Journal Article
. 2014 Feb; 63(4):407-18.
doi: 10.1007/s00262-014-1524-0.

A combination trial of vaccine plus ipilimumab in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients: immune correlates

Caroline Jochems 1 Jo A Tucker  Kwong-Yok Tsang  Ravi A Madan  William L Dahut  David J Liewehr  Seth M Steinberg  James L Gulley  Jeffrey Schlom  
  • PMID: 24514956
  •     49 References
  •     44 citations


We recently reported the clinical results of a Phase I trial combining ipilimumab with a vaccine containing transgenes for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and for a triad of costimulatory molecules (PROSTVAC) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Thirty patients were treated with escalating ipilimumab and a fixed dose of vaccine. Of 24 chemotherapy-naïve patients, 58 % had a PSA decline. Combination therapy did not exacerbate the immune-related adverse events associated with ipilimumab. Here, we present updated survival data and an evaluation of 36 immune cell subsets pre- and post-therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected before therapy, at 13 days and at 70 days post-initiation of therapy, and phenotyped by flow cytometry for the subsets of T cells, regulatory T cells, natural killer cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Associations between overall survival (OS) and immune cell subsets prior to treatment, and the change in a given immune cell subset 70 days post-initiation of therapy, were evaluated. The median OS was 2.63 years (1.77-3.45). There were trends toward associations for longer OS and certain immune cell subsets before immunotherapy: lower PD-1(+)Tim-3(NEG)CD4EM (P = 0.005, adjusted P = 0.010), higher PD-1(NEG)Tim-3(+)CD8 (P = 0.002, adjusted P = 0.004), and a higher number of CTLA-4(NEG) Tregs (P = 0.005, adjusted P = 0.010). We also found that an increase in Tim-3(+) natural killer cells post- versus pre-vaccination associated with longer OS (P = 0.0074, adjusted P = 0.015). These results should be considered as hypothesis generating and should be further evaluated in larger immunotherapy trials.

Tim-3 marks human natural killer cell maturation and suppresses cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Sandra Lopez-Vergès, +7 authors, Lewis L Lanier.
Blood, 2012 Mar 03; 119(16). PMID: 22383801    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma.
F Stephen Hodi, Steven J O'Day, +26 authors, Walter J Urba.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Jun 08; 363(8). PMID: 20525992    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer.
Suzanne L Topalian, F Stephen Hodi, +27 authors, Mario Sznol.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Jun 05; 366(26). PMID: 22658127    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Preoperative CTLA-4 blockade: tolerability and immune monitoring in the setting of a presurgical clinical trial.
Bradley C Carthon, Jedd D Wolchok, +8 authors, Padmanee Sharma.
Clin Cancer Res, 2010 May 13; 16(10). PMID: 20460488    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunologic and prognostic factors associated with overall survival employing a poxviral-based PSA vaccine in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
James L Gulley, Philip M Arlen, +17 authors, Jeffrey Schlom.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2009 Nov 06; 59(5). PMID: 19890632    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Prognostic model for predicting survival in men with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer.
Susan Halabi, Eric J Small, +6 authors, Nicholas J Vogelzang.
J Clin Oncol, 2003 Mar 29; 21(7). PMID: 12663709
Highly Cited.
Multiple costimulatory modalities enhance CTL avidity.
James W Hodge, Mala Chakraborty, +2 authors, Jeffrey Schlom.
J Immunol, 2005 May 10; 174(10). PMID: 15879092    Free PMC article.
A triad of costimulatory molecules synergize to amplify T-cell activation.
J W Hodge, H Sabzevari, +3 authors, J Schlom.
Cancer Res, 1999 Dec 03; 59(22). PMID: 10582702
Enhancing cancer vaccine efficacy via modulation of the tumor microenvironment.
Mary L Disis.
Clin Cancer Res, 2009 Oct 29; 15(21). PMID: 19861446
Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: A prognostic factor of PSA-free survival in patients with local prostate carcinoma treated by radical prostatectomy.
Vesa Kärjä, Sirpa Aaltomaa, +3 authors, Risto Mokka.
Anticancer Res, 2005 Dec 13; 25(6C). PMID: 16334122
Intratumoral delivery of vector mediated IL-2 in combination with vaccine results in enhanced T cell avidity and anti-tumor activity.
Chie Kudo-Saito, Charlie T Garnett, +2 authors, James W Hodge.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2007 May 16; 56(12). PMID: 17503041
Vaccines with enhanced costimulation maintain high avidity memory CTL.
Sixun Yang, James W Hodge, Douglas W Grosenbach, Jeffrey Schlom.
J Immunol, 2005 Sep 09; 175(6). PMID: 16148117    Free PMC article.
Epitope spreading contributes to effective immunotherapy in metastatic melanoma patients.
Nicola Hardwick, Benjamin Chain.
Immunotherapy, 2011 Jun 15; 3(6). PMID: 21668310
Histological grade, perineural infiltration, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and apoptosis as determinants of long-term prognosis in prostatic adenocarcinoma.
S Vesalainen, P Lipponen, M Talja, K Syrjänen.
Eur J Cancer, 1994 Jan 01; 30A(12). PMID: 7880609
Multipeptide immune response to cancer vaccine IMA901 after single-dose cyclophosphamide associates with longer patient survival.
Steffen Walter, Toni Weinschenk, +36 authors, Harpreet Singh-Jasuja.
Nat Med, 2012 Jul 31; 18(8). PMID: 22842478
Highly Cited.
A pilot trial of CTLA-4 blockade with human anti-CTLA-4 in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Eric J Small, N Simon Tchekmedyian, +3 authors, James P Allison.
Clin Cancer Res, 2007 Mar 17; 13(6). PMID: 17363537
Highly Cited.
Ipilimumab alone or in combination with radiotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results from an open-label, multicenter phase I/II study.
S F Slovin, C S Higano, +8 authors, T M Beer.
Ann Oncol, 2013 Mar 29; 24(7). PMID: 23535954    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Safety and activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody in patients with advanced cancer.
Julie R Brahmer, Scott S Tykodi, +23 authors, Jon M Wigginton.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Jun 05; 366(26). PMID: 22658128    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunosuppressive CD14+HLA-DRlow/- monocytes in prostate cancer.
Stanimir Vuk-Pavlović, Peggy A Bulur, +4 authors, Allan B Dietz.
Prostate, 2009 Nov 11; 70(4). PMID: 19902470    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Myeloid derived suppressor cells in human diseases.
Tim F Greten, Michael P Manns, Firouzeh Korangy.
Int Immunopharmacol, 2011 Jan 18; 11(7). PMID: 21237299    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Activation-induced expression of human programmed death-1 gene in T-lymphocytes.
R Vibhakar, G Juan, +2 authors, L R Finger.
Exp Cell Res, 1997 Apr 10; 232(1). PMID: 9141617
Phenotypic analysis of prostate-infiltrating lymphocytes reveals TH17 and Treg skewing.
Karen Sandell Sfanos, Tullia C Bruno, +6 authors, Charles G Drake.
Clin Cancer Res, 2008 Jun 04; 14(11). PMID: 18519750    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Tim-3 is an inducible human natural killer cell receptor that enhances interferon gamma production in response to galectin-9.
Michelle K Gleason, Todd R Lenvik, +11 authors, Jeffrey S Miller.
Blood, 2012 Feb 11; 119(13). PMID: 22323453    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Single-institution experience with ipilimumab in advanced melanoma patients in the compassionate use setting: lymphocyte count after 2 doses correlates with survival.
Geoffrey Y Ku, Jianda Yuan, +7 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
Cancer, 2010 Feb 10; 116(7). PMID: 20143434    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4 control over Foxp3+ regulatory T cell function.
Kajsa Wing, Yasushi Onishi, +5 authors, Shimon Sakaguchi.
Science, 2008 Oct 11; 322(5899). PMID: 18845758
Highly Cited.
Primary antitumor immune response mediated by CD4+ T cells.
Alexandre Corthay, Dag K Skovseth, +5 authors, Bjarne Bogen.
Immunity, 2005 Mar 23; 22(3). PMID: 15780993
Highly Cited.
Ipilimumab and a poxviral vaccine targeting prostate-specific antigen in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial.
Ravi A Madan, Mahsa Mohebtash, +10 authors, James L Gulley.
Lancet Oncol, 2012 Feb 14; 13(5). PMID: 22326924    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Overall survival analysis of a phase II randomized controlled trial of a Poxviral-based PSA-targeted immunotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Philip W Kantoff, Thomas J Schuetz, +11 authors, Wayne R Godfrey.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Jan 27; 28(7). PMID: 20100959    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Cooperation of Tim-3 and PD-1 in CD8 T-cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection.
Hyun-Tak Jin, Ana C Anderson, +6 authors, Rafi Ahmed.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2010 Aug 04; 107(33). PMID: 20679213    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The role of ICOS in the development of CD4 T cell help and the reactivation of memory T cells.
Simmi Mahajan, Ana Cervera, +6 authors, David Gray.
Eur J Immunol, 2007 Jun 06; 37(7). PMID: 17549732    Free PMC article.
The combined activation of positive costimulatory signals with modulation of a negative costimulatory signal for the enhancement of vaccine-mediated T-cell responses.
Mala Chakraborty, Jeffrey Schlom, James W Hodge.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2007 Feb 24; 56(9). PMID: 17318654
The ICOS/ICOSL pathway is required for optimal antitumor responses mediated by anti-CTLA-4 therapy.
Tihui Fu, Qiuming He, Padmanee Sharma.
Cancer Res, 2011 Jun 29; 71(16). PMID: 21708958
T cell infiltration of the prostate induced by androgen withdrawal in patients with prostate cancer.
M Mercader, B K Bodner, +10 authors, E D Kwon.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2001 Dec 06; 98(25). PMID: 11734652    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CD56brightCD16+ NK cells: a functional intermediate stage of NK cell differentiation.
Vivien Béziat, Darragh Duffy, +5 authors, Vincent Vieillard.
J Immunol, 2011 May 11; 186(12). PMID: 21555534
Ipilimumab plus dacarbazine for previously untreated metastatic melanoma.
Caroline Robert, Luc Thomas, +21 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
N Engl J Med, 2011 Jun 07; 364(26). PMID: 21639810
Highly Cited.
Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.
Tyler R Simpson, Fubin Li, +11 authors, Sergio A Quezada.
J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897981    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunologic biomarkers as correlates of clinical response to cancer immunotherapy.
Mary L Disis.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2011 Jan 12; 60(3). PMID: 21221967
Anti-CTLA-4 therapy results in higher CD4+ICOShi T cell frequency and IFN-gamma levels in both nonmalignant and malignant prostate tissues.
Hong Chen, Chrysoula I Liakou, +8 authors, Padmanee Sharma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2009 Feb 10; 106(8). PMID: 19202079    Free PMC article.
Analysis of circulating regulatory T cells in patients with metastatic prostate cancer pre- versus post-vaccination.
Matteo Vergati, Vittore Cereda, +7 authors, Kwong Y Tsang.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2010 Oct 27; 60(2). PMID: 20976449    Free PMC article.
Up-regulation of proliferative and migratory genes in regulatory T cells from patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Ngar-Yee Huen, Alan Lap-Yin Pang, +11 authors, Kwong Y Tsang.
Int J Cancer, 2013 Jan 16; 133(2). PMID: 23319273    Free PMC article.
Blockade of CTLA-4 on both effector and regulatory T cell compartments contributes to the antitumor activity of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies.
Karl S Peggs, Sergio A Quezada, +2 authors, James P Allison.
J Exp Med, 2009 Jul 08; 206(8). PMID: 19581407    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Philip W Kantoff, Celestia S Higano, +11 authors, IMPACT Study Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Sep 08; 363(5). PMID: 20818862
Highly Cited.
Tim-3-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in human tuberculosis (TB) exhibit polarized effector memory phenotypes and stronger anti-TB effector functions.
Yueqin Qiu, Jianbo Chen, +15 authors, Zheng W Chen.
PLoS Pathog, 2012 Nov 13; 8(11). PMID: 23144609    Free PMC article.
Combined immunotherapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transduced allogeneic prostate cancer cells and ipilimumab in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial.
Alfons J M van den Eertwegh, Jurjen Versluis, +15 authors, Winald R Gerritsen.
Lancet Oncol, 2012 Feb 14; 13(5). PMID: 22326922
Highly Cited.
The requirement of multimodal therapy (vaccine, local tumor radiation, and reduction of suppressor cells) to eliminate established tumors.
Chie Kudo-Saito, Jeffrey Schlom, +2 authors, James W Hodge.
Clin Cancer Res, 2005 Jun 17; 11(12). PMID: 15958639
Central memory and effector memory T cell subsets: function, generation, and maintenance.
Federica Sallusto, Jens Geginat, Antonio Lanzavecchia.
Annu Rev Immunol, 2004 Mar 23; 22. PMID: 15032595
Highly Cited. Review.
CTLA-4 blockade increases IFNgamma-producing CD4+ICOShi cells to shift the ratio of effector to regulatory T cells in cancer patients.
Chrysoula I Liakou, Ashish Kamat, +5 authors, Padmanee Sharma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2008 Sep 27; 105(39). PMID: 18818309    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Protective effector memory CD4 T cells depend on ICOS for survival.
Tamson V Moore, Bryan S Clay, +6 authors, Anne I Sperling.
PLoS One, 2011 Mar 03; 6(2). PMID: 21364749    Free PMC article.
Does PSADT after radical prostatectomy correlate with overall survival?--a report from the SEARCH database group.
Anna E Teeter, Joseph C Presti, +4 authors, Stephen J Freedland.
Urology, 2010 Dec 15; 77(1). PMID: 21145094    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic vaccines as a promising treatment modality against prostate cancer: rationale and recent advances.
B Harpreet Singh, James L Gulley.
Ther Adv Vaccines, 2014 Sep 02; 2(5). PMID: 25177493    Free PMC article.
PD-L1 is highly expressed in Enzalutamide resistant prostate cancer.
Jennifer L Bishop, Alexander Sio, +4 authors, Amina Zoubeidi.
Oncotarget, 2014 Nov 28; 6(1). PMID: 25428917    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Tumor-induced myeloid dysfunction and its implications for cancer immunotherapy.
Michelle N Messmer, Colleen S Netherby, Debarati Banik, Scott I Abrams.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2014 Nov 30; 64(1). PMID: 25432147    Free PMC article.
Dendritic cell vaccines containing lymphocytes produce improved immunogenicity in patients with cancer.
Mayu O Frank, Julia Kaufman, +3 authors, Robert B Darnell.
J Transl Med, 2014 Dec 06; 12. PMID: 25475068    Free PMC article.
Adding fuel to the fire: immunogenic intensification.
Geraldine O'Sullivan Coyne, James L Gulley.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2014 Dec 09; 10(11). PMID: 25483630    Free PMC article.
Lenalidomide and cyclophosphamide immunoregulation in patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.
J Wang, T R McGuire, +4 authors, J E Talmadge.
Clin Exp Metastasis, 2015 Jan 27; 32(2). PMID: 25617965
Targeting the adaptive molecular landscape of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Alexander W Wyatt, Martin E Gleave.
EMBO Mol Med, 2015 Apr 22; 7(7). PMID: 25896606    Free PMC article.
Preexisting Levels of CD4 T Cells Expressing PD-1 Are Related to Overall Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Ipilimumab.
Serena S Kwek, Jera Lewis, +7 authors, Lawrence Fong.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2015 May 15; 3(9). PMID: 25968455    Free PMC article.
Trial Watch: Immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies for oncological indications.
Aitziber Buqué, Norma Bloy, +12 authors, Lorenzo Galluzzi.
Oncoimmunology, 2015 Jul 03; 4(4). PMID: 26137403    Free PMC article.
Immune Infiltration and Prostate Cancer.
Amy Strasner, Michael Karin.
Front Oncol, 2015 Jul 29; 5. PMID: 26217583    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Integrating Immune Checkpoint Blockade with Anti-Neo/Mutated Antigens Reactivity to Increase the Clinical Outcome of Immunotherapy.
Giorgio Parmiani, Cristina Maccalli, Michele Maio.
Vaccines (Basel), 2015 Sep 08; 3(2). PMID: 26343195    Free PMC article.
Cancer Dormancy: A Regulatory Role for Endogenous Immunity in Establishing and Maintaining the Tumor Dormant State.
Constantin N Baxevanis, Sonia A Perez.
Vaccines (Basel), 2015 Sep 10; 3(3). PMID: 26350597    Free PMC article.
Designing a broad-spectrum integrative approach for cancer prevention and treatment.
Keith I Block, Charlotte Gyllenhaal, +177 authors, Massimo Zollo.
Semin Cancer Biol, 2015 Nov 23; 35 Suppl. PMID: 26590477    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Regulation of prostate cancer progression by the tumor microenvironment.
Stephen L Shiao, Gina Chia-Yi Chu, Leland W K Chung.
Cancer Lett, 2016 Feb 02; 380(1). PMID: 26828013    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Ipilimumab-Induced Gastrointestinal Toxicities: A Management Algorithm.
Jagpal S Klair, Mohit Girotra, +3 authors, Mauricio Garcia-Saenz-de-Sicilia.
Dig Dis Sci, 2016 Feb 06; 61(7). PMID: 26846115
Poxvirus-Based Active Immunotherapy with PD-1 and LAG-3 Dual Immune Checkpoint Inhibition Overcomes Compensatory Immune Regulation, Yielding Complete Tumor Regression in Mice.
Susan P Foy, Barbara Sennino, +7 authors, Stefanie J Mandl.
PLoS One, 2016 Feb 26; 11(2). PMID: 26910562    Free PMC article.
Poxvirus-based active immunotherapy synergizes with CTLA-4 blockade to increase survival in a murine tumor model by improving the magnitude and quality of cytotoxic T cells.
Susan P Foy, Stefanie J Mandl, +7 authors, Ryan B Rountree.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2016 Mar 11; 65(5). PMID: 26961085    Free PMC article.
The Present and Future of Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer: Proteomics, Genomics, and Immunology Advancements.
Pierre-Olivier Gaudreau, John Stagg, Denis Soulières, Fred Saad.
Biomark Cancer, 2016 May 12; 8(Suppl 2). PMID: 27168728    Free PMC article.
Oncolytic virotherapy for urological cancers.
Zahid Delwar, Kaixin Zhang, Paul S Rennie, William Jia.
Nat Rev Urol, 2016 May 25; 13(6). PMID: 27215429
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Prostate Cancer: A New Frontier?
Alessandra Modena, Chiara Ciccarese, +5 authors, Francesco Massari.
Oncol Rev, 2016 Jul 30; 10(1). PMID: 27471580    Free PMC article.
Analyses of Pretherapy Peripheral Immunoscore and Response to Vaccine Therapy.
Benedetto Farsaci, Renee N Donahue, +9 authors, Jeffrey Schlom.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2016 Aug 04; 4(9). PMID: 27485137    Free PMC article.
Tn-MUC1 DC Vaccination of Rhesus Macaques and a Phase I/II Trial in Patients with Nonmetastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Elizabeth Scheid, Pierre Major, +18 authors, Ronan Foley.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2016 Sep 09; 4(10). PMID: 27604597    Free PMC article.
Rekindling cancer vaccines.
Malorye Allison Branca.
Nat Biotechnol, 2016 Oct 12; 34(10). PMID: 27727216
Immune Therapy for Prostate Cancer.
Oladapo Yeku, Susan F Slovin.
Cancer J, 2016 Oct 18; 22(5). PMID: 27749327    Free PMC article.
Is There Still Room for Cancer Vaccines at the Era of Checkpoint Inhibitors.
Soumaya Karaki, Marie Anson, +4 authors, Eric Tartour.
Vaccines (Basel), 2016 Nov 10; 4(4). PMID: 27827885    Free PMC article.
The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of prostate carcinoma.
Douglas G McNeel, Neil H Bander, +15 authors, James L Gulley.
J Immunother Cancer, 2016 Dec 30; 4. PMID: 28031820    Free PMC article.
Radiotherapy and immunotherapy: a beneficial liaison?
Ralph R Weichselbaum, Hua Liang, Liufu Deng, Yang-Xin Fu.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2017 Jan 18; 14(6). PMID: 28094262
Highly Cited. Review.
Cancer vaccines: Enhanced immunogenic modulation through therapeutic combinations.
Margaret E Gatti-Mays, Jason M Redman, Julie M Collins, Marijo Bilusic.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2017 Sep 01; 13(11). PMID: 28857666    Free PMC article.
Analyses of 123 Peripheral Human Immune Cell Subsets: Defining Differences with Age and between Healthy Donors and Cancer Patients Not Detected in Analysis of Standard Immune Cell Types.
Lauren M Lepone, Renee N Donahue, +6 authors, Jeffrey Schlom.
J Circ Biomark, 2016 Mar 10; 5. PMID: 28936253    Free PMC article.
Genetics and biology of prostate cancer.
Guocan Wang, Di Zhao, Denise J Spring, Ronald A DePinho.
Genes Dev, 2018 Sep 06; 32(17-18). PMID: 30181359    Free PMC article.
Safety and Efficacy of Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines Alone or in Combination With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Treatment.
Jing Zhao, Ye Chen, Zhen-Yu Ding, Ji-Yan Liu.
Front Pharmacol, 2019 Nov 05; 10. PMID: 31680963    Free PMC article.
Peripheral immune-based biomarkers in cancer immunotherapy: can we realize their predictive potential?
Andrew B Nixon, Kurt A Schalper, +3 authors, Catherine Fleener.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Nov 30; 7(1). PMID: 31775882    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy, Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer.
Charles Robert Lichtenstern, Rachael Katie Ngu, Shabnam Shalapour, Michael Karin.
Cells, 2020 Mar 08; 9(3). PMID: 32143413    Free PMC article.
Dawn of Monitoring Regulatory T Cells in (Pre-)clinical Studies: Their Relevance Is Slowly Recognised.
A Charlotte M T de Wolf, Carla A Herberts, Marcel H N Hoefnagel.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2020 Apr 18; 7. PMID: 32300597    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
A Phase I Trial Using a Multitargeted Recombinant Adenovirus 5 (CEA/MUC1/Brachyury)-Based Immunotherapy Vaccine Regimen in Patients with Advanced Cancer.
Margaret E Gatti-Mays, Jason M Redman, +14 authors, Julius Strauss.
Oncologist, 2019 Oct 09; 25(6). PMID: 31594913    Free PMC article.
An IL-15 superagonist/IL-15Rα fusion complex protects and rescues NK cell-cytotoxic function from TGF-β1-mediated immunosuppression.
Rika Fujii, Caroline Jochems, +3 authors, James W Hodge.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2018 Feb 03; 67(4). PMID: 29392336    Free PMC article.
Adverse Events Following Administration of Anti-CTLA4 Antibody Ipilimumab.
Amirali Karimi, Sanam Alilou, Hamid Reza Mirzaei.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 27; 11. PMID: 33767992    Free PMC article.
Immune Checkpoints, Inhibitors and Radionuclides in Prostate Cancer: Promising Combinatorial Therapy Approach.
Mankgopo M Kgatle, Tebatso M G Boshomane, +7 authors, Mike M Sathekge.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 May 01; 22(8). PMID: 33921181    Free PMC article.
Cancer Vaccines for Genitourinary Tumors: Recent Progresses and Future Possibilities.
Brigida Anna Maiorano, Giovanni Schinzari, +4 authors, Evaristo Maiello.
Vaccines (Basel), 2021 Jul 03; 9(6). PMID: 34207536    Free PMC article.
Recent advances in the use of therapeutic cancer vaccines in genitourinary malignancies.
Ira Surolia, James Gulley, Ravi A Madan.
Expert Opin Biol Ther, 2014 Sep 13; 14(12). PMID: 25212872    Free PMC article.
Combining vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors to prime, expand, and facilitate effective tumor immunotherapy.
Julie M Collins, Jason M Redman, James L Gulley.
Expert Rev Vaccines, 2018 Jul 31; 17(8). PMID: 30058393    Free PMC article.
Targeting Tim-3 in Cancer With Resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade.
Tian Tian, Zhaoming Li.
Front Oncol, 2021 Oct 12; 11. PMID: 34631560    Free PMC article.
Landscape of Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cell in Tumor Immunotherapy.
Zhaonian Hao, Ruyuan Li, +3 authors, Zhiqiang Han.
Biomark Res, 2021 Oct 26; 9(1). PMID: 34689842    Free PMC article.
A Mutated Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) Peptide-Based Vaccine Induces PAP-Specific CD8+ T Cells with Ex Vivo Cytotoxic Capacities in HHDII/DR1 Transgenic Mice.
Pauline Le Vu, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, +7 authors, Stéphanie E McArdle.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Apr 24; 14(8). PMID: 35454873    Free PMC article.