. 2014 Apr; 96(2):214-23.
doi: 10.1038/clpt.2014.74.

Immunologic and clinical effects of targeting PD-1 in lung cancer

R D Harvey 1 
  • PMID: 24690569
  •     51 References
  •     36 citations


Therapeutic antibodies that block the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway prevent T-cell downregulation and promote immune responses against cancer. Several PD-1 pathway inhibitors have shown robust activity in initial trials. This article reviews the preclinical evidence, rationale, and clinical pharmacology of blockade of PD-1 or its ligands as therapy for lung cancer and provides an overview of agents in development, clinical evidence to date, and implications for clinical application.

Clinical significance and therapeutic potential of the programmed death-1 ligand/programmed death-1 pathway in human pancreatic cancer.
Takeo Nomi, Masayuki Sho, +8 authors, Yoshiyuki Nakajima.
Clin Cancer Res, 2007 Apr 04; 13(7). PMID: 17404099
Highly Cited.
Enhanced tumor eradication by combining CTLA-4 or PD-1 blockade with CpG therapy.
Sara M Mangsbo, Linda C Sandin, +3 authors, Thomas H Tötterman.
J Immunother, 2010 May 07; 33(3). PMID: 20445343
The potential for crizotinib in non-small cell lung cancer: a perspective review.
Yung-Jue Bang.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2011 Nov 16; 3(6). PMID: 22084642    Free PMC article.
The heterogeneity of the kinetics of response to ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma: patient cases.
Yvonne M Saenger, Jedd D Wolchok.
Cancer Immun, 2008 Jan 18; 8. PMID: 18198818    Free PMC article.
PD-1 as a potential target in cancer therapy.
David F McDermott, Michael B Atkins.
Cancer Med, 2014 Jan 10; 2(5). PMID: 24403232    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Blockade of B7-H1 or B7-DC induces an anti-tumor effect in a mouse pancreatic cancer model.
Keisuke Okudaira, Ryota Hokari, +9 authors, Soichiro Miura.
Int J Oncol, 2009 Sep 03; 35(4). PMID: 19724910
The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy.
Drew M Pardoll.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2012 Mar 23; 12(4). PMID: 22437870    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Blockade of B7-H1 and PD-1 by monoclonal antibodies potentiates cancer therapeutic immunity.
Fumiya Hirano, Katsumi Kaneko, +9 authors, Lieping Chen.
Cancer Res, 2005 Feb 12; 65(3). PMID: 15705911
Highly Cited.
Safety and tumor responses with lambrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in melanoma.
Omid Hamid, Caroline Robert, +23 authors, Antoni Ribas.
N Engl J Med, 2013 Jun 04; 369(2). PMID: 23724846    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Review: anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab: case studies of clinical response and immune-related adverse events.
Jeffrey Weber.
Oncologist, 2007 Aug 04; 12(7). PMID: 17673617
Erlotinib in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer.
Frances A Shepherd, José Rodrigues Pereira, +17 authors, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group.
N Engl J Med, 2005 Jul 15; 353(2). PMID: 16014882
Highly Cited.
Biochemical mechanisms of cisplatin cytotoxicity.
Victoria Cepeda, Miguel A Fuertes, +3 authors, Jose M Pérez.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2007 Feb 03; 7(1). PMID: 17266502
Highly Cited. Review.
New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1).
E A Eisenhauer, P Therasse, +13 authors, J Verweij.
Eur J Cancer, 2008 Dec 23; 45(2). PMID: 19097774
Highly Cited.
Programmed death ligand 2 in cancer-induced immune suppression.
Esdy N Rozali, Stanleyson V Hato, +2 authors, W Joost Lesterhuis.
Clin Dev Immunol, 2012 May 23; 2012. PMID: 22611421    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Blockade of programmed death-1 pathway rescues the effector function of tumor-infiltrating T cells and enhances the antitumor efficacy of lentivector immunization.
Qifeng Zhou, Haiyan Xiao, +8 authors, Yukai He.
J Immunol, 2010 Oct 12; 185(9). PMID: 20926790    Free PMC article.
Immunological response as a source to variability in drug metabolism and transport.
Hege Christensen, Monica Hermann.
Front Pharmacol, 2012 Mar 01; 3. PMID: 22363283    Free PMC article.
Safety and activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody in patients with advanced cancer.
Julie R Brahmer, Scott S Tykodi, +23 authors, Jon M Wigginton.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Jun 05; 366(26). PMID: 22658128    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-1 blockade inhibits hematogenous spread of poorly immunogenic tumor cells by enhanced recruitment of effector T cells.
Yoshiko Iwai, Seigo Terawaki, Tasuku Honjo.
Int Immunol, 2004 Dec 22; 17(2). PMID: 15611321
Highly Cited.
PD1 blockade reverses the suppression of melanoma antigen-specific CTL by CD4+ CD25(Hi) regulatory T cells.
Wenshi Wang, Roy Lau, +3 authors, Jeffrey Weber.
Int Immunol, 2009 Aug 05; 21(9). PMID: 19651643    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-L1 blockade synergizes with IL-2 therapy in reinvigorating exhausted T cells.
Erin E West, Hyun-Tak Jin, +7 authors, Rafi Ahmed.
J Clin Invest, 2013 May 17; 123(6). PMID: 23676462    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma.
F Stephen Hodi, Steven J O'Day, +26 authors, Walter J Urba.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Jun 08; 363(8). PMID: 20525992    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Programmed death-1 upregulation is correlated with dysfunction of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes in human non-small cell lung cancer.
Yan Zhang, Shengdong Huang, +2 authors, Qian Shen.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2010 Jun 02; 7(5). PMID: 20514052    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-1 and its ligands in tolerance and immunity.
Mary E Keir, Manish J Butte, Gordon J Freeman, Arlene H Sharpe.
Annu Rev Immunol, 2008 Jan 05; 26. PMID: 18173375
Highly Cited. Review.
Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade.
Yoshiko Iwai, Masayoshi Ishida, +3 authors, Nagahiro Minato.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2002 Sep 10; 99(19). PMID: 12218188    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CYP-mediated therapeutic protein-drug interactions: clinical findings, proposed mechanisms and regulatory implications.
Jang-Ik Lee, Lei Zhang, +2 authors, Shiew-Mei Huang.
Clin Pharmacokinet, 2010 Apr 14; 49(5). PMID: 20384392
Blockade of PD-L1 (B7-H1) augments human tumor-specific T cell responses in vitro.
Christian Blank, Juergen Kuball, +8 authors, Andreas Mackensen.
Int J Cancer, 2006 Feb 17; 119(2). PMID: 16482562
Highly Cited.
Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer.
Suzanne L Topalian, F Stephen Hodi, +27 authors, Mario Sznol.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Jun 05; 366(26). PMID: 22658127    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-1 and CTLA-4 combination blockade expands infiltrating T cells and reduces regulatory T and myeloid cells within B16 melanoma tumors.
Michael A Curran, Welby Montalvo, Hideo Yagita, James P Allison.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2010 Feb 18; 107(9). PMID: 20160101    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Blockade of B7-H1 improves myeloid dendritic cell-mediated antitumor immunity.
Tyler J Curiel, Shuang Wei, +19 authors, Weiping Zou.
Nat Med, 2003 Apr 22; 9(5). PMID: 12704383
Highly Cited.
State of the science: an update on renal cell carcinoma.
Eric Jonasch, P Andrew Futreal, +13 authors, W Kimryn Rathmell.
Mol Cancer Res, 2012 May 29; 10(7). PMID: 22638109    Free PMC article.
Inhibitory B7-family molecules in the tumour microenvironment.
Weiping Zou, Lieping Chen.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2008 May 27; 8(6). PMID: 18500231
Highly Cited. Review.
Critical review of preclinical approaches to investigate cytochrome p450-mediated therapeutic protein drug-drug interactions and recommendations for best practices: a white paper.
Raymond Evers, Shannon Dallas, +7 authors, Lei Zhang.
Drug Metab Dispos, 2013 Jun 25; 41(9). PMID: 23792813
Immunotherapy in lung cancer.
M Al-Moundhri, M O'Brien, B E Souberbielle.
Br J Cancer, 1998 Aug 14; 78(3). PMID: 9703271    Free PMC article.
Tumor-expressed B7-H1 and B7-DC in relation to PD-1+ T-cell infiltration and survival of patients with cervical carcinoma.
Rezaul Karim, Ekaterina S Jordanova, +5 authors, Sjoerd H van der Burg.
Clin Cancer Res, 2009 Oct 15; 15(20). PMID: 19825956
Anti-PD-1 synergizes with cyclophosphamide to induce potent anti-tumor vaccine effects through novel mechanisms.
Mikayel Mkrtichyan, Yana G Najjar, +5 authors, Samir N Khleif.
Eur J Immunol, 2011 Jun 29; 41(10). PMID: 21710477    Free PMC article.
Programmed death-1 blockade enhances expansion and functional capacity of human melanoma antigen-specific CTLs.
Raymond M Wong, Ron R Scotland, +4 authors, Jeffrey S Weber.
Int Immunol, 2007 Sep 28; 19(10). PMID: 17898045
Guidelines for the evaluation of immune therapy activity in solid tumors: immune-related response criteria.
Jedd D Wolchok, Axel Hoos, +9 authors, F Stephen Hodi.
Clin Cancer Res, 2009 Nov 26; 15(23). PMID: 19934295
Highly Cited.
Phase I safety and pharmacokinetic study of CT-011, a humanized antibody interacting with PD-1, in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies.
Raanan Berger, Rinat Rotem-Yehudar, +6 authors, Arnon Nagler.
Clin Cancer Res, 2008 May 17; 14(10). PMID: 18483370
Highly Cited.
Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: a potential mechanism of immune evasion.
Haidong Dong, Scott E Strome, +10 authors, Lieping Chen.
Nat Med, 2002 Jul 02; 8(8). PMID: 12091876
Highly Cited.
PD-1 blockade by CT-011, anti-PD-1 antibody, enhances ex vivo T-cell responses to autologous dendritic cell/myeloma fusion vaccine.
Jacalyn Rosenblatt, Brett Glotzbecker, +10 authors, David Avigan.
J Immunother, 2011 May 18; 34(5). PMID: 21577144    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Lung cancer: a classic example of tumor escape and progression while providing opportunities for immunological intervention.
Martin R Jadus, Josephine Natividad, +6 authors, Maria G Dacosta-Iyer.
Clin Dev Immunol, 2012 Aug 18; 2012. PMID: 22899945    Free PMC article.
Non-small cell lung cancer: epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and survivorship.
Julian R Molina, Ping Yang, +2 authors, Alex A Adjei.
Mayo Clin Proc, 2008 May 03; 83(5). PMID: 18452692    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer: implications for treatment and tumor biology.
Pasi A Jänne, Jeffrey A Engelman, Bruce E Johnson.
J Clin Oncol, 2005 May 12; 23(14). PMID: 15886310
B7-H1 blockade augments adoptive T-cell immunotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma.
Scott E Strome, Haidong Dong, +10 authors, Lieping Chen.
Cancer Res, 2003 Oct 16; 63(19). PMID: 14559843
Highly Cited.
Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma.
Jedd D Wolchok, Harriet Kluger, +21 authors, Mario Sznol.
N Engl J Med, 2013 Jun 04; 369(2). PMID: 23724867    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Anti-programmed death-1 synergizes with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor--secreting tumor cell immunotherapy providing therapeutic benefit to mice with established tumors.
Betty Li, Melinda VanRoey, +3 authors, Karin Jooss.
Clin Cancer Res, 2009 Feb 12; 15(5). PMID: 19208793
Immune inhibitory molecules LAG-3 and PD-1 synergistically regulate T-cell function to promote tumoral immune escape.
Seng-Ryong Woo, Meghan E Turnis, +18 authors, Dario A A Vignali.
Cancer Res, 2011 Dec 22; 72(4). PMID: 22186141    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Management of immune-related adverse events and kinetics of response with ipilimumab.
Jeffrey S Weber, Katharina C Kähler, Axel Hauschild.
J Clin Oncol, 2012 May 23; 30(21). PMID: 22614989
Highly Cited. Review.
The PD-1/PD-L1 axis modulates the natural killer cell versus multiple myeloma effect: a therapeutic target for CT-011, a novel monoclonal anti-PD-1 antibody.
Don M Benson, Courtney E Bakan, +14 authors, Michael A Caligiuri.
Blood, 2010 May 13; 116(13). PMID: 20460501    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Targeting molecular and cellular inhibitory mechanisms for improvement of antitumor memory responses reactivated by tumor cell vaccine.
W Scott Webster, R Houston Thompson, +4 authors, Haidong Dong.
J Immunol, 2007 Aug 22; 179(5). PMID: 17709500
Cancer despite immunosurveillance: immunoselection and immunosubversion.
Laurence Zitvogel, Antoine Tesniere, Guido Kroemer.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2006 Sep 16; 6(10). PMID: 16977338
Highly Cited. Review.
Interferon-γ and celecoxib inhibit lung-tumor growth through modulating M2/M1 macrophage ratio in the tumor microenvironment.
Fuqiang Ren, Mingyu Fan, +5 authors, Lunxu Liu.
Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014 Oct 07; 8. PMID: 25284985    Free PMC article.
The CD28-B7 Family in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Emerging Concepts in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Joanne Leung, Woong-Kyung Suh.
Immune Netw, 2015 Jan 01; 14(6). PMID: 25550693    Free PMC article.
Exosomal proteins as potential diagnostic markers in advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Kristine R Jakobsen, Birgitte S Paulsen, +3 authors, Malene M Jørgensen.
J Extracell Vesicles, 2015 Mar 05; 4. PMID: 25735706    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Nivolumab in NSCLC: latest evidence and clinical potential.
Raghav Sundar, Byoung-Chul Cho, Julie R Brahmer, Ross A Soo.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2015 Mar 11; 7(2). PMID: 25755681    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
OX40 Agonists and Combination Immunotherapy: Putting the Pedal to the Metal.
Stefanie N Linch, Michael J McNamara, William L Redmond.
Front Oncol, 2015 Mar 13; 5. PMID: 25763356    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
RAS Synthetic Lethal Screens Revisited: Still Seeking the Elusive Prize?
Julian Downward.
Clin Cancer Res, 2015 Apr 17; 21(8). PMID: 25878361    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Elevated Expression of CD160 and 2B4 Defines a Cytolytic HIV-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Population in Elite Controllers.
Carolina Pombo, E John Wherry, +2 authors, Michael R Betts.
J Infect Dis, 2015 Apr 18; 212(9). PMID: 25883386    Free PMC article.
From humble beginnings to success in the clinic: Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cells and implications for immunotherapy.
Amelia E Firor, Alexander Jares, Yupo Ma.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2015 May 10; 240(8). PMID: 25956686    Free PMC article.
Anti-PD-L1 prolongs survival and triggers T cell but not humoral anti-tumor immune responses in a human MUC1-expressing preclinical ovarian cancer model.
Jyothi Thyagabhavan Mony, Lixin Zhang, +8 authors, Anda M Vlad.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2015 May 23; 64(9). PMID: 25998800    Free PMC article.
Emerging strategies for cancer immunoprevention.
J C Roeser, S D Leach, F McAllister.
Oncogene, 2015 Sep 15; 34(50). PMID: 26364615
Improving immunological tumor microenvironment using electro-hyperthermia followed by dendritic cell immunotherapy.
Yuk-Wah Tsang, Cheng-Chung Huang, +7 authors, Kwan-Hwa Chi.
BMC Cancer, 2015 Oct 17; 15. PMID: 26472466    Free PMC article.
PD-L1 Blockade Differentially Impacts Regulatory T Cells from HIV-Infected Individuals Depending on Plasma Viremia.
Cristina Peligero, Jordi Argilaguet, +7 authors, Andreas Meyerhans.
PLoS Pathog, 2015 Dec 04; 11(12). PMID: 26633181    Free PMC article.
Oncogenic kinase fusions: an evolving arena with innovative clinical opportunities.
Fabrizio Tabbò, Marco Pizzi, +2 authors, Giorgio Inghirami.
Oncotarget, 2016 Mar 05; 7(18). PMID: 26943776    Free PMC article.
Regulation of Natural Killer Cell Function by STAT3.
Nicholas A Cacalano.
Front Immunol, 2016 May 06; 7. PMID: 27148255    Free PMC article.
Benefit-Risk Summary of Crizotinib for the Treatment of Patients With ROS1 Alteration-Positive, Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Dickran Kazandjian, Gideon M Blumenthal, +4 authors, Richard Pazdur.
Oncologist, 2016 Jun 23; 21(8). PMID: 27328934    Free PMC article.
Enhanced therapeutic effect of an antiangiogenesis peptide on lung cancer in vivo combined with salmonella VNP20009 carrying a Sox2 shRNA construct.
Changhong Zhao, Junjin He, +2 authors, Hanmei Xu.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Jul 03; 35(1). PMID: 27371094    Free PMC article.
PD-L1 expression is associated with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Zhiquan Chen, Jiandong Mei, +6 authors, Liu Zhang.
Oncol Lett, 2016 Jul 23; 12(2). PMID: 27446371    Free PMC article.
Advances in immunotherapy for melanoma management.
Mohammed Dany, Rose Nganga, +3 authors, Dirk Elston.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2016 Jul 28; 12(10). PMID: 27454404    Free PMC article.
Chemoradiation Increases PD-L1 Expression in Certain Melanoma and Glioblastoma Cells.
Anja Derer, Martina Spiljar, +4 authors, Udo S Gaipl.
Front Immunol, 2017 Jan 10; 7. PMID: 28066420    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Current state of immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.
Jyoti Malhotra, Salma K Jabbour, Joseph Aisner.
Transl Lung Cancer Res, 2017 May 23; 6(2). PMID: 28529902    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Emerging role of nivolumab in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: current data and future perspectives.
Emily Feld, Leora Horn.
Onco Targets Ther, 2017 Aug 05; 10. PMID: 28769573    Free PMC article.
Pembrolizumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: a review of current evidence.
Karim Rihawi, Francesco Gelsomino, +4 authors, Andrea Ardizzoni.
Ther Adv Respir Dis, 2017 Aug 19; 11(9). PMID: 28818019    Free PMC article.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy.
Eika S Webb, Peng Liu, +3 authors, Yao-He Wang.
J Biomed Res, 2017 Sep 04; 32(5). PMID: 28866656    Free PMC article.
Anti-PD-1 Antibody Treatment Promotes Clearance of Persistent Cryptococcal Lung Infection in Mice.
Jonathan A Roussey, Steven P Viglianti, +2 authors, John J Osterholzer.
J Immunol, 2017 Oct 19; 199(10). PMID: 29038249    Free PMC article.
The Role of Cytochromes P450 in Infection.
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou.
Front Immunol, 2018 Feb 16; 9. PMID: 29445375    Free PMC article.
Advanced Care Provider and Nursing Approach to Assessment and Management of Immunotherapy-Related Dermatologic Adverse Events.
Kathryn Ciccolini, Anna Skripnik Lucas, Alyona Weinstein, Mario Lacouture.
J Adv Pract Oncol, 2017 Mar 01; 8(2). PMID: 29900022    Free PMC article.
Clinical observation of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer: a real-world study in Chinese cohort.
Danyang Sun, Junxun Ma, +8 authors, Yi Hu.
Ther Clin Risk Manag, 2018 Sep 27; 14. PMID: 30254451    Free PMC article.
Disruption of PD-1 Enhanced the Anti-tumor Activity of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Against Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Xingliang Guo, Hua Jiang, +9 authors, Zonghai Li.
Front Pharmacol, 2018 Oct 18; 9. PMID: 30327605    Free PMC article.
Amplifying Outcomes: Checkpoint Inhibitor Combinations in First-Line Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Barbara Melosky, Rosalyn Juergens, +5 authors, Quincy Chu.
Oncologist, 2019 May 30; 25(1). PMID: 31138727    Free PMC article.
Salmonella Breaks Tumor Immune Tolerance by Downregulating Tumor Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression.
Man-Chin Chen, Christian Ronquillo Pangilinan, Che-Hsin Lee.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Dec 28; 12(1). PMID: 31878272    Free PMC article.
Genomic signatures defining responsiveness to allopurinol and combination therapy for lung cancer identified by systems therapeutics analyses.
Iman Tavassoly, Yuan Hu, +9 authors, Ravi Iyengar.
Mol Oncol, 2019 May 23; 13(8). PMID: 31116490    Free PMC article.
Humanized Mice Are Precious Tools for Preclinical Evaluation of CAR T and CAR NK Cell Therapies.
Rana Mhaidly, Els Verhoeyen.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 19; 12(7). PMID: 32679920    Free PMC article.
Programmed death ligand 1 immunohistochemistry in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Sylvie Lantuejoul, Diane Damotte, Véronique Hofman, Julien Adam.
J Thorac Dis, 2019 Feb 19; 11(Suppl 1). PMID: 30775032    Free PMC article.
Prolonging Survival: The Role of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Treatment of Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Barbara Melosky, Parneet K Cheema, +8 authors, Quincy Chu.
Oncologist, 2020 Aug 30; 25(11). PMID: 32860288    Free PMC article.
Optimizing Survival and the Changing Landscape of Targeted Therapy for Intermediate and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.
Howard Lim, Ravi Ramjeesingh, +4 authors, Brandon M Meyers.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2020 Sep 09; 113(2). PMID: 32898239    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Paliperidone Inhibits Glioblastoma Growth in Mouse Brain Tumor Model and Reduces PD-L1 Expression.
Yu-Shu Liu, Bor-Ren Huang, +7 authors, Dah-Yuu Lu.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Sep 11; 13(17). PMID: 34503167    Free PMC article.