. 2014 Dec;16(4).
doi: 10.1186/s13058-014-0427-5.

Biology of breast cancer in young women

Hatem A Azim  Ann H Partridge  
  • PMID: 25436920
  •     62 References
  •     84 citations


Breast cancer arising at a young age is relatively uncommon, particularly in the developed world. Several studies have demonstrated that younger patients often experience a more aggressive disease course and have poorer outcome compared to older women. Expression of key biomarkers, including endocrine receptors, HER2 and proliferation markers, appears to be different in younger patients and young women are more likely to harbor a genetic predisposition. Despite these differences, little research to date has focused on the biology of these tumors to refine prognosis, and potentially direct treatment strategies, which remain similar to those offered to older patients. Accumulating evidence suggests the differences in breast stroma in younger patients and changes that occur with pregnancy and breastfeeding likely contribute to the different biology of these tumors. Reproductive behaviors appear to impact the biology of tumors developing later in life. In addition, tumors arising during or shortly following pregnancy appear to exhibit unique biological features. In this review, we discuss our emerging understanding of the biology of breast cancer arising at a young age at both the pathologic and the genomic level. We elucidate the potential role of genomic signatures, the impact of pregnancy and breastfeeding on breast cancer biology, and how even current knowledge might advance the clinical management of young breast cancer patients.

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Sunah Shin, Juhee Kim, +10 authors, Hee Jeong Kim.
J Menopausal Med, 2020 Apr 21; 25(3). PMID: 32307939    Free PMC article.
Reproductive Risk Factors Associated with Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes among Young Women in Northern China.
Jian Ming Wang, Jun Wang, +2 authors, Fei Yang Wang.
Biomed Res Int, 2020 Apr 28; 2020. PMID: 32337260    Free PMC article.
Female medical students' awareness, attitudes, and knowledge about early detection of breast cancer in Syrian Private University, Syria.
Abdullah Omar, Aliaa Bakr, Nazir Ibrahim.
Heliyon, 2020 May 06; 6(4). PMID: 32368654    Free PMC article.
Differences in Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis by Ethnicity, Insurance Status, and Family Income in Young Women in the USA.
Maria Alice Franzoi, Gilberto Schwartsmann, +3 authors, Pedro E R Liedke.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities, 2019 May 19; 6(5). PMID: 31102102
Validation of the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Pathological Prognostic Staging for young breast cancer patients.
Juan Zhou, Jian Lei, +4 authors, San-Gang Wu.
Aging (Albany NY), 2020 Apr 23; 12(8). PMID: 32320950    Free PMC article.
TP53 rs1042522 polymorphism and early-onset breast cancer.
Irmak Icen-Taskin, Sevgi Irtegun-Kandemir, Omer Munzuroglu.
J Res Med Sci, 2020 May 19; 25. PMID: 32419782    Free PMC article.
Immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-17 and hormonal receptors in benign and malignant breast lesions.
Eman Taha Ali, Mai Abdulrahman Mohammed Masri, +4 authors, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed Edris.
BMC Res Notes, 2020 Jun 25; 13(1). PMID: 32576277    Free PMC article.
Current State of the Art in the Adjuvant Systemic Treatment of Premenopausal Patients With Early Breast Cancer.
Francesca Parisi, Maria Grazia Razeti, +7 authors, Matteo Lambertini.
Clin Med Insights Oncol, 2020 Jul 11; 14. PMID: 32647477    Free PMC article.
Clinico-pathologic features, treatment and outcomes of breast cancer during pregnancy or the post-partum period.
Ciara C O'Sullivan, Sheeba Irshad, +6 authors, Karen Lisa Smith.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2020 Mar 13; 180(3). PMID: 32162192    Free PMC article.
Incidence and Survival by Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status in Young Women With Stage I-III Breast Cancer: SEER, 2010-2016.
Alexandra Thomas, Anthony Rhoads, +7 authors, Paul A Romitti.
Clin Breast Cancer, 2020 Apr 13; 20(4). PMID: 32278642    Free PMC article.
High Levels of Chromosomal Copy Number Alterations and TP53 Mutations Correlate with Poor Outcome in Younger Breast Cancer Patients.
Ayla Koçak, Kerstin Heselmeyer-Haddad, +13 authors, Thomas Ried.
Am J Pathol, 2020 May 18; 190(8). PMID: 32416097    Free PMC article.
Machine learning-based lifetime breast cancer risk reclassification compared with the BOADICEA model: impact on screening recommendations.
Chang Ming, Valeria Viassolo, +3 authors, Maria C Katapodi.
Br J Cancer, 2020 Jun 23; 123(5). PMID: 32565540    Free PMC article.
Update on fertility preservation for younger women with breast cancer.
Ellen Warner, Karen Glass, Shu Foong, Emily Sandwith.
CMAJ, 2020 Sep 02; 192(35). PMID: 32868272    Free PMC article.
Burning Questions in the Oncofertility Counseling of Young Breast Cancer Patients.
Luca Arecco, Marta Perachino, +10 authors, Matteo Lambertini.
Breast Cancer (Auckl), 2020 Sep 22; 14. PMID: 32952399    Free PMC article.
Locally advanced breast cancer in young women in Latin America.
Cynthia Villarreal-Garza, Edna A Lopez-Martinez, Jose Felipe Muñoz-Lozano, Karla Unger-Saldaña.
Ecancermedicalscience, 2019 Feb 23; 13. PMID: 30792811    Free PMC article.
Genomic alterations and survival in young patients aged under 40 years with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer.
Shifeng Yang, Zhengbo Song, Guoping Cheng.
Ann Transl Med, 2019 Jun 04; 7(7). PMID: 31157261    Free PMC article.
Endocrine and Targeted Therapy for Hormone-Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: Insights to Sequencing Treatment and Overcoming Resistance Based on Clinical Trials.
Rola El Sayed, Lara El Jamal, +3 authors, Hazem Assi.
Front Oncol, 2019 Jul 10; 9. PMID: 31281796    Free PMC article.
Impact of Taxanes, Endocrine Therapy, and Deleterious Germline BRCA Mutations on Anti-müllerian Hormone Levels in Early Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Anthracycline- and Cyclophosphamide-Based Chemotherapy.
Matteo Lambertini, Nathalie Olympios, +8 authors, Florian Clatot.
Front Oncol, 2019 Jul 30; 9. PMID: 31355134    Free PMC article.
Clinical utility of genomic signatures in young breast cancer patients: a systematic review.
Cynthia Villarreal-Garza, Ana S Ferrigno, +3 authors, Hatem A Azim.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2020 Oct 17; 6. PMID: 33062888    Free PMC article.
Breast-conserving surgery with or without irradiation in women with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast receiving preoperative systemic therapy: A cohort study.
Jiaqiang Zhang, Chang-Yun Lu, +2 authors, Szu-Yuan Wu.
Breast, 2020 Oct 14; 54. PMID: 33049657    Free PMC article.
Incidence of hypothyroidism after treatment for breast cancer-a Danish matched cohort study.
Anne Mette Falstie-Jensen, Buket Ö Esen, +6 authors, Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 Oct 15; 22(1). PMID: 33050919    Free PMC article.
Downregulated METTL14 Expression Correlates with Breast Cancer Tumor Grade and Molecular Classification.
Xiao-Fang Dong, Yan Wang, +5 authors, Chao-Qun Wang.
Biomed Res Int, 2020 Nov 03; 2020. PMID: 33134390    Free PMC article.
Tumorigenesis-related key genes in adolescents and young adults with HR(+)/HER2(-) breast cancer.
Shun Yi, Wei Zhou.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2020 Nov 10; 13(10). PMID: 33165441    Free PMC article.
Tamoxifen exposure in pregnancy after synchronous breast and thyroid cancer.
Abeid M Athman Omar, Amany Abdel-Bary, Rasha O Elsaka.
Ecancermedicalscience, 2020 Nov 20; 14. PMID: 33209116    Free PMC article.
The Tumor-Fat Interface Volume of Breast Cancer on Pretreatment MRI Is Associated with a Pathologic Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
Hwan-Ho Cho, Minsu Park, +5 authors, Sung Hoon Sim.
Biology (Basel), 2020 Nov 14; 9(11). PMID: 33182628    Free PMC article.
Management of young women with early breast cancer.
Francesca Poggio, Matteo Lambertini, +6 authors, Lucia Del Mastro.
ESMO Open, 2018 Dec 19; 3(Suppl 1). PMID: 30559981    Free PMC article.
Association of serum adiponectin with breast cancer: A meta-analysis of 27 case-control studies.
Zeping Yu, Shenli Tang, +2 authors, Yong Zeng.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Feb 09; 98(6). PMID: 30732167    Free PMC article.
Breast cancer care in northern Ethiopia - cross-sectional analysis.
Biniyam Tefera Deressa, Nikola Cihoric, +2 authors, Daniel Rauch.
BMC Cancer, 2019 Apr 27; 19(1). PMID: 31023270    Free PMC article.
Hormonal Receptors, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 and Triple Negative Immunohistochemical Typing in Women with Breast Cancer in Kampala, Uganda.
Angela T Mlole, James J Yahaya, +2 authors, Andrew L Okwi.
Int J Womens Health, 2020 Dec 22; 12. PMID: 33343201    Free PMC article.
Role of GATA3 exon 6 germline mutations in breast cancer progression in Egyptian female patients.
Iman H Ibrahim, Heba G Abdel-Aziz, Fatema Em Hassan, Hesham Sa El-Sameea.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2020 Sep 18; 246(1). PMID: 32938228    Free PMC article.
Breast cancer in very young women-a multicenter 10-year experience.
I F Eiriz, M Vaz Batista, +3 authors, S Braga.
ESMO Open, 2021 Jan 06; 6(1). PMID: 33399090    Free PMC article.
Clinical features, prognosis, and influencing factors of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in 58 patients with breast cancer.
Yiqiong Zheng, Jie Li, +8 authors, Yanjun Zhang.
Ann Transl Med, 2021 Jan 26; 8(24). PMID: 33490177    Free PMC article.
The Effects of Negative Elements in Environment and Cancer on Female Reproductive System.
Jiangxue Qu, Yuehan Li, Shujie Liao, Jie Yan.
Adv Exp Med Biol, 2021 Feb 02; 1300. PMID: 33523439
CDKN1B mutation and copy number variation are associated with tumor aggressiveness in luminal breast cancer.
Davide Viotto, Francesca Russo, +32 authors, Gustavo Baldassarre.
J Pathol, 2020 Nov 04; 253(2). PMID: 33140857    Free PMC article.

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Effects of clinicopathological factors on prognosis of young patients with resected breast cancer.
Wen Li, Yunfu Deng, +8 authors, Qinghua Zhou.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2021 Feb 18; 100(5). PMID: 33592828    Free PMC article.
Clinical behavior and outcomes of breast cancer in young women with germline BRCA pathogenic variants.
Matteo Lambertini, Marcello Ceppi, +36 authors, Hatem A Azim.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2021 Feb 14; 7(1). PMID: 33579978    Free PMC article.
Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Breast Cancer in Young Women - A Single Center Study in a Developing Country.
Xiaoliang Sun, Jun Liu, +2 authors, Yao Lu.
Cancer Manag Res, 2021 Feb 26; 13. PMID: 33628050    Free PMC article.
Understanding the function of the tumor microenvironment, and compounds from marine organisms for breast cancer therapy.
Rama Rao Malla, Batoul Farran, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju.
World J Biol Chem, 2021 Apr 06; 12(2). PMID: 33815682    Free PMC article.
Time to Pregnancy, Obstetrical and Neonatal Outcomes after Breast Cancer: A Study from the Maternity Network for Young Breast Cancer Patients.
Julie Labrosse, Anne Lecourt, +13 authors, Anne-Sophie Hamy.
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