Review
. 2015 Mar;14(2).
doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70264-9.

Clinical trials in progressive multiple sclerosis: lessons learned and future perspectives

Daniel Ontaneda 1 Robert J Fox 2 Jeremy Chataway 3 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 25772899
  •     141 References
  •     64 citations

Abstract

Progressive multiple sclerosis is characterised clinically by the gradual accrual of disability independent of relapses and can occur with disease onset (primary progressive) or can be preceded by a relapsing disease course (secondary progressive). An effective disease-modifying treatment for progressive multiple sclerosis has not yet been identified, and so far the results of clinical trials have generally been disappointing. Ongoing advances in the knowledge of pathogenesis, in the identification of novel targets for neuroprotection, and in improved outcome measures could lead to effective treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis. In this Series paper, we summarise the lessons learned from completed clinical trials and perspectives from trials in progress in progressive multiple sclerosis. We review promising clinical, imaging, and biological markers, along with novel designs, for clinical trials. The use of more refined outcomes and truly neuroprotective drugs, coupled with more efficient trial design, has the capacity to deliver a new era of therapeutic discovery in this challenging area.

Pathological study of spinal cord atrophy in multiple sclerosis suggests limited role of local lesions.
N Evangelou, G C DeLuca, T Owens, M M Esiri.
Brain, 2004 Nov 19; 128(Pt 1). PMID: 15548559
Visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis correlates better with optical coherence tomography derived estimates of macular ganglion cell layer thickness than peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness.
Shiv Saidha, Stephanie B Syc, +9 authors, Peter A Calabresi.
Mult Scler, 2011 Aug 26; 17(12). PMID: 21865411
Highly Cited.
Evaluating storage, retention, and retrieval in disordered memory and learning.
H Buschke, P A Fuld.
Neurology, 1974 Nov 01; 24(11). PMID: 4473151
Highly Cited.
Interferon beta-1b in secondary progressive MS: results from a 3-year controlled study.
Hillel Panitch, Aaron Miller, +2 authors, North American Study Group on Interferon beta-1b in Secondary Progressive MS.
Neurology, 2004 Nov 24; 63(10). PMID: 15557491
Heightened intrathecal release of axonal cytoskeletal proteins in multiple sclerosis is associated with progressive disease and clinical disability.
Y K Semra, O A Seidi, M K Sharief.
J Neuroimmunol, 2002 Jan 05; 122(1-2). PMID: 11777552
Multiple sclerosis therapeutics: unexpected outcomes clouding undisputed successes.
Heinz Wiendl, Reinhard Hohlfeld.
Neurology, 2009 Mar 18; 72(11). PMID: 19289741
Review.
Interferon beta for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Loredana La Mantia, Laura Vacchi, +4 authors, Graziella Filippini.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012 Jan 20; 1. PMID: 22258960
Systematic Review.
Axonal damage in relapsing multiple sclerosis is markedly reduced by natalizumab.
Martin Gunnarsson, Clas Malmeström, +9 authors, Jan Lycke.
Ann Neurol, 2011 Feb 01; 69(1). PMID: 21280078
Highly Cited.
Glial fibrillary acidic protein: a potential biomarker for progression in multiple sclerosis.
M Axelsson, C Malmeström, +3 authors, J Lycke.
J Neurol, 2011 Jan 05; 258(5). PMID: 21197541
Efficacy and toxicity of cyclosporine in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The Multiple Sclerosis Study Group.
Ann Neurol, 1990 Jun 01; 27(6). PMID: 2193613
Multicentre, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, phase III study of weekly, low dose, subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
O Andersen, I Elovaara, +5 authors, P Soelberg Sørensen.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2004 Apr 20; 75(5). PMID: 15090564    Free PMC article.
Gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study.
Elizabeth Fisher, Jar-Chi Lee, Kunio Nakamura, Richard A Rudick.
Ann Neurol, 2008 Jul 29; 64(3). PMID: 18661561
Highly Cited.
Mitoxantrone in progressive multiple sclerosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised, multicentre trial.
Hans-Peter Hartung, Richard Gonsette, +6 authors, Mitoxantrone in Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (MIMS).
Lancet, 2002 Dec 31; 360(9350). PMID: 12504397
Highly Cited.
The Canadian cooperative trial of cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange in progressive multiple sclerosis. The Canadian Cooperative Multiple Sclerosis Study Group.
Lancet, 1991 Feb 23; 337(8739). PMID: 1671468
Paced auditory serial-addition task: a measure of recovery from concussion.
D M Gronwall.
Percept Mot Skills, 1977 Apr 01; 44(2). PMID: 866038
Highly Cited.
A double-blind controlled pilot study of plasma exchange versus sham apheresis in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis.
P A Gordon, D J Carroll, +5 authors, K G Warren.
Can J Neurol Sci, 1985 Feb 01; 12(1). PMID: 3884114
Intravenous immunoglobulin in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Otto R Hommes, Per S Sørensen, +5 authors, Paul O'Connor.
Lancet, 2004 Sep 29; 364(9440). PMID: 15451222
Reliability and equivalence of alternate forms for the Symbol Digit Modalities Test: implications for multiple sclerosis clinical trials.
Ralph H B Benedict, Audrey Smerbeck, +3 authors, David Erlanger.
Mult Scler, 2012 Jan 27; 18(9). PMID: 22277740
Rituximab in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis: results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter trial.
Kathleen Hawker, Paul O'Connor, +11 authors, OLYMPUS trial group.
Ann Neurol, 2009 Oct 23; 66(4). PMID: 19847908
Highly Cited.
Repeated assessment of neuropsychological deficits in multiple sclerosis using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the MS Neuropsychological Screening Questionnaire.
R H B Benedict, J A Duquin, +5 authors, B Weinstock-Guttman.
Mult Scler, 2008 Jun 25; 14(7). PMID: 18573822
Observer disagreement in rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: facts and consequences.
M H Verdier-Taillefer, M Zuber, +4 authors, A Alpérovitch.
Eur Neurol, 1991 Jan 01; 31(2). PMID: 2044616
Cladribine in treatment of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis.
J C Sipe, J S Romine, +3 authors, E Beutler.
Lancet, 1994 Jul 02; 344(8914). PMID: 7912347
Clinical and psychometrical study of a patient with memory disturbances.
J Barbizet, E Cany.
Int J Neurol, 1968 Jan 01; 7(1). PMID: 5730403
Interrater variability with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Functional Systems (FS) in a multiple sclerosis clinical trial. The Canadian Cooperation MS Study Group.
J H Noseworthy, M K Vandervoort, C J Wong, G C Ebers.
Neurology, 1990 Jun 01; 40(6). PMID: 2189084
Integration of cognitive impairment in the expanded disability status scale of 215 patients with multiple sclerosis.
Hélène Brissart, Mathilde Sauvée, +2 authors, Marc Debouverie.
Eur Neurol, 2010 Nov 13; 64(6). PMID: 21071951
Quantitative MRI in patients with secondary progressive MS treated with monoclonal antibody Campath 1H.
A Paolillo, A J Coles, +5 authors, D H Miller.
Neurology, 1999 Sep 17; 53(4). PMID: 10489036
Adaptive design methods in clinical trials - a review.
Shein-Chung Chow, Mark Chang.
Orphanet J Rare Dis, 2008 May 06; 3. PMID: 18454853    Free PMC article.
Review.
Lamotrigine for neuroprotection in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.
Raju Kapoor, Julian Furby, +6 authors, David H Miller.
Lancet Neurol, 2010 Jul 14; 9(7). PMID: 20621711
Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium: Genesis and initial project plan.
Richard A Rudick, Nicholas Larocca, Lynn D Hudson, MSOAC.
Mult Scler, 2013 Sep 24; 20(1). PMID: 24057430
Review.
Association of neocortical volume changes with cognitive deterioration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Maria Pia Amato, Emilio Portaccio, +9 authors, Nicola De Stefano.
Arch Neurol, 2007 Aug 19; 64(8). PMID: 17698706
A comparative study of CSF neurofilament light and heavy chain protein in MS.
Jens Kuhle, Kim Plattner, +8 authors, Ludwig Kappos.
Mult Scler, 2013 Mar 27; 19(12). PMID: 23529999
Tobacco smoking and disability progression in multiple sclerosis: United Kingdom cohort study.
Ali Manouchehrinia, Christopher R Tench, +3 authors, Cris S Constantinescu.
Brain, 2013 Jun 13; 136(Pt 7). PMID: 23757766    Free PMC article.
Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.
James T Reston, Stacey Uhl, +2 authors, Karen Schoelles.
Mult Scler, 2010 Oct 06; 17(2). PMID: 20921236
Systematic Review.
Should SDMT substitute for PASAT in MSFC? A 5-year longitudinal study.
B Brochet, M S A Deloire, +4 authors, V Dousset.
Mult Scler, 2008 Jul 26; 14(9). PMID: 18653737
A placebo-controlled trial of oral fingolimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis.
Ludwig Kappos, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, +9 authors, FREEDOMS Study Group.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Jan 22; 362(5). PMID: 20089952
Highly Cited.
Clinical impact of 20% worsening on Timed 25-foot Walk and 9-hole Peg Test in multiple sclerosis.
J J Kragt, F A H van der Linden, +2 authors, C H Polman.
Mult Scler, 2006 Nov 08; 12(5). PMID: 17086905
Clinical and imaging correlates of the multiple sclerosis impact scale in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
T Hayton, J Furby, +7 authors, R Kapoor.
J Neurol, 2011 Aug 25; 259(2). PMID: 21863390
Clinical consequences of MRI activity in treated multiple sclerosis.
Diego Cadavid, Soyeon Kim, +5 authors, Stuart D Cook.
Mult Scler, 2011 May 27; 17(9). PMID: 21613336
Cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis.
Laura J Julian.
Neurol Clin, 2011 Mar 29; 29(2). PMID: 21439456
Review.
The Mayo Clinic-Canadian Cooperative trial of sulfasalazine in active multiple sclerosis.
J H Noseworthy, P O'Brien, +12 authors, E Shuster.
Neurology, 1998 Nov 18; 51(5). PMID: 9818858
Sensitivity of conventional memory tests in multiple sclerosis: comparing the Rao Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery and the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS.
L Strober, J Englert, +3 authors, R H B Benedict.
Mult Scler, 2009 Jun 27; 15(9). PMID: 19556311
Intravenous immunoglobulin in primary and secondary chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a randomized placebo controlled multicentre study.
D Pöhlau, H Przuntek, +6 authors, I Andresen.
Mult Scler, 2007 Jul 12; 13(9). PMID: 17623736
Sample sizes for brain atrophy outcomes in trials for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
D R Altmann, B Jasperse, +10 authors, D H Miller.
Neurology, 2008 Nov 14; 72(7). PMID: 19005170    Free PMC article.
Cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis: combined postmortem MR imaging and histopathology.
Jeroen J G Geurts, Lars Bö, +3 authors, Frederik Barkhof.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2005 Mar 12; 26(3). PMID: 15760868
Evaluating multiple treatment courses in clinical trials.
P F Thall, R E Millikan, H G Sung.
Stat Med, 2000 May 03; 19(8). PMID: 10790677
The longitudinal relationship between the patient-reported Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale and the clinician-assessed Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite.
L Costelloe, K O'Rourke, +3 authors, M Hutchinson.
Mult Scler, 2007 Oct 19; 14(2). PMID: 17942522
Contrast letter acuity as a visual component for the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite.
L J Balcer, M L Baier, +15 authors, G R Cutter.
Neurology, 2003 Nov 26; 61(10). PMID: 14638957
Randomized, comparative study of interferon beta-1a treatment regimens in MS: The EVIDENCE Trial.
H Panitch, D S Goodin, +8 authors, University of British Columbia MS/MRI Research Group.
Neurology, 2002 Nov 27; 59(10). PMID: 12451188
Highly Cited.
Correlations between multiple sclerosis functional composite, expanded disability status scale and health-related quality of life during and after treatment of relapses in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Serkan Ozakbas, Inanc Cagiran, Burcu Ormeci, Egemen Idiman.
J Neurol Sci, 2004 Feb 05; 218(1-2). PMID: 14759626
Responsiveness and predictive value of EDSS and MSFC in primary progressive MS.
J J Kragt, A J Thompson, +4 authors, B M J Uitdehaag.
Neurology, 2008 Jan 11; 70(13 Pt 2). PMID: 18184917
Glatiramer acetate in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: results of a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Jerry S Wolinsky, Ponnada A Narayana, +8 authors, PROMiSe Trial Study Group.
Ann Neurol, 2007 Jan 31; 61(1). PMID: 17262850
Transected neurites, apoptotic neurons, and reduced inflammation in cortical multiple sclerosis lesions.
J W Peterson, L Bö, +2 authors, B D Trapp.
Ann Neurol, 2001 Sep 18; 50(3). PMID: 11558796
Highly Cited.
A validation study of multicenter diffusion tensor imaging: reliability of fractional anisotropy and diffusivity values.
R J Fox, K Sakaie, +8 authors, E Fisher.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2011 Dec 17; 33(4). PMID: 22173748    Free PMC article.
Measuring myelin repair and axonal loss with diffusion tensor imaging.
R J Fox, T Cronin, +6 authors, M D Phillips.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2010 Oct 16; 32(1). PMID: 20947644    Free PMC article.
Adaptive designs for clinical trials assessing biomarker-guided treatment strategies.
J Wason, A Marshall, +2 authors, N Stallard.
Br J Cancer, 2014 Mar 29; 110(8). PMID: 24667651    Free PMC article.
Effect of dronabinol on progression in progressive multiple sclerosis (CUPID): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
John Zajicek, Susan Ball, +8 authors, CUPID investigator group.
Lancet Neurol, 2013 Jul 17; 12(9). PMID: 23856559    Free PMC article.
Review.
Comparing long-term results of PASAT and SDMT scores in relation to neuropsychological testing in multiple sclerosis.
Judith M Sonder, Jessica Burggraaff, +2 authors, Bernard M J Uitdehaag.
Mult Scler, 2013 Sep 11; 20(4). PMID: 24019305
Revisiting the multiple sclerosis functional composite: proceedings from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS) Task Force on Clinical Disability Measures.
D Ontaneda, N LaRocca, +2 authors, NMSS MSFC Task Force.
Mult Scler, 2012 Jun 29; 18(8). PMID: 22740488
Acute axonal damage in multiple sclerosis is most extensive in early disease stages and decreases over time.
Tanja Kuhlmann, Gueanelle Lingfeld, +2 authors, Wolfgang Brück.
Brain, 2002 Sep 24; 125(Pt 10). PMID: 12244078
Highly Cited.
Designing a seamless phase II/III clinical trial using early outcomes for treatment selection: an application in multiple sclerosis.
T Friede, N Parsons, +4 authors, R Nicholas.
Stat Med, 2011 Feb 23; 30(13). PMID: 21341301
The Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests for Multiple Sclerosis: a preliminary serial study.
C T Bever, L Grattan, H S Panitch, K P Johnson.
Mult Scler, 1995 Nov 01; 1(3). PMID: 9345448
Adaptive group sequential designs for clinical trials: combining the advantages of adaptive and of classical group sequential approaches.
H H Müller, H Schäfer.
Biometrics, 2001 Sep 12; 57(3). PMID: 11550941
FreeSurfer.
Bruce Fischl.
Neuroimage, 2012 Jan 18; 62(2). PMID: 22248573    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Benefit of interferon beta-1a on MSFC progression in secondary progressive MS.
J A Cohen, G R Cutter, +10 authors, IMPACT Investigators.
Neurology, 2002 Sep 11; 59(5). PMID: 12221157
CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials.
Kenneth F Schulz, Douglas G Altman, David Moher, CONSORT Group.
Trials, 2010 Mar 26; 11. PMID: 20334632    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Jacobian integration method increases the statistical power to measure gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.
Kunio Nakamura, Nicolas Guizard, +3 authors, Douglas L Arnold.
Neuroimage Clin, 2013 Nov 23; 4. PMID: 24266007    Free PMC article.
Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: the 2013 revisions.
Fred D Lublin, Stephen C Reingold, +29 authors, Chris H Polman.
Neurology, 2014 May 30; 83(3). PMID: 24871874    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A phase III study evaluating the efficacy and safety of MBP8298 in secondary progressive MS.
M S Freedman, A Bar-Or, +10 authors, MAESTRO-01 Investigators.
Neurology, 2011 Oct 07; 77(16). PMID: 21975206
Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): international standards for validation.
Ralph H B Benedict, Maria Pia Amato, +9 authors, Dawn Langdon.
BMC Neurol, 2012 Jul 18; 12. PMID: 22799620    Free PMC article.
Concurrent validity of the MS Functional Composite using MRI as a biological disease marker.
N F Kalkers, L Bergers, +5 authors, F Barkhof.
Neurology, 2001 Feb 13; 56(2). PMID: 11160958
Optical coherence tomography: a window into the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis.
Elliot M Frohman, James G Fujimoto, +3 authors, Laura J Balcer.
Nat Clin Pract Neurol, 2008 Dec 02; 4(12). PMID: 19043423    Free PMC article.
Review.
Optimal reference population for the multiple sclerosis functional composite.
R J Fox, J-C Lee, R A Rudick.
Mult Scler, 2007 May 01; 13(7). PMID: 17468446
Treatment of multiple sclerosis with the monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody cM-T412: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, MR-monitored phase II trial.
B W van Oosten, M Lai, +9 authors, C H Polman.
Neurology, 1997 Aug 01; 49(2). PMID: 9270561
Tracking changes over time in retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness in multiple sclerosis.
Divya Narayanan, Han Cheng, +3 authors, Laura J Frishman.
Mult Scler, 2014 Mar 19; 20(10). PMID: 24639478    Free PMC article.
Randomized controlled trial of interferon- beta-1a in secondary progressive MS: Clinical results.
Secondary Progressive Efficacy Clinical Trial of Recombinant Interferon-Beta-1a in MS (SPECTRIMS) Study Group.
Neurology, 2001 Jun 13; 56(11). PMID: 11402106
The measurement and clinical relevance of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis.
Robert A Bermel, Rohit Bakshi.
Lancet Neurol, 2006 Jan 24; 5(2). PMID: 16426992
Highly Cited. Review.
Short-term evolution of spinal cord damage in multiple sclerosis: a diffusion tensor MRI study.
M Théaudin, G Saliou, +4 authors, D Ducreux.
Neuroradiology, 2012 Jun 27; 54(10). PMID: 22732908
Neurofilament light protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein as biological markers in MS.
C Malmeström, S Haghighi, +2 authors, J Lycke.
Neurology, 2003 Dec 25; 61(12). PMID: 14694036
Treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: current approaches and unmet needs.
Aaron E Miller, Robert W Rhoades.
Curr Opin Neurol, 2012 Mar 14; 25 Suppl. PMID: 22398662
Review.
Azathioprine for multiple sclerosis.
I Casetta, G Iuliano, G Filippini.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2007 Oct 19; (4). PMID: 17943809    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis.
Massimiliano Calabrese, Massimo Filippi, Paolo Gallo.
Nat Rev Neurol, 2010 Jul 14; 6(8). PMID: 20625376
Review.
Development of a multiple sclerosis functional composite as a clinical trial outcome measure.
G R Cutter, M L Baier, +14 authors, E Willoughby.
Brain, 1999 Jun 04; 122 ( Pt 5). PMID: 10355672
Highly Cited.
Subpial demyelination in the cerebral cortex of multiple sclerosis patients.
Lars Bø, Christian A Vedeler, +2 authors, Sverre J Mørk.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 2003 Aug 07; 62(7). PMID: 12901699
Highly Cited.
Assessing disability progression with the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite.
R A Rudick, C H Polman, +11 authors, A W Sandrock.
Mult Scler, 2009 Aug 12; 15(8). PMID: 19667023
MRI monitoring of immunomodulation in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis trials.
Frederik Barkhof, Jack H Simon, +12 authors, Massimo Filippi.
Nat Rev Neurol, 2011 Dec 07; 8(1). PMID: 22143362
Review.
Targeting ASIC1 in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: evidence of neuroprotection with amiloride.
Tarunya Arun, Valentina Tomassini, +11 authors, Jacqueline Palace.
Brain, 2013 Feb 01; 136(Pt 1). PMID: 23365093
Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging in postmortem multiple sclerosis brain.
Klaus Schmierer, Daniel J Tozer, +4 authors, David H Miller.
J Magn Reson Imaging, 2007 Jul 31; 26(1). PMID: 17659567    Free PMC article.
Linomide in relapsing and secondary progressive MS: part I: trial design and clinical results. North American Linomide Investigators.
J H Noseworthy, J S Wolinsky, +4 authors, H C Sullivan.
Neurology, 2000 May 10; 54(9). PMID: 10802775
Recommendations from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society Clinical Outcomes Assessment Task Force.
R Rudick, J Antel, +13 authors, E Willoughby.
Ann Neurol, 1997 Oct 23; 42(3). PMID: 9307263
Double-masked trial of azathioprine in multiple sclerosis. British and Dutch Multiple Sclerosis Azathioprine Trial Group.
Lancet, 1988 Jul 23; 2(8604). PMID: 2899660
Grey matter magnetization transfer ratio independently correlates with neurological deficit in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
T Hayton, J Furby, +8 authors, R Kapoor.
J Neurol, 2009 Mar 10; 256(3). PMID: 19271108
Kurtzke scales revisited: the application of psychometric methods to clinical intuition.
J Hobart, J Freeman, A Thompson.
Brain, 2000 Apr 25; 123 ( Pt 5). PMID: 10775547
A novel adaptive design strategy increases the efficiency of clinical trials in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Jeremy Chataway, Richard Nicholas, +5 authors, Tim Friede.
Mult Scler, 2010 Aug 28; 17(1). PMID: 20798135
Vitamin D as an early predictor of multiple sclerosis activity and progression.
Alberto Ascherio, Kassandra L Munger, +14 authors, Christoph Pohl.
JAMA Neurol, 2014 Jan 22; 71(3). PMID: 24445558    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Assessing upper limb function in multiple sclerosis.
Ilse Lamers, Peter Feys.
Mult Scler, 2014 Mar 26; 20(7). PMID: 24664300
Review.
Brain atrophy and lesion load in a large population of patients with multiple sclerosis.
G Tedeschi, L Lavorgna, +24 authors, B Alfano.
Neurology, 2005 Jul 27; 65(2). PMID: 16043800
The relevance of animal models in multiple sclerosis research.
Aleksandar Denic, Aaron J Johnson, +3 authors, Istvan Pirko.
Pathophysiology, 2010 Jun 12; 18(1). PMID: 20537877    Free PMC article.
Placebo-controlled multicentre randomised trial of interferon beta-1b in treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. European Study Group on interferon beta-1b in secondary progressive MS.
Lancet, 1998 Nov 20; 352(9139). PMID: 9820296
Highly Cited.
The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation as a treatment for multiple sclerosis: consensus report of the International MSCT Study Group.
Mark S Freedman, Amit Bar-Or, +8 authors, MSCT Study Group.
Mult Scler, 2010 Jan 21; 16(4). PMID: 20086020
Longitudinal changes in magnetisation transfer ratio in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: data from a randomised placebo controlled trial of lamotrigine.
T Hayton, J Furby, +7 authors, R Kapoor.
J Neurol, 2011 Sep 10; 259(3). PMID: 21904901
Outcomes assessment in multiple sclerosis clinical trials: a critical analysis.
J N Whitaker, H F McFarland, P Rudge, S C Reingold.
Mult Scler, 1995 Apr 01; 1(1). PMID: 9345468
Tract-specific quantitative MRI better correlates with disability than conventional MRI in multiple sclerosis.
Daniel M Harrison, Navid Shiee, +5 authors, Daniel S Reich.
J Neurol, 2012 Aug 14; 260(2). PMID: 22886062    Free PMC article.
Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS).
J F Kurtzke.
Neurology, 1983 Nov 01; 33(11). PMID: 6685237
Highly Cited.
Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Axel Petzold, Johannes F de Boer, +5 authors, Chris Polman.
Lancet Neurol, 2010 Aug 21; 9(9). PMID: 20723847
Highly Cited. Systematic Review.
Assessing brain atrophy rates in a large population of untreated multiple sclerosis subtypes.
N De Stefano, A Giorgio, +16 authors, M Filippi.
Neurology, 2010 Jun 10; 74(23). PMID: 20530323
The window of therapeutic opportunity in multiple sclerosis: evidence from monoclonal antibody therapy.
Alasdair J Coles, Amanda Cox, +8 authors, D Alastair Compston.
J Neurol, 2005 Jul 27; 253(1). PMID: 16044212
Highly Cited.
Clinical significance of the multiple sclerosis functional composite: relationship to patient-reported quality of life.
D M Miller, R A Rudick, +2 authors, J S Fischer.
Arch Neurol, 2000 Sep 15; 57(9). PMID: 10987899
Axonal transection in the lesions of multiple sclerosis.
B D Trapp, J Peterson, +3 authors, L Bö.
N Engl J Med, 1998 Jan 29; 338(5). PMID: 9445407
Highly Cited.
Neurofilament light and heavy subunits compared as therapeutic biomarkers in multiple sclerosis.
J Kuhle, C Malmeström, +6 authors, J Lycke.
Acta Neurol Scand, 2013 Jun 15; 128(6). PMID: 23763388
Brain atrophy in relapsing multiple sclerosis: relationship to relapses, EDSS, and treatment with interferon beta-1a.
R A Rudick, E Fisher, +2 authors, J Simon.
Mult Scler, 2001 Feb 24; 6(6). PMID: 11212130
Multiparametric MRI correlates of sensorimotor function in the spinal cord in multiple sclerosis.
Jiwon Oh, Kathleen Zackowski, +9 authors, Daniel S Reich.
Mult Scler, 2012 Aug 15; 19(4). PMID: 22891033    Free PMC article.
Comparison of fingolimod with interferon beta-1a in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised extension of the TRANSFORMS study.
Bhupendra Khatri, Frederik Barkhof, +11 authors, TRANSFORMS Study Group.
Lancet Neurol, 2011 May 17; 10(6). PMID: 21571593
Multiple sclerosis: an immune or neurodegenerative disorder?
Bruce D Trapp, Klaus-Armin Nave.
Annu Rev Neurosci, 2008 Jun 19; 31. PMID: 18558855
Highly Cited. Review.
Gray matter atrophy is related to long-term disability in multiple sclerosis.
Leonora K Fisniku, Declan T Chard, +5 authors, David H Miller.
Ann Neurol, 2008 Jun 24; 64(3). PMID: 18570297
Highly Cited.
Cladribine and progressive MS: clinical and MRI outcomes of a multicenter controlled trial. Cladribine MRI Study Group.
G P Rice, M Filippi, G Comi.
Neurology, 2000 Mar 17; 54(5). PMID: 10720289
Assessing tissue damage in multiple sclerosis: a biomarker approach.
J Burman, H Zetterberg, +3 authors, J Fagius.
Acta Neurol Scand, 2014 Feb 28; 130(2). PMID: 24571714
CLADA: cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm.
Kunio Nakamura, Robert Fox, Elizabeth Fisher.
Neuroimage, 2010 Aug 03; 54(1). PMID: 20674750    Free PMC article.
A magnetization transfer histogram study of normal-appearing brain tissue in MS.
C Tortorella, B Viti, +5 authors, M Filippi.
Neurology, 2000 Jan 15; 54(1). PMID: 10636146
Autologous mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: an open-label phase 2a proof-of-concept study.
Peter Connick, Madhan Kolappan, +11 authors, Siddharthan Chandran.
Lancet Neurol, 2012 Jan 13; 11(2). PMID: 22236384    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Adaptive trials in clinical research: scientific and ethical issues to consider.
Rieke van der Graaf, Kit C B Roes, Johannes J M van Delden.
JAMA, 2012 Jun 14; 307(22). PMID: 22692169
Macular volume determined by optical coherence tomography as a measure of neuronal loss in multiple sclerosis.
Bryn M Burkholder, Benjamin Osborne, +13 authors, Elliot M Frohman.
Arch Neurol, 2009 Nov 11; 66(11). PMID: 19901168
Cyclophosphamide for multiple sclerosis.
L La Mantia, C Milanese, +2 authors, B Weinstock-Guttman.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2007 Jan 27; (1). PMID: 17253481
Systematic Review.
Ibudilast in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a neuroprotectant?
F Barkhof, H E Hulst, +4 authors, MN166-001 Investigators.
Neurology, 2010 Mar 05; 74(13). PMID: 20200338
Effect of high-dose simvastatin on brain atrophy and disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS-STAT): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.
Jeremy Chataway, Nadine Schuerer, +14 authors, Richard Nicholas.
Lancet, 2014 Mar 25; 383(9936). PMID: 24655729
Highly Cited.
The Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29): a new patient-based outcome measure.
J Hobart, D Lamping, +2 authors, A Thompson.
Brain, 2001 May 04; 124(Pt 5). PMID: 11335698
Highly Cited.
Cortical surface-based analysis. I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction.
A M Dale, B Fischl, M I Sereno.
Neuroimage, 1999 Feb 05; 9(2). PMID: 9931268
Highly Cited.
Treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis with the immunomodulator linomide: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study with monthly magnetic resonance imaging evaluation.
D M Karussis, Z Meiner, +4 authors, O Abramsky.
Neurology, 1996 Aug 01; 47(2). PMID: 8757002
Markers for different glial cell responses in multiple sclerosis: clinical and pathological correlations.
A Petzold, M J Eikelenboom, +8 authors, G Giovannoni.
Brain, 2002 Jun 22; 125(Pt 7). PMID: 12076997
The multiple sclerosis functional composite: a new clinical outcome measure for multiple sderosis trials.
R A Rudick, G Cutter, S Reingold.
Mult Scler, 2002 Oct 03; 8(5). PMID: 12356200
Review.
Revisiting brain atrophy and its relationship to disability in multiple sclerosis.
Navid Shiee, Pierre-Louis Bazin, +8 authors, Daniel S Reich.
PLoS One, 2012 May 23; 7(5). PMID: 22615886    Free PMC article.
Comorbidity, socioeconomic status and multiple sclerosis.
Ra Marrie, R Horwitz, +3 authors, T Vollmer.
Mult Scler, 2008 Aug 30; 14(8). PMID: 18728060
Development of biomarkers for multiple sclerosis as a neurodegenerative disorder.
Ulf Ziemann, Mathias Wahl, Elke Hattingen, Hayrettin Tumani.
Prog Neurobiol, 2011 Apr 29; 95(4). PMID: 21524682
Review.
A comparison of health utility measures for the evaluation of multiple sclerosis treatments.
J D Fisk, M G Brown, +3 authors, K J Stadnyk.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2004 Dec 21; 76(1). PMID: 15607996    Free PMC article.
Intravenous synthetic peptide MBP8298 delayed disease progression in an HLA Class II-defined cohort of patients with progressive multiple sclerosis: results of a 24-month double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and 5 years of follow-up treatment.
K G Warren, I Catz, L Z Ferenczi, M J Krantz.
Eur J Neurol, 2006 Aug 02; 13(8). PMID: 16879301
More multiarm randomised trials of superiority are needed.
Mahesh K B Parmar, James Carpenter, Matthew R Sydes.
Lancet, 2014 Jul 30; 384(9940). PMID: 25066148
Outcome measures for multiple sclerosis clinical trials: relative measurement precision of the Expanded Disability Status Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite.
J Hobart, N Kalkers, +3 authors, A Thompson.
Mult Scler, 2004 Feb 06; 10(1). PMID: 14760951
Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, brain atrophy, and disability in multiple sclerosis patients.
Jose Manuel Abalo-Lojo, Carmen Carollo Limeres, +4 authors, Francisco Gonzalez.
J Neuroophthalmol, 2013 Oct 29; 34(1). PMID: 24162258
Longitudinal changes in diffusion tensor-based quantitative MRI in multiple sclerosis.
D M Harrison, B S Caffo, +6 authors, D S Reich.
Neurology, 2011 Jan 12; 76(2). PMID: 21220722    Free PMC article.
Relationship between brain atrophy and disability: an 8-year follow-up study of multiple sclerosis patients.
E Fisher, R A Rudick, +6 authors, N A Simonian.
Mult Scler, 2001 Feb 24; 6(6). PMID: 11212131
Differential diagnosis of suspected multiple sclerosis: a consensus approach.
D H Miller, B G Weinshenker, +15 authors, C H Polman.
Mult Scler, 2008 Sep 23; 14(9). PMID: 18805839    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Cortical atrophy is relevant in multiple sclerosis at clinical onset.
Massimiliano Calabrese, Matteo Atzori, +9 authors, Paolo Gallo.
J Neurol, 2007 Mar 16; 254(9). PMID: 17361339
Gaps Between Aims and Achievements in Therapeutic Modification of Neuronal Damage ("Neuroprotection").
Heinz Wiendl, Christian Elger, +4 authors, Stefan Schwab.
Neurotherapeutics, 2015 Mar 17; 12(2). PMID: 25773662    Free PMC article.
Review.
The immunogenetics of multiple sclerosis: A comprehensive review.
Jill A Hollenbach, Jorge R Oksenberg.
J Autoimmun, 2015 Jul 05; 64. PMID: 26142251    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Risk Mitigation Strategies for Adverse Reactions Associated with the Disease-Modifying Drugs in Multiple Sclerosis.
Adnan M Subei, Daniel Ontaneda.
CNS Drugs, 2015 Sep 27; 29(9). PMID: 26407624    Free PMC article.
Review.
Sharing data from MS clinical trials: Opportunities, challenges, and future directions.
Timothy Coetzee.
Mult Scler, 2015 Oct 07; 21(11). PMID: 26438302    Free PMC article.
Synaptopathy connects inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis.
Georgia Mandolesi, Antonietta Gentile, +6 authors, Diego Centonze.
Nat Rev Neurol, 2015 Nov 21; 11(12). PMID: 26585978
Review.
Brain and cord myelin water imaging: a progressive multiple sclerosis biomarker.
Shannon Kolind, Arshia Seddigh, +9 authors, Peter A Brex.
Neuroimage Clin, 2015 Nov 26; 9. PMID: 26594633    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic Advances and Future Prospects in Progressive Forms of Multiple Sclerosis.
Afsaneh Shirani, Darin T Okuda, Olaf Stüve.
Neurotherapeutics, 2016 Jan 06; 13(1). PMID: 26729332    Free PMC article.
Review.
Exploring potential mechanisms of action of natalizumab in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Finn Sellebjerg, Diego Cadavid, +3 authors, Daniel Mikol.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord, 2016 Jan 21; 9(1). PMID: 26788129    Free PMC article.
Review.
Multiple sclerosis: Fingolimod failure in progressive MS INFORMS future trials.
Andrew L Smith, Jeffrey A Cohen.
Nat Rev Neurol, 2016 Mar 30; 12(5). PMID: 27020561
Decision making under uncertainty, therapeutic inertia, and physicians' risk preferences in the management of multiple sclerosis (DIScUTIR MS).
Gustavo Saposnik, Angel Perez Sempere, +3 authors, Jorge Maurino.
BMC Neurol, 2016 May 06; 16. PMID: 27146451    Free PMC article.
Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: Definition and Measurement.
Domenico Plantone, Floriana De Angelis, Anisha Doshi, Jeremy Chataway.
CNS Drugs, 2016 May 12; 30(6). PMID: 27166830
Review.
Development of a Sensitive Outcome for Economical Drug Screening for Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Treatment.
Peter Kosa, Danish Ghazali, +11 authors, Bibiana Bielekova.
Front Neurol, 2016 Aug 31; 7. PMID: 27574516    Free PMC article.
Measuring Brain Tissue Integrity during 4 Years Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging.
D Ontaneda, K Sakaie, +4 authors, R J Fox.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2016 Sep 24; 38(1). PMID: 27659189    Free PMC article.
A Personalized Approach in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: The Current Status of Disease Modifying Therapies (DMTs) and Future Perspectives.
Emanuele D'Amico, Francesco Patti, Aurora Zanghì, Mario Zappia.
Int J Mol Sci, 2016 Oct 21; 17(10). PMID: 27763513    Free PMC article.
Review.
Free serum haemoglobin is associated with brain atrophy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Alex Lewin, Shea Hamilton, +4 authors, Charles R M Bangham.
Wellcome Open Res, 2016 Dec 21; 1. PMID: 27996064    Free PMC article.
Nogo-A Antibodies for Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
Benjamin V Ineichen, Patricia S Plattner, +3 authors, Martin E Schwab.
CNS Drugs, 2017 Jan 21; 31(3). PMID: 28105588
Review.
Pharmacological Approaches to the Management of Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
A Nandoskar, J Raffel, +2 authors, R S Nicholas.
Drugs, 2017 Apr 22; 77(8). PMID: 28429241
Review.
Cerebellar volume as imaging outcome in progressive multiple sclerosis.
Matilde Inglese, Maria Petracca, +8 authors, Maria Pia Sormani.
PLoS One, 2017 Apr 25; 12(4). PMID: 28437430    Free PMC article.
Volume versus surface-based cortical thickness measurements: A comparative study with healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients.
R Righart, P Schmidt, +8 authors, M Mühlau.
PLoS One, 2017 Jul 07; 12(7). PMID: 28683072    Free PMC article.
Patient-reported outcomes and survival in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year retrospective cohort study using the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29.
Joel Raffel, Alison Wallace, +3 authors, Richard Nicholas.
PLoS Med, 2017 Jul 12; 14(7). PMID: 28692670    Free PMC article.
Neuroprotection by eIF2α-CHOP inhibition and XBP-1 activation in EAE/optic neuritiss.
Haoliang Huang, Linqing Miao, +8 authors, Yang Hu.
Cell Death Dis, 2017 Jul 21; 8(7). PMID: 28726788    Free PMC article.
Anti-inflammatory disease-modifying treatment and short-term disability progression in SPMS.
Johannes Lorscheider, Vilija G Jokubaitis, +26 authors, MSBase Study Group.
Neurology, 2017 Aug 11; 89(10). PMID: 28794248    Free PMC article.
Organotypic Cultures from the Adult CNS: A Novel Model to Study Demyelination and Remyelination Ex Vivo.
Glaiza A Tan, Kendra L Furber, +3 authors, Adil J Nazarali.
Cell Mol Neurobiol, 2017 Aug 11; 38(1). PMID: 28795301
Review.
Automated segmentation of cerebral deep gray matter from MRI scans: effect of field strength on sensitivity and reliability.
Renxin Chu, Shelley Hurwitz, Shahamat Tauhid, Rohit Bakshi.
BMC Neurol, 2017 Sep 07; 17(1). PMID: 28874119    Free PMC article.
Advancing trial design in progressive multiple sclerosis.
Robert J Fox, Jeremy Chataway.
Mult Scler, 2017 Oct 19; 23(12). PMID: 29041871    Free PMC article.
Spotlight on siponimod and its potential in the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: the evidence to date.
Alberto Gajofatto.
Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017 Nov 16; 11. PMID: 29138536    Free PMC article.
Review.
Discriminative ability of quality of life measures in multiple sclerosis.
Kirsten M Fiest, Jamie Greenfield, +3 authors, Ruth Ann Marrie.
Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2017 Dec 23; 15(1). PMID: 29268750    Free PMC article.
Cognitive phenotypes in multiple sclerosis.
Victoria M Leavitt, Gabriella Tosto, Claire S Riley.
J Neurol, 2018 Jan 23; 265(3). PMID: 29356970
Sleep-Disordered Breathing in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Prevalence, Pathophysiological Mechanisms, and Disease Consequences.
Hanna A Hensen, Arun V Krishnan, Danny J Eckert.
Front Neurol, 2018 Jan 31; 8. PMID: 29379466    Free PMC article.
Review.
Progressive multiple sclerosis, cognitive function, and quality of life.
Helene Højsgaard Chow, Karen Schreiber, +6 authors, Finn Sellebjerg.
Brain Behav, 2018 Feb 28; 8(2). PMID: 29484253    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic Inertia in the New Landscape of Multiple Sclerosis Care.
Gustavo Saposnik, Xavier Montalban.
Front Neurol, 2018 Apr 05; 9. PMID: 29615967    Free PMC article.
Disease-Modifying Treatment in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
John Robert Ciotti, Anne Haney Cross.
Curr Treat Options Neurol, 2018 Apr 09; 20(5). PMID: 29627873
Review.
Identification of brain antigens recognized by autoantibodies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced animals treated with etomoxir or interferon-β.
Anne Skøttrup Mørkholt, Kenneth Kastaniegaard, +6 authors, John Dirk Nieland.
Sci Rep, 2018 May 08; 8(1). PMID: 29728570    Free PMC article.
CSF inflammatory biomarkers responsive to treatment in progressive multiple sclerosis capture residual inflammation associated with axonal damage.
Jeppe Romme Christensen, Mika Komori, +4 authors, Finn Sellebjerg.
Mult Scler, 2018 May 19; 25(7). PMID: 29775134    Free PMC article.
Pharmacotherapy in Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: An Overview.
Floriana De Angelis, Domenico Plantone, Jeremy Chataway.
CNS Drugs, 2018 Jul 04; 32(6). PMID: 29968175
Review.
Modeling Approaches in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Disease-Modifying Therapies for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: An Updated Systematic Review and Recommendations for Future Economic Evaluations.
Luis Hernandez, Malinda O'Donnell, Maarten Postma.
Pharmacoeconomics, 2018 Jul 05; 36(10). PMID: 29971666
Systematic Review.
Multiple Sclerosis-Secondary Progressive Multi-Arm Randomisation Trial (MS-SMART): a multiarm phase IIb randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing the efficacy of three neuroprotective drugs in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Peter Connick, Floriana De Angelis, +22 authors, UK Multiple Sclerosis Society Clinical Trials Network.
BMJ Open, 2018 Sep 01; 8(8). PMID: 30166303    Free PMC article.
Targeting phosphocreatine metabolism in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: evaluation with brain MRI, 1H and 31P MRS, and clinical and cognitive testing.
Melissa Cambron, Tatjana Reynders, +4 authors, Guy Laureys.
J Neurol, 2018 Sep 07; 265(11). PMID: 30187159
Short-term disability progression in two multiethnic multiple sclerosis centers in the treatment era.
Ilya Kister, Tamar E Bacon, Gary R Cutter.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord, 2018 Sep 15; 11. PMID: 30214486    Free PMC article.
Connexin 30 Deficiency Attenuates Chronic but Not Acute Phases of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Through Induction of Neuroprotective Microglia.
Mei Fang, Ryo Yamasaki, +5 authors, Jun-Ichi Kira.
Front Immunol, 2018 Nov 23; 9. PMID: 30464764    Free PMC article.
Two Sides to Every Story: Perspectives from Four Patients and a Healthcare Professional on Multiple Sclerosis Disease Progression.
Jeri Burtchell, Kristen Fetty, +2 authors, Daniel Kantor.
Neurol Ther, 2019 Jul 06; 8(2). PMID: 31273563    Free PMC article.
Diagnosis and Management of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
Gabrielle Macaron, Daniel Ontaneda.
Biomedicines, 2019 Aug 01; 7(3). PMID: 31362384    Free PMC article.
Review.
Suggestions for improving the design of clinical trials in multiple sclerosis-results of a systematic analysis of completed phase III trials.
Sinje Gehr, Thomas Kaiser, +2 authors, Friedemann Paul.
EPMA J, 2019 Dec 14; 10(4). PMID: 31832116    Free PMC article.
Review.
Clinical and MRI efficacy of sc IFN β-1a tiw in patients with relapsing MS appearing to transition to secondary progressive MS: post hoc analyses of PRISMS and SPECTRIMS.
Mark S Freedman, Staley Brod, +4 authors, Patricia K Coyle.
J Neurol, 2019 Sep 29; 267(1). PMID: 31559532    Free PMC article.
Efficacy of three neuroprotective drugs in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS-SMART): a phase 2b, multiarm, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Jeremy Chataway, Floriana De Angelis, +22 authors, MS-SMART Investigators.
Lancet Neurol, 2020 Jan 26; 19(3). PMID: 31981516    Free PMC article.
Biochemical Differences in Cerebrospinal Fluid between Secondary Progressive and Relapsing⁻Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.
Stephanie Herman, Torbjörn Åkerfeldt, +2 authors, Kim Kultima.
Cells, 2019 Jan 27; 8(2). PMID: 30678351    Free PMC article.
The Enigmatic Role of Viruses in Multiple Sclerosis: Molecular Mimicry or Disturbed Immune Surveillance?
Jens Geginat, Moira Paroni, +4 authors, Sergio Abrignani.
Trends Immunol, 2017 May 28; 38(7). PMID: 28549714    Free PMC article.
Review.
Is It Possible to Conduct a Multi-Arm Multi-Stage Platform Trial in Parkinson's Disease: Lessons Learned from Other Neurodegenerative Disorders and Cancer.
Marie-Louise Zeissler, Vivien Li, Mahesh K B Parmar, Camille Buchholz Carroll.
J Parkinsons Dis, 2020 Mar 03; 10(2). PMID: 32116263    Free PMC article.
Is Exercise Training Beneficial in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis?
Lara A Pilutti, Thomas A Edwards.
Int J MS Care, 2017 Mar 01; 19(2). PMID: 32607069    Free PMC article.
Gaining First Insights on Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated With Siponimod in Clinical Routine: Protocol of the Noninterventional Study AMASIA.
Tjalf Ziemssen, Olaf Hoffmann, +3 authors, Benedict Rauser.
JMIR Res Protoc, 2020 Jun 06; 9(7). PMID: 32499214    Free PMC article.
Single-cell mass cytometry reveals complex myeloid cell composition in active lesions of progressive multiple sclerosis.
Chotima Böttcher, Marlijn van der Poel, +10 authors, Josef Priller.
Acta Neuropathol Commun, 2020 Aug 20; 8(1). PMID: 32811567    Free PMC article.
Use and cost of disease-modifying therapies by Sonya Slifka Study participants: has anything really changed since 2000 and 2009?
Sarah L Minden, R Philip Kinkel, +3 authors, Lisa I Iezzoni.
Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin, 2019 Mar 01; 5(1). PMID: 30815276    Free PMC article.
Glial Activation Markers in CSF and Serum From Patients With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: Potential of Serum GFAP as Disease Severity Marker?
Ahmed Abdelhak, Tilman Hottenrott, +8 authors, André Huss.
Front Neurol, 2019 Apr 12; 10. PMID: 30972011    Free PMC article.
Can We Treat Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Now?
Rohit Bhatia, Nishita Singh.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol, 2019 Apr 23; 22(2). PMID: 31007422    Free PMC article.
Review.
Dietary Therapy in Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report.
Janak Nathan, Dhanashri Khedekar Kale, +2 authors, Sonal Bailur.
Cureus, 2019 Aug 21; 11(8). PMID: 31428547    Free PMC article.
Use of a symptom-based questionnaire to screen for the presence of significant voiding dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis and lower urinary tract symptoms: a pilot study.
Vivien Li, Jalesh N Panicker, Collette Haslam, Jeremy Chataway.
J Neurol, 2020 Jul 17; 267(12). PMID: 32671529    Free PMC article.
Multiple sclerosis, a treatable disease.
Anisha Doshi, Jeremy Chataway.
Clin Med (Lond), 2016 Dec 14; 16(Suppl 6). PMID: 27956442    Free PMC article.
Review.
Multiple sclerosis, a treatable disease .
Anisha Doshi, Jeremy Chataway.
Clin Med (Lond), 2017 Dec 03; 17(6). PMID: 29196354    Free PMC article.
Review.
Response to ibudilast treatment according to progressive multiple sclerosis disease phenotype.
Andrew D Goodman, Janel K Fedler, +10 authors, SPRINT-MS Investigators.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol, 2021 Jan 19; 8(1). PMID: 33460301    Free PMC article.
Predictors of Health Utility in Relapsing-Remitting and Secondary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Future Economic Models of Disease-Modifying Therapies.
Luis Hernandez, Malinda O'Donnell, Maarten Postma, for MSOAC.
Pharmacoeconomics, 2020 Sep 30; 39(2). PMID: 32989685    Free PMC article.
Purinergic Receptors on Oligodendrocyte Progenitors: Promising Targets for Myelin Repair in Multiple Sclerosis?
Davide Lecca, Maria P Abbracchio, Marta Fumagalli.
Front Pharmacol, 2021 Feb 16; 11. PMID: 33584312    Free PMC article.
Cuprizone-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Neural Cell Lines Is Mediated by a Reversible Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Relevance for Demyelination Models.
Eva Martínez-Pinilla, Núria Rubio-Sardón, +5 authors, Ana Navarro.
Brain Sci, 2021 Mar 07; 11(2). PMID: 33671675    Free PMC article.
Optical coherence tomography outcomes from SPRINT-MS, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of ibudilast in progressive multiple sclerosis.
Robert A Bermel, Janel K Fedler, +12 authors, Robert J Fox.
Mult Scler, 2020 Oct 16;. PMID: 33054533    Free PMC article.
Deciphering Multiple Sclerosis Progression.
Virginia Meca-Lallana, Leticia Berenguer-Ruiz, +7 authors, Francisco Carlos Pérez-Miralles.
Front Neurol, 2021 Apr 27; 12. PMID: 33897583    Free PMC article.
Review.