. 2014 Jan; 33(2-3):641-55.
doi: 10.1007/s10555-013-9479-8.

Immunotherapy for prostate cancer: recent developments and future challenges

Michael T Schweizer 1 Charles G Drake  
  • PMID: 24477411
  •     113 References
  •     24 citations


Since the approval of sipuleucel-T for men with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer in 2010, great strides in the development of anti-cancer immunotherapies have been made. Current drug development in this area has focused primarily on antigen-specific (i.e. cancer vaccines and antibody based therapies) or checkpoint inhibitor therapies, with the checkpoint inhibitors perhaps gaining the most attention as of late. Indeed, drugs blocking the inhibitory signal generated by the engagement of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) found on T-cells has emerged as potent means to combat the immunosuppressive milieu. The anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab has already been approved in advanced melanoma and two phase III trials evaluating ipilimumab in men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer are underway. A phase III trial evaluating ProstVac-VF, a poxvirus-based therapeutic prostate cancer vaccine, is also underway. While there has been reason for encouragement over the past few years, many questions regarding the use of immunotherapies remain. Namely, it is unclear what stage of disease is most likely to benefit from these approaches, how best to incorporate said treatments with each other and into our current treatment regimens and which therapy is most appropriate for which disease. Herein we review some of the recent advances in immunotherapy as related to the treatment of prostate cancer and outline some of the challenges that lie ahead.

Immune-mediated inhibition of metastases after treatment with local radiation and CTLA-4 blockade in a mouse model of breast cancer.
Sandra Demaria, Noriko Kawashima, +4 authors, Silvia C Formenti.
Clin Cancer Res, 2005 Feb 11; 11(2 Pt 1). PMID: 15701862
Highly Cited.
Prostate-specific membrane antigen-based therapeutics.
Naveed H Akhtar, Orrin Pail, +2 authors, Scott T Tagawa.
Adv Urol, 2011 Aug 04; 2012. PMID: 21811498    Free PMC article.
Augmentation of T cell levels and responses induced by androgen deprivation.
Anja C Roden, Michael T Moser, +9 authors, Eugene D Kwon.
J Immunol, 2004 Nov 06; 173(10). PMID: 15528346
Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy.
Charles J Ryan, Matthew R Smith, +31 authors, COU-AA-302 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Dec 12; 368(2). PMID: 23228172    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Manipulation of T cell costimulatory and inhibitory signals for immunotherapy of prostate cancer.
E D Kwon, A A Hurwitz, +5 authors, J P Allison.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1997 Jul 22; 94(15). PMID: 9223321    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy.
Laurence Zitvogel, Lionel Apetoh, François Ghiringhelli, Guido Kroemer.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2007 Dec 22; 8(1). PMID: 18097448
Highly Cited. Review.
Cancer immunoediting: integrating immunity's roles in cancer suppression and promotion.
Robert D Schreiber, Lloyd J Old, Mark J Smyth.
Science, 2011 Mar 26; 331(6024). PMID: 21436444
Highly Cited. Review.
Alpha emitter radium-223 and survival in metastatic prostate cancer.
C Parker, S Nilsson, +28 authors, ALSYMPCA Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2013 Jul 19; 369(3). PMID: 23863050
Highly Cited.
Inhibitory Fc receptors modulate in vivo cytotoxicity against tumor targets.
R A Clynes, T L Towers, L G Presta, J V Ravetch.
Nat Med, 2000 Mar 31; 6(4). PMID: 10742152
Highly Cited.
Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity.
G Dranoff, E Jaffee, +7 authors, R C Mulligan.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1993 Apr 15; 90(8). PMID: 8097319    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Impact of androgen-deprivation therapy on the immune system: implications for combination therapy of prostate cancer.
Jeanny B Aragon-Ching, Kirsten M Williams, James L Gulley.
Front Biosci, 2007 Jun 16; 12. PMID: 17569623
Combination of conformal radiotherapy and intratumoral injection of adoptive dendritic cell immunotherapy in refractory hepatoma.
Kwan-Hwa Chi, Shih-Jen Liu, +4 authors, Shih-Liang Hsieh.
J Immunother, 2005 Feb 24; 28(2). PMID: 15725956
Combination immunotherapy of primary prostate cancer in a transgenic mouse model using CTLA-4 blockade.
A A Hurwitz, B A Foster, +5 authors, J P Allison.
Cancer Res, 2000 May 16; 60(9). PMID: 10811122
Highly Cited.
Abiraterone and other novel androgen-directed strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer: a new era of hormonal therapies is born.
Michael T Schweizer, Emmanuel S Antonarakis.
Ther Adv Urol, 2012 Aug 02; 4(4). PMID: 22852027    Free PMC article.
A pilot trial of CTLA-4 blockade with human anti-CTLA-4 in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Eric J Small, N Simon Tchekmedyian, +3 authors, James P Allison.
Clin Cancer Res, 2007 Mar 17; 13(6). PMID: 17363537
Highly Cited.
Androgens alter B cell development in normal male mice.
S M Viselli, K R Reese, +2 authors, N J Olsen.
Cell Immunol, 1998 Mar 26; 182(2). PMID: 9514700
Ipilimumab alone or in combination with radiotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results from an open-label, multicenter phase I/II study.
S F Slovin, C S Higano, +8 authors, T M Beer.
Ann Oncol, 2013 Mar 29; 24(7). PMID: 23535954    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Autoantibody signatures in prostate cancer.
Xiaoju Wang, Jianjun Yu, +12 authors, Arul M Chinnaiyan.
N Engl J Med, 2005 Sep 24; 353(12). PMID: 16177248
Highly Cited.
Safety and activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody in patients with advanced cancer.
Julie R Brahmer, Scott S Tykodi, +23 authors, Jon M Wigginton.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Jun 05; 366(26). PMID: 22658128    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Dendritic cells and the control of immunity.
J Banchereau, R M Steinman.
Nature, 1998 Apr 01; 392(6673). PMID: 9521319
Highly Cited. Review.
The immune system. Second of two parts.
P J Delves, I M Roitt.
N Engl J Med, 2000 Jul 13; 343(2). PMID: 10891520
Receptor editing in lymphocyte development and central tolerance.
David Nemazee.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2006 Sep 26; 6(10). PMID: 16998507
Highly Cited. Review.
Expanding roles for CD4 T cells and their subpopulations in tumor immunity and therapy.
Mark J Dobrzanski.
Front Oncol, 2013 Mar 28; 3. PMID: 23533029    Free PMC article.
Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma.
F Stephen Hodi, Steven J O'Day, +26 authors, Walter J Urba.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Jun 08; 363(8). PMID: 20525992    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Pilot trial of unlabeled and indium-111-labeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen antibody J591 for castrate metastatic prostate cancer.
Michael J Morris, Chaitanya R Divgi, +16 authors, Howard I Scher.
Clin Cancer Res, 2005 Oct 26; 11(20). PMID: 16243819
Combination immunotherapy of B16 melanoma using anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-producing vaccines induces rejection of subcutaneous and metastatic tumors accompanied by autoimmune depigmentation.
A van Elsas, A A Hurwitz, J P Allison.
J Exp Med, 1999 Aug 03; 190(3). PMID: 10430624    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Anti-CTLA-4 antibodies of IgG2a isotype enhance antitumor activity through reduction of intratumoral regulatory T cells.
Mark J Selby, John J Engelhardt, +4 authors, Alan J Korman.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2014 Apr 30; 1(1). PMID: 24777248
Highly Cited.
Androgen receptors in human thymocytes.
W J Kovacs, N J Olsen.
J Immunol, 1987 Jul 15; 139(2). PMID: 3496383
Phase II randomized study of vaccine treatment of advanced prostate cancer (E7897): a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.
Howard L Kaufman, Wei Wang, +7 authors, Louis M Weiner.
J Clin Oncol, 2004 Jun 01; 22(11). PMID: 15169798
Sex steroid receptors in peripheral T cells: absence of androgen receptors and restriction of estrogen receptors to OKT8-positive cells.
J H Cohen, L Danel, +2 authors, J P Revillard.
J Immunol, 1983 Dec 01; 131(6). PMID: 6605988
Mechanism of androgen-induced thymolysis in rats.
N Kumar, L X Shan, +2 authors, K Sundaram.
Endocrinology, 1995 Nov 01; 136(11). PMID: 7588221
Human prostate-infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes are oligoclonal and PD-1+.
Karen S Sfanos, Tullia C Bruno, +3 authors, Charles G Drake.
Prostate, 2009 Aug 12; 69(15). PMID: 19670224    Free PMC article.
Studies on prostatic cancer: I. The effect of castration, of estrogen and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. 1941.
Charles Huggins, Clarence V Hodges.
J Urol, 2002 Jun 07; 168(1). PMID: 12050481
Highly Cited.
IFNgamma and lymphocytes prevent primary tumour development and shape tumour immunogenicity.
V Shankaran, H Ikeda, +4 authors, R D Schreiber.
Nature, 2001 Apr 27; 410(6832). PMID: 11323675
Highly Cited.
Androgens and the thymus.
P Pearce, B A Khalid, J W Funder.
Endocrinology, 1981 Oct 01; 109(4). PMID: 7285862
Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade.
Yoshiko Iwai, Masayoshi Ishida, +3 authors, Nagahiro Minato.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2002 Sep 10; 99(19). PMID: 12218188    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Whole body irradiation; radiobiology or medicine?
Br J Radiol, 1953 May 01; 26(305). PMID: 13042090
Highly Cited.
Structural basis for inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor by cetuximab.
Shiqing Li, Karl R Schmitz, +3 authors, Kathryn M Ferguson.
Cancer Cell, 2005 Apr 20; 7(4). PMID: 15837620
Highly Cited.
Colocalization of inflammatory response with B7-h1 expression in human melanocytic lesions supports an adaptive resistance mechanism of immune escape.
Janis M Taube, Robert A Anders, +8 authors, Lieping Chen.
Sci Transl Med, 2012 Mar 31; 4(127). PMID: 22461641    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer.
Suzanne L Topalian, F Stephen Hodi, +27 authors, Mario Sznol.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Jun 05; 366(26). PMID: 22658127    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunochemical and flow cytometric analysis of androgen receptor expression in thymocytes.
S M Viselli, N J Olsen, +2 authors, W J Kovacs.
Mol Cell Endocrinol, 1995 Mar 01; 109(1). PMID: 7789613
Preclinical and clinical studies of recombinant poxvirus vaccines for carcinoma therapy.
Philip M Arlen, James L Gulley, +2 authors, Jeffrey Schlom.
Crit Rev Immunol, 2008 Jan 17; 27(5). PMID: 18197807
Re: interdisciplinary critique of sipuleucel-T as immunotherapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Charles G Drake.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2012 Aug 23; 104(18). PMID: 22911668
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy: cryptic anticancer vaccines.
Yuting Ma, Oliver Kepp, +10 authors, Laurence Zitvogel.
Semin Immunol, 2010 Apr 21; 22(3). PMID: 20403709
Safety and immunological efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding prostatic acid phosphatase in patients with stage D0 prostate cancer.
Douglas G McNeel, Edward J Dunphy, +10 authors, George Wilding.
J Clin Oncol, 2009 Jul 29; 27(25). PMID: 19636017    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Dendritic cells presenting tumor antigen.
M R Shurin.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 1996 Nov 01; 43(3). PMID: 9001569
Recombinant vaccinia virus-induced T-cell immunity: quantitation of the response to the virus vector and the foreign epitope.
Laurie E Harrington, Robbert van der Most Rv, J Lindsay Whitton, Rafi Ahmed.
J Virol, 2002 Mar 09; 76(7). PMID: 11884558    Free PMC article.
The immune system. First of two parts.
P J Delves, I M Roitt.
N Engl J Med, 2000 Jul 07; 343(1). PMID: 10882768
Highly Cited. Review.
Immunotherapy of hormone-refractory prostate cancer with antigen-loaded dendritic cells.
E J Small, P Fratesi, +4 authors, F H Valone.
J Clin Oncol, 2000 Dec 01; 18(23). PMID: 11099318
Highly Cited.
Cancer immunotherapy comes of age.
Suzanne L Topalian, George J Weiner, Drew M Pardoll.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Nov 02; 29(36). PMID: 22042955    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Sipuleucel-T immune parameters correlate with survival: an analysis of the randomized phase 3 clinical trials in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Nadeem A Sheikh, Daniel Petrylak, +8 authors, David L Urdal.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2012 Aug 07; 62(1). PMID: 22865266    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4 control over Foxp3+ regulatory T cell function.
Kajsa Wing, Yasushi Onishi, +5 authors, Shimon Sakaguchi.
Science, 2008 Oct 11; 322(5899). PMID: 18845758
Highly Cited.
The tumoricidal activity of memory CD8+ T cells is hampered by persistent systemic antigen, but full functional capacity is regained in an antigen-free environment.
Annemieke Th den Boer, Geertje J D van Mierlo, +3 authors, René E M Toes.
J Immunol, 2004 May 07; 172(10). PMID: 15128791
Phase I trial of 177lutetium-labeled J591, a monoclonal antibody to prostate-specific membrane antigen, in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Neil H Bander, Matthew I Milowsky, +3 authors, Stanley J Goldsmith.
J Clin Oncol, 2005 Apr 20; 23(21). PMID: 15837970
Highly Cited.
Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer.
Johann S de Bono, Christopher J Logothetis, +30 authors, COU-AA-301 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2011 May 27; 364(21). PMID: 21612468    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4 blockade synergizes with tumor-derived granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for treatment of an experimental mammary carcinoma.
A A Hurwitz, T F Yu, D R Leach, J P Allison.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1998 Aug 26; 95(17). PMID: 9707601    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunologic and prognostic factors associated with overall survival employing a poxviral-based PSA vaccine in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
James L Gulley, Philip M Arlen, +17 authors, Jeffrey Schlom.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2009 Nov 06; 59(5). PMID: 19890632    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer.
Daniel P Petrylak, Catherine M Tangen, +11 authors, E David Crawford.
N Engl J Med, 2004 Oct 08; 351(15). PMID: 15470214
Highly Cited.
Potentiating endogenous antitumor immunity to prostate cancer through combination immunotherapy with CTLA4 blockade and GM-CSF.
Lawrence Fong, Serena S Kwek, +8 authors, Eric J Small.
Cancer Res, 2009 Jan 17; 69(2). PMID: 19147575
Highly Cited.
Combining radiotherapy and cancer immunotherapy: a paradigm shift.
Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2013 Jan 08; 105(4). PMID: 23291374    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with intratumoral injection of dendritic cells as neo-adjuvant treatment of high-risk soft tissue sarcoma patients.
Steven E Finkelstein, Cristina Iclozan, +15 authors, Dmitry I Gabrilovich.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2011 Mar 15; 82(2). PMID: 21398051    Free PMC article.
Thymic epithelial cells in age-dependent involution.
Renata Brelińska.
Microsc Res Tech, 2003 Nov 25; 62(6). PMID: 14635142
Classification of chemotherapeutic agents based on their differential in vitro effects on dendritic cells.
Hiroaki Tanaka, Hironori Matsushima, Norikatsu Mizumoto, Akira Takashima.
Cancer Res, 2009 Aug 27; 69(17). PMID: 19706756    Free PMC article.
Diversity of antigen-specific responses induced in vivo with CTLA-4 blockade in prostate cancer patients.
Serena S Kwek, Vinh Dao, +5 authors, Lawrence Fong.
J Immunol, 2012 Sep 08; 189(7). PMID: 22956585    Free PMC article.
Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial.
Johann Sebastian de Bono, Stephane Oudard, +11 authors, TROPIC Investigators.
Lancet, 2010 Oct 05; 376(9747). PMID: 20888992
Highly Cited.
Enhanced production of B lymphocytes after castration.
C A Wilson, S A Mrose, D W Thomas.
Blood, 1995 Mar 15; 85(6). PMID: 7534134
Restoration of T-cell homeostasis after T-cell depletion.
C L Mackall, F T Hakim, R E Gress.
Semin Immunol, 1998 Feb 07; 9(6). PMID: 9405262
The central role of CD4(+) T cells in the antitumor immune response.
K Hung, R Hayashi, +3 authors, H Levitsky.
J Exp Med, 1998 Dec 22; 188(12). PMID: 9858522    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Androgens indirectly accelerate thymocyte apoptosis.
G J Dulos, W M Bagchus.
Int Immunopharmacol, 2001 May 22; 1(2). PMID: 11360932
Androgen ablation mitigates tolerance to a prostate/prostate cancer-restricted antigen.
Charles G Drake, Amy D H Doody, +12 authors, Adam J Adler.
Cancer Cell, 2005 Mar 16; 7(3). PMID: 15766662    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Guidelines for the evaluation of immune therapy activity in solid tumors: immune-related response criteria.
Jedd D Wolchok, Axel Hoos, +9 authors, F Stephen Hodi.
Clin Cancer Res, 2009 Nov 26; 15(23). PMID: 19934295
Highly Cited.
T cell infiltration of the prostate induced by androgen withdrawal in patients with prostate cancer.
M Mercader, B K Bodner, +10 authors, E D Kwon.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2001 Dec 06; 98(25). PMID: 11734652    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Ionizing radiation inhibition of distant untreated tumors (abscopal effect) is immune mediated.
Sandra Demaria, Bruce Ng, +4 authors, Silvia C Formenti.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2004 Feb 18; 58(3). PMID: 14967443
Highly Cited.
Monoclonal antibodies: versatile platforms for cancer immunotherapy.
Louis M Weiner, Rishi Surana, Shangzi Wang.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2010 Apr 24; 10(5). PMID: 20414205    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Re: interdisciplinary critique of sipuleucel-T as immunotherapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
James L Gulley, Susan F Leitman, William Dahut, Jeffrey Schlom.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2012 Jul 25; 104(14). PMID: 22825555
Prostvac-VF: a vector-based vaccine targeting PSA in prostate cancer.
Ravi A Madan, Philip M Arlen, +2 authors, James L Gulley.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 2009 Jun 25; 18(7). PMID: 19548854    Free PMC article.
Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: a potential mechanism of immune evasion.
Haidong Dong, Scott E Strome, +10 authors, Lieping Chen.
Nat Med, 2002 Jul 02; 8(8). PMID: 12091876
Highly Cited.
Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer.
Ian F Tannock, Ronald de Wit, +10 authors, TAX 327 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2004 Oct 08; 351(15). PMID: 15470213
Highly Cited.
Unmasking the immune recognition of prostate cancer with CTLA4 blockade.
Serena S Kwek, Edward Cha, Lawrence Fong.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2012 Mar 02; 12(4). PMID: 22378189    Free PMC article.
Prostate cancer as a model for tumour immunotherapy.
Charles G Drake.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2010 Jul 24; 10(8). PMID: 20651745    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Characterization of the intra-prostatic immune cell infiltration in androgen-deprived prostate cancer patients.
Philippe O Gannon, Alexis O Poisson, +3 authors, Fred Saad.
J Immunol Methods, 2009 Jun 26; 348(1-2). PMID: 19552894
Design and end points of clinical trials for patients with progressive prostate cancer and castrate levels of testosterone: recommendations of the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group.
Howard I Scher, Susan Halabi, +18 authors, Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group.
J Clin Oncol, 2008 Mar 04; 26(7). PMID: 18309951    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma.
Jedd D Wolchok, Harriet Kluger, +21 authors, Mario Sznol.
N Engl J Med, 2013 Jun 04; 369(2). PMID: 23724867    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immune inhibitory molecules LAG-3 and PD-1 synergistically regulate T-cell function to promote tumoral immune escape.
Seng-Ryong Woo, Meghan E Turnis, +18 authors, Dario A A Vignali.
Cancer Res, 2011 Dec 22; 72(4). PMID: 22186141    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Cancer immunotherapy comes of age.
Ira Mellman, George Coukos, Glenn Dranoff.
Nature, 2011 Dec 24; 480(7378). PMID: 22193102    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
CTLA4 blockade and GM-CSF combination immunotherapy alters the intratumor balance of effector and regulatory T cells.
Sergio A Quezada, Karl S Peggs, Michael A Curran, James P Allison.
J Clin Invest, 2006 Jun 17; 116(7). PMID: 16778987    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Tumor cell expression of programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 is a prognostic factor for malignant melanoma.
Ryosuke Hino, Kenji Kabashima, +5 authors, Yoshiki Tokura.
Cancer, 2010 Feb 10; 116(7). PMID: 20143437
Highly Cited.
Ipilimumab plus dacarbazine for previously untreated metastatic melanoma.
Caroline Robert, Luc Thomas, +21 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
N Engl J Med, 2011 Jun 07; 364(26). PMID: 21639810
Highly Cited.
Interdisciplinary critique of sipuleucel-T as immunotherapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Marie L Huber, Laura Haynes, Chris Parker, Peter Iversen.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2012 Jan 11; 104(4). PMID: 22232132    Free PMC article.
Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.
Tyler R Simpson, Fubin Li, +11 authors, Sergio A Quezada.
J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897981    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Androgen receptors in thymic epithelium modulate thymus size and thymocyte development.
N J Olsen, G Olson, +2 authors, W J Kovacs.
Endocrinology, 2001 Feb 22; 142(3). PMID: 11181545
Trastuzumab emtansine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer.
Sunil Verma, David Miles, +12 authors, EMILIA Study Group.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Oct 02; 367(19). PMID: 23020162    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
DNA vaccines for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Sheeba Alam, Douglas G McNeel.
Expert Rev Vaccines, 2010 Jul 14; 9(7). PMID: 20624047
Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells have a major "post-licensing" role in CTL mediated anti-tumor immunity.
A L Marzo, B F Kinnear, +4 authors, B Scott.
J Immunol, 2000 Nov 22; 165(11). PMID: 11086036
Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Philip W Kantoff, Celestia S Higano, +11 authors, IMPACT Study Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Sep 08; 363(5). PMID: 20818862
Highly Cited.
Functional testosterone receptors in plasma membranes of T cells.
W P Benten, M Lieberherr, +5 authors, F Wunderlich.
FASEB J, 1999 Jan 05; 13(1). PMID: 9872937
Combined immunotherapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transduced allogeneic prostate cancer cells and ipilimumab in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial.
Alfons J M van den Eertwegh, Jurjen Versluis, +15 authors, Winald R Gerritsen.
Lancet Oncol, 2012 Feb 14; 13(5). PMID: 22326922
Highly Cited.
Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy.
Howard I Scher, Karim Fizazi, +18 authors, AFFIRM Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Aug 17; 367(13). PMID: 22894553
Highly Cited.
Checkpoint blockade in cancer immunotherapy.
Alan J Korman, Karl S Peggs, James P Allison.
Adv Immunol, 2006 May 30; 90. PMID: 16730267    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Activation of thymic regeneration in mice and humans following androgen blockade.
Jayne S Sutherland, Gabrielle L Goldberg, +8 authors, Richard L Boyd.
J Immunol, 2005 Aug 06; 175(4). PMID: 16081852
Highly Cited.
In situ vaccination with a TLR9 agonist induces systemic lymphoma regression: a phase I/II study.
Joshua D Brody, Weiyun Z Ai, +10 authors, Ronald Levy.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Aug 11; 28(28). PMID: 20697067    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
DNA vaccine encoding prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) elicits long-term T-cell responses in patients with recurrent prostate cancer.
Jordan T Becker, Brian M Olson, +3 authors, Douglas G McNeel.
J Immunother, 2010 Jun 17; 33(6). PMID: 20551832    Free PMC article.
Phase I/II trial of an allogeneic cellular immunotherapy in hormone-naïve prostate cancer.
Jonathan W Simons, Michael A Carducci, +9 authors, William G Nelson.
Clin Cancer Res, 2006 Jun 03; 12(11 Pt 1). PMID: 16740763
Mechanisms of immune evasion by tumors.
Charles G Drake, Elizabeth Jaffee, Drew M Pardoll.
Adv Immunol, 2006 May 30; 90. PMID: 16730261
Highly Cited. Review.
T cell coinhibition in prostate cancer: new immune evasion pathways and emerging therapeutics.
Yael S Barach, Jun Sik Lee, Xingxing Zang.
Trends Mol Med, 2010 Oct 26; 17(1). PMID: 20971039    Free PMC article.
Demystifying immunotherapy in prostate cancer: understanding current and future treatment strategies.
Ravi A Madan, James L Gulley, Philip W Kantoff.
Cancer J, 2013 Jan 23; 19(1). PMID: 23337757    Free PMC article.
Different mechanisms for anti-tumor effects of low- and high-dose cyclophosphamide.
Yasuhide Motoyoshi, Kazuhisa Kaminoda, +5 authors, Katsumi Eguchi.
Oncol Rep, 2006 Jun 21; 16(1). PMID: 16786137
Immunomodulating antibodies in the treatment of metastatic melanoma: the experience with anti-CTLA-4, anti-CD137, and anti-PD1.
Ester Simeone, Paolo A Ascierto.
J Immunotoxicol, 2012 Apr 25; 9(3). PMID: 22524673
Cyclophosphamide augments antitumor immunity: studies in an autochthonous prostate cancer model.
Satoshi Wada, Kiyoshi Yoshimura, +10 authors, Charles G Drake.
Cancer Res, 2009 May 14; 69(10). PMID: 19435909    Free PMC article.
Safety and tumor responses with lambrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in melanoma.
Omid Hamid, Caroline Robert, +23 authors, Antoni Ribas.
N Engl J Med, 2013 Jun 04; 369(2). PMID: 23724846    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Cancer statistics, 2013.
Rebecca Siegel, Deepa Naishadham, Ahmedin Jemal.
CA Cancer J Clin, 2013 Jan 22; 63(1). PMID: 23335087
Highly Cited.
Cancer vaccines: between the idea and the reality.
Olivera J Finn.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2003 Sep 17; 3(8). PMID: 12974478
Highly Cited. Review.
The anticancer immune response: indispensable for therapeutic success?
Laurence Zitvogel, Lionel Apetoh, +3 authors, Guido Kroemer.
J Clin Invest, 2008 Jun 05; 118(6). PMID: 18523649    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
From bench to bedside: immunotherapy for prostate cancer.
Brian Wan-Chi Tse, Lidija Jovanovic, +3 authors, Pamela Joan Russell.
Biomed Res Int, 2014 Oct 03; 2014. PMID: 25276838    Free PMC article.
PD-L1 is highly expressed in Enzalutamide resistant prostate cancer.
Jennifer L Bishop, Alexander Sio, +4 authors, Amina Zoubeidi.
Oncotarget, 2014 Nov 28; 6(1). PMID: 25428917    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Current and emerging therapies for bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Jeremy S Frieling, David Basanta, Conor C Lynch.
Cancer Control, 2014 Dec 17; 22(1). PMID: 25504285    Free PMC article.
Unleashing the therapeutic potential of human kallikrein-related serine proteases.
Ioannis Prassas, Azza Eissa, Gennadiy Poda, Eleftherios P Diamandis.
Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2015 Feb 24; 14(3). PMID: 25698643
Highly Cited. Review.
Phase I/II clinical trial of dendritic-cell based immunotherapy (DCVAC/PCa) combined with chemotherapy in patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Michal Podrazil, Rudolf Horvath, +15 authors, Jitka Fucikova.
Oncotarget, 2015 Jun 17; 6(20). PMID: 26078335    Free PMC article.
Trial watch: Naked and vectored DNA-based anticancer vaccines.
Norma Bloy, Aitziber Buqué, +11 authors, Lorenzo Galluzzi.
Oncoimmunology, 2015 Jul 15; 4(5). PMID: 26155408    Free PMC article.
Rapid selection of mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells in primary prostate stromal cultures.
W Nathaniel Brennen, L Nelleke Kisteman, John T Isaacs.
Prostate, 2016 Jan 07; 76(6). PMID: 26732992    Free PMC article.
Targeting persistent androgen receptor signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Laura Graham, Michael T Schweizer.
Med Oncol, 2016 Apr 05; 33(5). PMID: 27042852
Immunological markers and clinical outcome of advanced melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab plus fotemustine in the NIBIT-M1 study.
Cristina Maccalli, Diana Giannarelli, +5 authors, Michele Maio.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Apr 09; 5(2). PMID: 27057436    Free PMC article.
Tn-MUC1 DC Vaccination of Rhesus Macaques and a Phase I/II Trial in Patients with Nonmetastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Elizabeth Scheid, Pierre Major, +18 authors, Ronan Foley.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2016 Sep 09; 4(10). PMID: 27604597    Free PMC article.
Phase I/II trials of 186Re-HEDP in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: post-hoc analysis of the impact of administered activity and dosimetry on survival.
Ana M Denis-Bacelar, Sarah J Chittenden, +6 authors, Glenn D Flux.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 2016 Oct 23; 44(4). PMID: 27770145    Free PMC article.
Cabozantinib Eradicates Advanced Murine Prostate Cancer by Activating Antitumor Innate Immunity.
Akash Patnaik, Kenneth D Swanson, +26 authors, Lewis C Cantley.
Cancer Discov, 2017 Mar 10; 7(7). PMID: 28274958    Free PMC article.
Phase I/II clinical trial to assess safety and efficacy of intratumoral and subcutaneous injection of HVJ-E in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.
K Fujita, Y Nakai, +9 authors, N Nonomura.
Cancer Gene Ther, 2017 May 13; 24(7). PMID: 28497777    Free PMC article.
Recent Successes and Future Directions in Immunotherapy of Cutaneous Melanoma.
Hassan Sadozai, Thomas Gruber, Robert Emil Hunger, Mirjam Schenk.
Front Immunol, 2017 Dec 26; 8. PMID: 29276510    Free PMC article.
Co-stimulatory signaling determines tumor antigen sensitivity and persistence of CAR T cells targeting PSCA+ metastatic prostate cancer.
Saul J Priceman, Ethan A Gerdts, +15 authors, Stephen J Forman.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Jan 09; 7(2). PMID: 29308300    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive Evaluation of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression in Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer.
Michael C Haffner, Gunes Guner, +18 authors, Angelo M De Marzo.
Am J Pathol, 2018 Mar 27; 188(6). PMID: 29577933    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
STAT3 Inhibition Combined with CpG Immunostimulation Activates Antitumor Immunity to Eradicate Genetically Distinct Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancers.
Dayson Moreira, Tomasz Adamus, +8 authors, Marcin Kortylewski.
Clin Cancer Res, 2018 Oct 20; 24(23). PMID: 30337279    Free PMC article.
Genetic associations of T cell cancer immune response with tumor aggressiveness in localized prostate cancer patients and disease reclassification in an active surveillance cohort.
Qinchuan Wang, Justin R Gregg, +7 authors, Xifeng Wu.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Dec 14; 8(1). PMID: 30546938    Free PMC article.
Tumor-infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells: Drivers of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in prostate cancer?
Timothy E Krueger, Daniel L J Thorek, +2 authors, W Nathaniel Brennen.
Prostate, 2018 Nov 30; 79(3). PMID: 30488530    Free PMC article.
A Phase I Study to Assess the Safety and Cancer-Homing Ability of Allogeneic Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer.
Michael T Schweizer, Hao Wang, +11 authors, Samuel R Denmeade.
Stem Cells Transl Med, 2019 Feb 09; 8(5). PMID: 30735000    Free PMC article.
CDK12-Mutated Prostate Cancer: Clinical Outcomes With Standard Therapies and Immune Checkpoint Blockade.
Michael T Schweizer, Gavin Ha, +14 authors, Ajjai Alva.
JCO Precis Oncol, 2020 Jul 17; 4. PMID: 32671317    Free PMC article.
Development of Spherical Nucleic Acids for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy.
Lei Qin, Shuya Wang, +9 authors, Bin Zhang.
Front Immunol, 2020 Aug 01; 11. PMID: 32733447    Free PMC article.
A Retrospective Observational Analysis of Overall Survival with Sipuleucel-T in Medicare Beneficiaries Treated for Advanced Prostate Cancer.
Rana R McKay, Jason M Hafron, +5 authors, Michael T Schweizer.
Adv Ther, 2020 Oct 09; 37(12). PMID: 33029725    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy as a Precision Medicine Tool for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer.
Maria Adamaki, Vassilios Zoumpourlis.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 10; 13(2). PMID: 33419051    Free PMC article.