6). PMID: 23143630    Free PMC article.
Development of the 21-gene assay and its application in clinical practice and clinical trials.
Joseph A Sparano, Soonmyung Paik.
J Clin Oncol, 2008 Feb 09; 26(5). PMID: 18258979
Highly Cited. Review.
American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 update of recommendations for the use of tumor markers in breast cancer.
Lyndsay Harris, Herbert Fritsche, +7 authors, American Society of Clinical Oncology.
J Clin Oncol, 2007 Oct 24; 25(33). PMID: 17954709
Highly Cited. Review.
Changes of HER2 status in circulating tumor cells compared with the primary tumor during treatment for advanced breast cancer.
Elisabetta Munzone, Franco Nolé, +9 authors, Maria Teresa Sandri.
Clin Breast Cancer, 2010 Oct 06; 10(5). PMID: 20920984
Prospective transGEICAM study of the impact of the 21-gene Recurrence Score assay and traditional clinicopathological factors on adjuvant clinical decision making in women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) node-negative breast cancer.
J Albanell, A González, +17 authors, A Lluch.
Ann Oncol, 2011 Jun 10; 23(3). PMID: 21652577
Circulating tumor cells as prognostic and predictive markers in metastatic breast cancer patients receiving first-line systemic treatment.
Mario Giuliano, Antonio Giordano, +12 authors, Massimo Cristofanilli.
Breast Cancer Res, 2011 Jun 28; 13(3). PMID: 21699723    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibodies and the detection of circulating normal-like breast tumor cells.
Anieta M Sieuwerts, Jaco Kraan, +7 authors, John A Foekens.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2009 Jan 01; 101(1). PMID: 19116383    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Prospective study evaluating the impact of tissue confirmation of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer.
Eitan Amir, Naomi Miller, +9 authors, Mark Clemons.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Nov 30; 30(6). PMID: 22124102    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Comparison of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood and disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow (DTC-BM) of breast cancer patients.
Christian Schindlbeck, Ulrich Andergassen, +6 authors, Brigitte Rack.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2013 Mar 26; 139(6). PMID: 23525580
Circulating tumour cells lacking cytokeratin in breast cancer: the importance of being mesenchymal.
Angela Gradilone, Cristina Raimondi, +7 authors, Paola Gazzaniga.
J Cell Mol Med, 2011 Mar 01; 15(5). PMID: 21352474    Free PMC article.
Genomic grade index is associated with response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.
Cornelia Liedtke, Christos Hatzis, +8 authors, Lajos Pusztai.
J Clin Oncol, 2009 Apr 15; 27(19). PMID: 19364972    Free PMC article.
Detection of circulating tumor cells in blood of metastatic breast cancer patients using a combination of cytokeratin and EpCAM antibodies.
Ulrike Weissenstein, Agnes Schumann, +3 authors, Peter Heusser.
BMC Cancer, 2012 Jun 01; 12. PMID: 22646670    Free PMC article.
Ten-year analysis of the prospective multicentre Chemo-N0 trial validates American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)-recommended biomarkers uPA and PAI-1 for therapy decision making in node-negative breast cancer patients.
N Harbeck, M Schmitt, +12 authors, Chemo-N 0 Study Group.
Eur J Cancer, 2013 Mar 16; 49(8). PMID: 23490655
HER2 status of circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a prospective, multicenter trial.
Tanja Fehm, Volkmar Müller, +14 authors, Klaus Pantel.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2010 Sep 23; 124(2). PMID: 20859679
Highly Cited.
Circulating tumor cells, disease progression, and survival in metastatic breast cancer.
Massimo Cristofanilli, G Thomas Budd, +8 authors, Daniel F Hayes.
N Engl J Med, 2004 Aug 20; 351(8). PMID: 15317891
Highly Cited.
Detection of PIK3CA mutations in circulating free DNA in patients with breast cancer.
Ruth E Board, Andrew M Wardley, +8 authors, Caroline Dive.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2010 Jan 29; 120(2). PMID: 20107891
Gene expression and benefit of chemotherapy in women with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Soonmyung Paik, Gong Tang, +11 authors, Norman Wolmark.
J Clin Oncol, 2006 May 25; 24(23). PMID: 16720680
Highly Cited.
Agreement in risk prediction between the 21-gene recurrence score assay (Oncotype DX®) and the PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic Classifier™ in early-stage estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Catherine M Kelly, Philip S Bernard, +7 authors, Lajos Pusztai.
Oncologist, 2012 Mar 16; 17(4). PMID: 22418568    Free PMC article.
A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer.
Soonmyung Paik, Steven Shak, +12 authors, Norman Wolmark.
N Engl J Med, 2004 Dec 14; 351(27). PMID: 15591335
Highly Cited.
High independent prognostic and predictive value of circulating tumor cells compared with serum tumor markers in a large prospective trial in first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer patients.
J-Y Pierga, D Hajage, +8 authors, F-C Bidard.
Ann Oncol, 2011 Jun 07; 23(3). PMID: 21642515
Highly Cited.
Assessment of Topoisomerase II α status in breast cancer by quantitative PCR, gene expression microarrays, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Atocha Romero, Miguel Martín, +9 authors, Trinidad Caldés Llopis.
Am J Pathol, 2011 Mar 26; 178(4). PMID: 21435434    Free PMC article.
Changing levels of circulating tumor cells in monitoring chemotherapy response in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
Andreas D Hartkopf, Philipp Wagner, +2 authors, Ralf Rothmund.
Anticancer Res, 2011 Apr 19; 31(3). PMID: 21498725
The 21-gene recurrence score assay impacts adjuvant therapy recommendations for ER-positive, node-negative and node-positive early breast cancer resulting in a risk-adapted change in chemotherapy use.
W Eiermann, M Rezai, +13 authors, J Blohmer.
Ann Oncol, 2012 Nov 09; 24(3). PMID: 23136233    Free PMC article.
Response to neoadjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers and noncarriers: a single-institution experience.
Banu Arun, Soley Bayraktar, +8 authors, Constance Albarracin.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Sep 09; 29(28). PMID: 21900106    Free PMC article.
Primary breast cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.
S Aebi, T Davidson, +2 authors, ESMO Guidelines Working Group.
Ann Oncol, 2010 Jun 29; 21 Suppl 5. PMID: 20555111
Chemosensitivity and stratification by a five monoclonal antibody immunohistochemistry test in the NSABP B14 and B20 trials.
Douglas T Ross, Chung-Yeul Kim, +7 authors, Norman Wolmark.
Clin Cancer Res, 2008 Oct 18; 14(20). PMID: 18927301    Free PMC article.
The EndoPredict Gene-Expression Assay in Clinical Practice - Performance and Impact on Clinical Decisions.
Berit Maria Müller, Elke Keil, +16 authors, Carsten Denkert.
PLoS One, 2013 Jul 05; 8(6). PMID: 23826382    Free PMC article.
Plasma HER2 amplification in cell-free DNA during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Troels Bechmann, Rikke Fredslund Andersen, +6 authors, Anders Jakobsen.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2013 Mar 13; 139(6). PMID: 23479212
Meta-analysis of the prognostic value of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer.
Liling Zhang, Sabine Riethdorf, +5 authors, Klaus Pantel.
Clin Cancer Res, 2012 Aug 22; 18(20). PMID: 22908097
Highly Cited.
The EORTC 10041/BIG 03-04 MINDACT trial is feasible: results of the pilot phase.
Emiel Rutgers, Martine J Piccart-Gebhart, +12 authors, Fatima Cardoso.
Eur J Cancer, 2011 Nov 05; 47(18). PMID: 22051734
The predictive value of the 70-gene signature for adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer.
Michael Knauer, Stella Mook, +7 authors, Laura J van 't Veer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2010 Mar 06; 120(3). PMID: 20204499
Circulating HER2 DNA after trastuzumab treatment predicts survival and response in breast cancer.
Boe S Sorensen, Lise S Mortensen, Jørn Andersen, Ebba Nexo.
Anticancer Res, 2010 Jul 24; 30(6). PMID: 20651409
High genomic grade index associated with poor prognosis for lymph node-negative and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers and with good response to chemotherapy.
Yasuto Naoi, Kazuki Kishi, +7 authors, Shinzaburo Noguchi.
Cancer, 2010 Sep 30; 117(3). PMID: 20878674
Prognostic and predictive value of TP53 mutations in node-positive breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline- or anthracycline/taxane-based adjuvant therapy: results from the BIG 02-98 phase III trial.
Lynnette Fernández-Cuesta, Catherine Oakman, +14 authors, Magali Olivier.
Breast Cancer Res, 2012 May 04; 14(3). PMID: 22551440    Free PMC article.
Breast Cancer Index predicts pathological complete response and eligibility for breast conserving surgery in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
M C Mathieu, C Mazouni, +8 authors, F André.
Ann Oncol, 2011 Nov 25; 23(8). PMID: 22112967
DNA methylation in serum of breast cancer patients: an independent prognostic marker.
Hannes M Müller, Andreas Widschwendter, +5 authors, Martin Widschwendter.
Cancer Res, 2003 Nov 25; 63(22). PMID: 14633683
Gene expression profiling in breast cancer: understanding the molecular basis of histologic grade to improve prognosis.
Christos Sotiriou, Pratyaksha Wirapati, +17 authors, Mauro Delorenzi.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2006 Feb 16; 98(4). PMID: 16478745
Highly Cited.
Does confirmatory tumor biopsy alter the management of breast cancer patients with distant metastases?
C Simmons, N Miller, +4 authors, M J Clemons.
Ann Oncol, 2009 Mar 21; 20(9). PMID: 19299408    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A gene-expression signature as a predictor of survival in breast cancer.
Marc J van de Vijver, Yudong D He, +18 authors, René Bernards.
N Engl J Med, 2002 Dec 20; 347(25). PMID: 12490681
Highly Cited.
Additional value and potential use of the 70-gene prognosis signature in node-negative breast cancer in daily clinical practice.
J M Bueno-de-Mesquita, G S Sonke, M J van de Vijver, S C Linn.
Ann Oncol, 2009 Dec 04; 22(9). PMID: 19955335
Non-invasive analysis of acquired resistance to cancer therapy by sequencing of plasma DNA.
Muhammed Murtaza, Sarah-Jane Dawson, +15 authors, Nitzan Rosenfeld.
Nature, 2013 Apr 09; 497(7447). PMID: 23563269
Highly Cited.
Analysis of circulating tumor DNA to monitor metastatic breast cancer.
Sarah-Jane Dawson, Dana W Y Tsui, +15 authors, Nitzan Rosenfeld.
N Engl J Med, 2013 Mar 15; 368(13). PMID: 23484797
Highly Cited.
Prognostic and predictive value of the 21-gene recurrence score assay in postmenopausal women with node-positive, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer on chemotherapy: a retrospective analysis of a randomised trial.
Kathy S Albain, William E Barlow, +20 authors, Breast Cancer Intergroup of North America.
Lancet Oncol, 2009 Dec 17; 11(1). PMID: 20005174    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Alteration of topoisomerase II-alpha gene in human breast cancer: association with responsiveness to anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
Michael F Press, Guido Sauter, +17 authors, Dennis J Slamon.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Dec 30; 29(7). PMID: 21189395    Free PMC article.
Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression.
Carina Roth, Klaus Pantel, +4 authors, Heidi Schwarzenbach.
BMC Cancer, 2011 Jan 08; 11. PMID: 21211028    Free PMC article.
PI3K pathway mutations and PTEN levels in primary and metastatic breast cancer.
Ana M Gonzalez-Angulo, Jaime Ferrer-Lozano, +9 authors, Funda Meric-Bernstam.
Mol Cancer Ther, 2011 Apr 15; 10(6). PMID: 21490305    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications.
T Sørlie, C M Perou, +14 authors, A L Børresen-Dale.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2001 Sep 13; 98(19). PMID: 11553815    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Circulating tumor cells in immunohistochemical subtypes of metastatic breast cancer: lack of prediction in HER2-positive disease treated with targeted therapy.
A Giordano, M Giuliano, +11 authors, M Cristofanilli.
Ann Oncol, 2011 Oct 04; 23(5). PMID: 21965473
Beyond counting tumor cells.
Jim Kling.
Nat Biotechnol, 2012 Jul 12; 30(7). PMID: 22781672
Discordance in receptor status between primary and recurrent breast cancer has a prognostic impact: a single-institution analysis.
M V Dieci, E Barbieri, +5 authors, V Guarneri.
Ann Oncol, 2012 Sep 25; 24(1). PMID: 23002281
Multiple biomarker expression on circulating tumor cells in comparison to tumor tissues from primary and metastatic sites in patients with locally advanced/inflammatory, and stage IV breast cancer, using a novel detection technology.
George Somlo, Sean K Lau, +5 authors, Richard H Bruce.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2011 Apr 19; 128(1). PMID: 21499685    Free PMC article.
Detection of tumor PIK3CA status in metastatic breast cancer using peripheral blood.
Michaela J Higgins, Danijela Jelovac, +20 authors, Ben H Park.
Clin Cancer Res, 2012 Mar 17; 18(12). PMID: 22421194    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Which tools can I use in daily clinical practice to improve tailoring of treatment for breast cancer? The 2007 St Gallen guidelines and/or Adjuvant! Online.
T Cufer.
Ann Oncol, 2008 Sep 20; 19 Suppl 7. PMID: 18790977
Prospective comparison of switches in biomarker status between primary and recurrent breast cancer: the Breast Recurrence In Tissues Study (BRITS).
Alastair M Thompson, Lee B Jordan, +5 authors, Breast Recurrence in Tissues Study Group.
Breast Cancer Res, 2010 Nov 10; 12(6). PMID: 21059212    Free PMC article.
Cell-free DNA detected by "liquid biopsy" as a potential prognostic biomarker in early breast cancer.
Roberta Maltoni, Valentina Casadio, +9 authors, Sara Bravaccini.
Oncotarget, 2017 Feb 12; 8(10). PMID: 28186965    Free PMC article.
Analysis of circulating tumor DNA in breast cancer as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker.
Mersedeh Rohanizadegan.
Cancer Genet, 2018 Mar 25; 228-229. PMID: 29572011    Free PMC article.