. 2015 Feb;15(4).
doi: 10.1038/nrc3896.

Triple-negative breast cancer in African-American women: disparities versus biology

Eric C Dietze 1 Christopher Sistrunk 1 Gustavo Miranda-Carboni 2 Ruth O'Regan 3 Victoria L Seewaldt 1 
  • PMID: 25673085
  •     86 References
  •     102 citations


Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that disproportionately affects BRCA1 mutation carriers and young women of African origin. There is evidence that African-American women with TNBC have worse clinical outcomes than women of European descent. However, it is unclear whether survival differences persist after adjusting for disparities in access to health-care treatment, co-morbid disease and income. It remains controversial whether TNBC in African-American women is a molecularly distinct disease or whether African-American women have a higher incidence of aggressive biology driven by disparities: there is evidence in support of both. Understanding the relative contributions of biology and disparities is essential for improving the poor survival rate of African-American women with TNBC.

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Emerging evidence for the role of differential tumor microenvironment in breast cancer racial disparity: a closer look at the surroundings.
Sachin Kumar Deshmukh, Sanjeev K Srivastava, +7 authors, Seema Singh.
Carcinogenesis, 2017 Apr 22; 38(8). PMID: 28430867    Free PMC article.
Centrosome amplification: a suspect in breast cancer and racial disparities.
Angela Ogden, Padmashree C G Rida, Ritu Aneja.
Endocr Relat Cancer, 2017 May 19; 24(9). PMID: 28515047    Free PMC article.
Racial disparities in survival outcomes by breast tumor subtype among African American women in Memphis, Tennessee.
Gregory Vidal, Zoran Bursac, +2 authors, Athena Starlard-Davenport.
Cancer Med, 2017 Jun 15; 6(7). PMID: 28612435    Free PMC article.
Critical role of SIK3 in mediating high salt and IL-17 synergy leading to breast cancer cell proliferation.
Suneetha Amara, Ciera Majors, +4 authors, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi.
PLoS One, 2017 Jun 29; 12(6). PMID: 28658303    Free PMC article.
SR-B1-targeted nanodelivery of anti-cancer agents: a promising new approach to treat triple-negative breast cancer.
Rebecca Johnson, Nirupama Sabnis, +2 authors, Andras G Lacko.
Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press), 2017 Jul 04; 9. PMID: 28670138    Free PMC article.
SRGN-TGFβ2 regulatory loop confers invasion and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer.
Z Zhang, Y Deng, +10 authors, Z He.
Oncogenesis, 2017 Jul 12; 6(7). PMID: 28692037    Free PMC article.
Cell and Tissue Biology Paves a Path to Breast Cancer Prevention.
Michael E Todhunter, Mark A LaBarge.
Trends Cancer, 2017 Jul 19; 3(5). PMID: 28718407    Free PMC article.
Increased Tumour Infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocytes in Patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer Suggests Susceptibility to Immune Therapy
Bushra Sikandar, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, +2 authors, Talat Mirza.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2017 Jul 28; 18(7). PMID: 28749113    Free PMC article.
Myc mediates cancer stem-like cells and EMT changes in triple negative breast cancers cells.
Shuping Yin, Vino T Cheryan, +2 authors, Kaladhar B Reddy.
PLoS One, 2017 Aug 18; 12(8). PMID: 28817737    Free PMC article.
A mutational signature reveals alterations underlying deficient homologous recombination repair in breast cancer.
Paz Polak, Jaegil Kim, +25 authors, Gad Getz.
Nat Genet, 2017 Aug 22; 49(10). PMID: 28825726    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Kaiso is highly expressed in TNBC tissues of women of African ancestry compared to Caucasian women.
Blessing I Bassey-Archibong, Shawn M Hercules, +9 authors, Juliet M Daniel.
Cancer Causes Control, 2017 Sep 10; 28(11). PMID: 28887687    Free PMC article.
Low dose of kaempferol suppresses the migration and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells by downregulating the activities of RhoA and Rac1.
Shoushan Li, Ting Yan, +7 authors, Yichao Zhu.
Onco Targets Ther, 2017 Oct 19; 10. PMID: 29042792    Free PMC article.
Obesity and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Disparities, Controversies, and Biology.
Eric C Dietze, Tanya A Chavez, Victoria L Seewaldt.
Am J Pathol, 2017 Nov 13; 188(2). PMID: 29128565    Free PMC article.
Racial disparity in breast cancer: can it be mattered for prognosis and therapy.
Vijayalaxmi Gupta, Inamul Haque, +3 authors, Sushanta K Banerjee.
J Cell Commun Signal, 2017 Dec 01; 12(1). PMID: 29188479    Free PMC article.
Race Disparities in the Contribution of miRNA Isoforms and tRNA-Derived Fragments to Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Aristeidis G Telonis, Isidore Rigoutsos.
Cancer Res, 2017 Dec 13; 78(5). PMID: 29229607    Free PMC article.
The natural compound Jatrophone interferes with Wnt/β-catenin signaling and inhibits proliferation and EMT in human triple-negative breast cancer.
Iram Fatima, Ikbale El-Ayachi, +9 authors, Gustavo A Miranda-Carboni.
PLoS One, 2017 Dec 28; 12(12). PMID: 29281678    Free PMC article.
Black-White Disparities in Breast Cancer Subtype: The Intersection of Socially Patterned Stress and Genetic Expression.
Erin Linnenbringer, Sarah Gehlert, Arline T Geronimus.
AIMS Public Health, 2018 Jan 16; 4(5). PMID: 29333472    Free PMC article.
Barriers to early presentation of breast cancer among women in Soweto, South Africa.
Maureen Joffe, Oluwatosin Ayeni, +6 authors, Herbert Cubasch.
PLoS One, 2018 Feb 03; 13(2). PMID: 29394271    Free PMC article.
Breast Cancer in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Why We Need Pathology Capability to Solve This Challenge.
Yehoda M Martei, Lydia E Pace, Jane E Brock, Lawrence N Shulman.
Clin Lab Med, 2018 Feb 08; 38(1). PMID: 29412880    Free PMC article.
Prognostic impact of AnxA1 and AnxA2 gene expression in triple-negative breast cancer.
Lee D Gibbs, Jamboor K Vishwanatha.
Oncotarget, 2018 Feb 09; 9(2). PMID: 29416802    Free PMC article.
First international TNBC conference meeting report.
Padmashree Rida, Angela Ogden, +13 authors, Ritu Aneja.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2018 Feb 09; 169(3). PMID: 29417299    Free PMC article.
Breast cancer in Ethiopia: evidence for geographic difference in the distribution of molecular subtypes in Africa.
Endale Hadgu, Daniel Seifu, +7 authors, Mats G Karlsson.
BMC Womens Health, 2018 Feb 16; 18(1). PMID: 29444670    Free PMC article.
MCP-1 is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancers and drives cancer invasiveness and metastasis.
Pranabananda Dutta, Marianna Sarkissyan, +2 authors, Jaydutt V Vadgama.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2018 Mar 30; 170(3). PMID: 29594759    Free PMC article.
The STAT3 Target Gene TNFRSF1A Modulates the NF-κB Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells.
Susana P Egusquiaguirre, Jennifer E Yeh, +2 authors, David A Frank.
Neoplasia, 2018 Apr 06; 20(5). PMID: 29621649    Free PMC article.
ANP32E induces tumorigenesis of triple-negative breast cancer cells by upregulating E2F1.
Zhenchong Xiong, Liping Ye, +9 authors, Xi Wang.
Mol Oncol, 2018 Apr 11; 12(6). PMID: 29633513    Free PMC article.
Translating Hispanic Genomic Factors in Lung Cancer Into Clinical Practice: EGFR Testing for Improved Outcomes.
Janella Hudson, Teresita Munoz-Antonia, +3 authors, Gwendolyn P Quinn.
Gene Cell Tissue, 2016 Apr 01; 3(2). PMID: 29888762    Free PMC article.
Somatic loss of WWOX is associated with TP53 perturbation in basal-like breast cancer.
Suhaib K Abdeen, Uri Ben-David, +2 authors, Rami I Aqeilan.
Cell Death Dis, 2018 Aug 08; 9(8). PMID: 30082886    Free PMC article.
Reversing the Trends toward Shorter Lives and Poorer Health for U.S. Women: A Call for Innovative Interdisciplinary Research.
April Schweinhart, Janine Austin Clayton.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2018 Aug 24; 15(9). PMID: 30134570    Free PMC article.
The antipsychotic agent trifluoperazine hydrochloride suppresses triple-negative breast cancer tumor growth and brain metastasis by inducing G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis.
Zhanzhan Feng, Yong Xia, +13 authors, Luoting Yu.
Cell Death Dis, 2018 Sep 28; 9(10). PMID: 30258182    Free PMC article.
Whole Genome Transcriptome Analysis of the Association between Obesity and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Caucasian Women.
Tarun K K Mamidi, Jiande Wu, +2 authors, Chindo Hicks.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2018 Oct 27; 15(11). PMID: 30360534    Free PMC article.
The WNT10B Network Is Associated with Survival and Metastases in Chemoresistant Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Ikbale El Ayachi, Iram Fatima, +19 authors, Gustavo A Miranda-Carboni.
Cancer Res, 2018 Dec 20; 79(5). PMID: 30563890    Free PMC article.
Housing discrimination and racial cancer disparities among the 100 largest US metropolitan areas.
Kirsten M M Beyer, Purushottam W Laud, Yuhong Zhou, Ann B Nattinger.
Cancer, 2019 Jul 10; 125(21). PMID: 31287559    Free PMC article.
Environmental exposures, stem cells, and cancer.
Tasha Thong, Chanese A Forté, Evan M Hill, Justin A Colacino.
Pharmacol Ther, 2019 Aug 04; 204. PMID: 31376432    Free PMC article.
The inhibitory effects of butein on cell proliferation and TNF-α-induced CCL2 release in racially different triple negative breast cancer cells.
Patricia Mendonca, Ainsley Horton, +2 authors, Karam F A Soliman.
PLoS One, 2019 Oct 31; 14(10). PMID: 31665136    Free PMC article.
Associations of race and ethnicity with risk of developing invasive breast cancer after lobular carcinoma in situ.
Vanessa Dania, Ying Liu, +2 authors, Graham A Colditz.
Breast Cancer Res, 2019 Nov 16; 21(1). PMID: 31727116    Free PMC article.
Deconvolution of the Genomic and Epigenomic Interaction Landscape of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Jiande Wu, Tarun Karthik Kumar Mamidi, Lu Zhang, Chindo Hicks.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Nov 07; 11(11). PMID: 31683572    Free PMC article.
Black Women's Confidence in the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act.
Arnethea L Sutton, Alesha Henderson, +4 authors, Vanessa B Sheppard.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2019 Dec 19; 16(24). PMID: 31847347    Free PMC article.
Serum exosomal-annexin A2 is associated with African-American triple-negative breast cancer and promotes angiogenesis.
Pankaj Chaudhary, Lee D Gibbs, +3 authors, Jamboor K Vishwanatha.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 Jan 30; 22(1). PMID: 31992335    Free PMC article.
Simultaneous Multi-Organ Metastases from Chemo-Resistant Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Are Prevented by Interfering with WNT-Signaling.
Iram Fatima, Ikbale El-Ayachi, +13 authors, Gustavo A Miranda-Carboni.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Dec 22; 11(12). PMID: 31861131    Free PMC article.
Outcomes after Treatment of Metaplastic Versus Other Breast Cancer Subtypes.
Amy C Moreno, Yan Heather Lin, +3 authors, Simona F Shaitelman.
J Cancer, 2020 Feb 13; 11(6). PMID: 32047541    Free PMC article.
Protective Innate Immune Variants in Racial/Ethnic Disparities of Breast and Prostate Cancer.
Susan T Yeyeodu, LaCreis R Kidd, K Sean Kimbro.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2019 Sep 05; 7(9). PMID: 31481520    Free PMC article.
Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding, topoisomerase inhibition, and apoptosis induction studies of a novel cobalt(III) complex with a thiosemicarbazone ligand.
Stephen J Beebe, Michael J Celestine, +14 authors, Alvin A Holder.
J Inorg Biochem, 2019 Nov 13; 203. PMID: 31715377    Free PMC article.
Quadruple-Negative Breast Cancer: An Uneven Playing Field.
Geetanjali Saini, Shristi Bhattarai, Keerthi Gogineni, Ritu Aneja.
JCO Glob Oncol, 2020 Feb 20; 6. PMID: 32073910    Free PMC article.
Disulfiram and BKM120 in Combination with Chemotherapy Impede Tumor Progression and Delay Tumor Recurrence in Tumor Initiating Cell-Rich TNBC.
Ling Wu, Fanyan Meng, +9 authors, Guojun Wu.
Sci Rep, 2019 Jan 20; 9(1). PMID: 30659204    Free PMC article.
Obesity-induced MBD2_v2 expression promotes tumor-initiating triple-negative breast cancer stem cells.
Emily A Teslow, Cristina Mitrea, +5 authors, Aliccia Bollig-Fischer.
Mol Oncol, 2019 Jan 13; 13(4). PMID: 30636104    Free PMC article.
Elevated leptin disrupts epithelial polarity and promotes premalignant alterations in the mammary gland.
Iliana Tenvooren, Mónica Z Jenks, +13 authors, Pierre-Alexandre Vidi.
Oncogene, 2019 Jan 24; 38(20). PMID: 30670780    Free PMC article.
Racial Differences in Time to Breast Cancer Surgery and Overall Survival in the US Military Health System.
Yvonne L Eaglehouse, Matthew W Georg, Craig D Shriver, Kangmin Zhu.
JAMA Surg, 2019 Jan 24; 154(3). PMID: 30673075    Free PMC article.
Integrating Germline and Somatic Mutation Information for the Discovery of Biomarkers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Jiande Wu, Tarun Karthik Kumar Mamidi, Lu Zhang, Chindo Hicks.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2019 Mar 27; 16(6). PMID: 30909550    Free PMC article.
Associations between breast cancer subtype and neighborhood socioeconomic and racial composition among Black and White women.
Erin Linnenbringer, Arline T Geronimus, +3 authors, Scarlett L Gomez.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2020 Feb 01; 180(2). PMID: 32002766    Free PMC article.
Disparities in Obesity, Physical Activity Rates, and Breast Cancer Survival.
M E Ford, G Magwood, +7 authors, D P Turner.
Adv Cancer Res, 2017 Jan 06; 133. PMID: 28052820    Free PMC article.
Immune microenvironment of triple-negative breast cancer in African-American and Caucasian women.
Tess O'Meara, Anton Safonov, +5 authors, Lajos Pusztai.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2019 Feb 07; 175(1). PMID: 30725384    Free PMC article.
Translating new science into the community to promote opportunities for breast and cervical cancer prevention among African American women.
Elisa M Rodriguez, Lina Jandorf, +6 authors, Deborah O Erwin.
Health Expect, 2019 Dec 05; 23(2). PMID: 31800158    Free PMC article.
Greater Survival Improvement in African American vs. Caucasian Women with Hormone Negative Breast Cancer.
Robert Wieder, Basit Shafiq, Nabil Adam.
J Cancer, 2020 Apr 01; 11(10). PMID: 32226499    Free PMC article.
Cellular, transcriptomic and isoform heterogeneity of breast cancer cell line revealed by full-length single-cell RNA sequencing.
Shaocheng Wu, Hongjiu Zhang, +6 authors, Yuanfang Guan.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J, 2020 Apr 08; 18. PMID: 32257051    Free PMC article.
ANXA2 expression in African American triple-negative breast cancer patients.
Lee D Gibbs, Pankaj Chaudhary, +3 authors, Jamboor K Vishwanatha.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2018 Nov 28; 174(1). PMID: 30478786    Free PMC article.
Next generation sequencing-based gene panel tests for the management of solid tumors.
Masayuki Nagahashi, Yoshifumi Shimada, +4 authors, Toshifumi Wakai.
Cancer Sci, 2018 Oct 20; 110(1). PMID: 30338623    Free PMC article.
Flavonoids and Other Polyphenols Act as Epigenetic Modifiers in Breast Cancer.
Priyanga Selvakumar, Aja Badgeley, +4 authors, Ashakumary Lakshmikuttyamma.
Nutrients, 2020 Mar 19; 12(3). PMID: 32183060    Free PMC article.
Racial Disparities in Breast Cancer Outcomes in the Metropolitan Atlanta Area: New Insights and Approaches for Health Equity.
Lindsay J Collin, Renjian Jiang, +10 authors, Lauren E McCullough.
JNCI Cancer Spectr, 2020 Apr 25; 3(3). PMID: 32328557    Free PMC article.
Breast cancer in low-middle income countries: abnormality in splicing and lack of targeted treatment options.
Flavia Zita Francies, Rodney Hull, Richard Khanyile, Zodwa Dlamini.
Am J Cancer Res, 2020 Jun 09; 10(5). PMID: 32509398    Free PMC article.
Actionable gene alterations in an Asian population with triple-negative breast cancer.
Masayuki Nagahashi, YiWei Ling, +20 authors, Toshifumi Wakai.
JCO Precis Oncol, 2018 Jan 01; 2. PMID: 32529167    Free PMC article.
Identification of Distinct Heterogenic Subtypes and Molecular Signatures Associated with African Ancestry in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Using Quantified Genetic Ancestry Models in Admixed Race Populations.
Melissa Davis, Rachel Martini, +15 authors, Clayton Yates.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 May 18; 12(5). PMID: 32414099    Free PMC article.
African American mothers' attitudes towards genetic testing in the InterGEN study.
Michelle L Wright, Kevin Newhall, Veronica Barcelona, Jacquelyn Y Taylor.
J Community Genet, 2019 Dec 08; 11(3). PMID: 31811592    Free PMC article.
Somatic mutations of triple-negative breast cancer: a comparison between Black and White women.
Angela R Omilian, Lei Wei, +5 authors, Song Yao.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2020 May 23; 182(2). PMID: 32441016    Free PMC article.
Unraveling the Genomic-Epigenomic Interaction Landscape in Triple Negative and Non-Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Jiande Wu, Tarun Karthik Kumar Mamidi, Lu Zhang, Chindo Hicks.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jun 18; 12(6). PMID: 32545594    Free PMC article.
Delineation of the Germline and Somatic Mutation Interaction Landscape in Triple-Negative and Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Jiande Wu, Tarun K K Mamidi, Lu Zhang, Chindo Hicks.
Int J Genomics, 2020 Jul 30; 2020. PMID: 32724790    Free PMC article.
Ethnicity and insurance status predict metastatic disease presentation in prostate, breast, and non-small cell lung cancer.
Nima Aghdam, Mary McGunigal, +6 authors, Keith R Unger.
Cancer Med, 2020 Jun 09; 9(15). PMID: 32511873    Free PMC article.
Black Lives Matter Worldwide: Retooling Precision Oncology for True Equity of Cancer Care.
Padma Sheila Rajagopal, Olufunmilayo I Olopade.
Cell Rep Med, 2020 Aug 31; 1(5). PMID: 32864637    Free PMC article.
Molecular and Cellular Factors Associated with Racial Disparity in Breast Cancer.
Manish Charan, Ajeet K Verma, +6 authors, Ramesh K Ganju.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Aug 23; 21(16). PMID: 32824813    Free PMC article.
Hispanic/Latino Patients with Gastric Adenocarcinoma Have Distinct Molecular Profiles Including a High Rate of Germline CDH1 Variants.
Sam C Wang, Yunku Yeu, +14 authors, Matthew R Porembka.
Cancer Res, 2020 Apr 10; 80(11). PMID: 32269045    Free PMC article.
Racial Disparity and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in African-American Women: A Multifaceted Affair between Obesity, Biology, and Socioeconomic Determinants.
Sumit Siddharth, Dipali Sharma.
Cancers (Basel), 2018 Dec 19; 10(12). PMID: 30558195    Free PMC article.
LXR/RXR pathway signaling associated with triple-negative breast cancer in African American women.
Odalys Torres-Luquis, Krystal Madden, +7 authors, Sulma I Mohammed.
Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press), 2018 Dec 28; 11. PMID: 30588086    Free PMC article.
Neighborhood Social Determinants of Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Fokhrul Hossain, Denise Danos, +8 authors, Richard Scribner.
Front Public Health, 2019 Mar 06; 7. PMID: 30834239    Free PMC article.
Genetic alterations of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in women from Northeastern Mexico.
Grecia I Uscanga-Perales, Sandra K Santuario-Facio, +13 authors, Rocio Ortiz-Lopez.
Oncol Lett, 2019 Mar 15; 17(3). PMID: 30867801    Free PMC article.
Triple Negative Breast Cancer Profile, from Gene to microRNA, in Relation to Ethnicity.
Ishita Gupta, Rasha M Sareyeldin, +4 authors, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Mar 16; 11(3). PMID: 30871273    Free PMC article.
Body fatness and mTOR pathway activation of breast cancer in the Women's Circle of Health Study.
Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Angela R Omilian, +12 authors, Christine B Ambrosone.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2020 Oct 08; 6. PMID: 33024820    Free PMC article.
Perspectives on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Current Treatment Strategies, Unmet Needs, and Potential Targets for Future Therapies.
Gagan K Gupta, Amber L Collier, +13 authors, Amy H Tang.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Aug 28; 12(9). PMID: 32846967    Free PMC article.
Genetic factors associated with cancer racial disparity - an integrative study across twenty-one cancer types.
Yan Li, Xiaodong Pang, +9 authors, Jinfeng Zhang.
Mol Oncol, 2020 Sep 14;. PMID: 32920960    Free PMC article.
Comparing the Role of the p53 Gene and Telomerase Enzyme in 'Accelerated Aging Due to Cancer': A Literature Review.
Paramvijay Singh Dhalla, Arunima Kaul, +4 authors, Safeera Khan.
Cureus, 2020 Nov 10; 12(10). PMID: 33163298    Free PMC article.