Review
. 2014 Jan; 33(2-3):641-55.
doi: 10.1007/s10555-013-9479-8.

Immunotherapy for prostate cancer: recent developments and future challenges

Michael T Schweizer 1 Charles G Drake  
Affiliations
  • PMID: 24477411
  •     113 References
  •     24 citations

Abstract

Since the approval of sipuleucel-T for men with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer in 2010, great strides in the development of anti-cancer immunotherapies have been made. Current drug development in this area has focused primarily on antigen-specific (i.e. cancer vaccines and antibody based therapies) or checkpoint inhibitor therapies, with the checkpoint inhibitors perhaps gaining the most attention as of late. Indeed, drugs blocking the inhibitory signal generated by the engagement of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) found on T-cells has emerged as potent means to combat the immunosuppressive milieu. The anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab has already been approved in advanced melanoma and two phase III trials evaluating ipilimumab in men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer are underway. A phase III trial evaluating ProstVac-VF, a poxvirus-based therapeutic prostate cancer vaccine, is also underway. While there has been reason for encouragement over the past few years, many questions regarding the use of immunotherapies remain. Namely, it is unclear what stage of disease is most likely to benefit from these approaches, how best to incorporate said treatments with each other and into our current treatment regimens and which therapy is most appropriate for which disease. Herein we review some of the recent advances in immunotherapy as related to the treatment of prostate cancer and outline some of the challenges that lie ahead.

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Cancer vaccines: between the idea and the reality.
Olivera J Finn.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2003 Sep 17; 3(8). PMID: 12974478
Highly Cited. Review.
The anticancer immune response: indispensable for therapeutic success?
Laurence Zitvogel, Lionel Apetoh, +3 authors, Guido Kroemer.
J Clin Invest, 2008 Jun 05; 118(6). PMID: 18523649    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
From bench to bedside: immunotherapy for prostate cancer.
Brian Wan-Chi Tse, Lidija Jovanovic, +3 authors, Pamela Joan Russell.
Biomed Res Int, 2014 Oct 03; 2014. PMID: 25276838    Free PMC article.
Review.
PD-L1 is highly expressed in Enzalutamide resistant prostate cancer.
Jennifer L Bishop, Alexander Sio, +4 authors, Amina Zoubeidi.
Oncotarget, 2014 Nov 28; 6(1). PMID: 25428917    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Current and emerging therapies for bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Jeremy S Frieling, David Basanta, Conor C Lynch.
Cancer Control, 2014 Dec 17; 22(1). PMID: 25504285    Free PMC article.
Review.
Unleashing the therapeutic potential of human kallikrein-related serine proteases.
Ioannis Prassas, Azza Eissa, Gennadiy Poda, Eleftherios P Diamandis.
Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2015 Feb 24; 14(3). PMID: 25698643
Highly Cited. Review.
Phase I/II clinical trial of dendritic-cell based immunotherapy (DCVAC/PCa) combined with chemotherapy in patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Michal Podrazil, Rudolf Horvath, +15 authors, Jitka Fucikova.
Oncotarget, 2015 Jun 17; 6(20). PMID: 26078335    Free PMC article.
Trial watch: Naked and vectored DNA-based anticancer vaccines.
Norma Bloy, Aitziber Buqué, +11 authors, Lorenzo Galluzzi.
Oncoimmunology, 2015 Jul 15; 4(5). PMID: 26155408    Free PMC article.
Rapid selection of mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells in primary prostate stromal cultures.
W Nathaniel Brennen, L Nelleke Kisteman, John T Isaacs.
Prostate, 2016 Jan 07; 76(6). PMID: 26732992    Free PMC article.
Targeting persistent androgen receptor signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Laura Graham, Michael T Schweizer.
Med Oncol, 2016 Apr 05; 33(5). PMID: 27042852
Review.
Immunological markers and clinical outcome of advanced melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab plus fotemustine in the NIBIT-M1 study.
Cristina Maccalli, Diana Giannarelli, +5 authors, Michele Maio.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Apr 09; 5(2). PMID: 27057436    Free PMC article.
Tn-MUC1 DC Vaccination of Rhesus Macaques and a Phase I/II Trial in Patients with Nonmetastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Elizabeth Scheid, Pierre Major, +18 authors, Ronan Foley.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2016 Sep 09; 4(10). PMID: 27604597    Free PMC article.
Phase I/II trials of 186Re-HEDP in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: post-hoc analysis of the impact of administered activity and dosimetry on survival.
Ana M Denis-Bacelar, Sarah J Chittenden, +6 authors, Glenn D Flux.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 2016 Oct 23; 44(4). PMID: 27770145    Free PMC article.
Cabozantinib Eradicates Advanced Murine Prostate Cancer by Activating Antitumor Innate Immunity.
Akash Patnaik, Kenneth D Swanson, +26 authors, Lewis C Cantley.
Cancer Discov, 2017 Mar 10; 7(7). PMID: 28274958    Free PMC article.
Phase I/II clinical trial to assess safety and efficacy of intratumoral and subcutaneous injection of HVJ-E in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.
K Fujita, Y Nakai, +9 authors, N Nonomura.
Cancer Gene Ther, 2017 May 13; 24(7). PMID: 28497777    Free PMC article.
Recent Successes and Future Directions in Immunotherapy of Cutaneous Melanoma.
Hassan Sadozai, Thomas Gruber, Robert Emil Hunger, Mirjam Schenk.
Front Immunol, 2017 Dec 26; 8. PMID: 29276510    Free PMC article.
Review.
Co-stimulatory signaling determines tumor antigen sensitivity and persistence of CAR T cells targeting PSCA+ metastatic prostate cancer.
Saul J Priceman, Ethan A Gerdts, +15 authors, Stephen J Forman.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Jan 09; 7(2). PMID: 29308300    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive Evaluation of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression in Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer.
Michael C Haffner, Gunes Guner, +18 authors, Angelo M De Marzo.
Am J Pathol, 2018 Mar 27; 188(6). PMID: 29577933    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
STAT3 Inhibition Combined with CpG Immunostimulation Activates Antitumor Immunity to Eradicate Genetically Distinct Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancers.
Dayson Moreira, Tomasz Adamus, +8 authors, Marcin Kortylewski.
Clin Cancer Res, 2018 Oct 20; 24(23). PMID: 30337279    Free PMC article.
Genetic associations of T cell cancer immune response with tumor aggressiveness in localized prostate cancer patients and disease reclassification in an active surveillance cohort.
Qinchuan Wang, Justin R Gregg, +7 authors, Xifeng Wu.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Dec 14; 8(1). PMID: 30546938    Free PMC article.
Tumor-infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells: Drivers of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in prostate cancer?
Timothy E Krueger, Daniel L J Thorek, +2 authors, W Nathaniel Brennen.
Prostate, 2018 Nov 30; 79(3). PMID: 30488530    Free PMC article.
A Phase I Study to Assess the Safety and Cancer-Homing Ability of Allogeneic Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer.
Michael T Schweizer, Hao Wang, +11 authors, Samuel R Denmeade.
Stem Cells Transl Med, 2019 Feb 09; 8(5). PMID: 30735000    Free PMC article.
CDK12-Mutated Prostate Cancer: Clinical Outcomes With Standard Therapies and Immune Checkpoint Blockade.
Michael T Schweizer, Gavin Ha, +14 authors, Ajjai Alva.
JCO Precis Oncol, 2020 Jul 17; 4. PMID: 32671317    Free PMC article.
Development of Spherical Nucleic Acids for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy.
Lei Qin, Shuya Wang, +9 authors, Bin Zhang.
Front Immunol, 2020 Aug 01; 11. PMID: 32733447    Free PMC article.
A Retrospective Observational Analysis of Overall Survival with Sipuleucel-T in Medicare Beneficiaries Treated for Advanced Prostate Cancer.
Rana R McKay, Jason M Hafron, +5 authors, Michael T Schweizer.
Adv Ther, 2020 Oct 09; 37(12). PMID: 33029725    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy as a Precision Medicine Tool for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer.
Maria Adamaki, Vassilios Zoumpourlis.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 10; 13(2). PMID: 33419051    Free PMC article.
Review.