Journal Article
. 2015 Apr;42(5).
doi: 10.1002/jmri.24890.

Breast cancer subtype intertumor heterogeneity: MRI-based features predict results of a genomic assay

Elizabeth J Sutton 1 Jung Hun Oh 2 Brittany Z Dashevsky 1 Harini Veeraraghavan 2 Aditya P Apte 2 Sunitha B Thakur 1 Joseph O Deasy 2 Elizabeth A Morris 1 
  • PMID: 25850931
  •     34 References
  •     53 citations


Purpose: To investigate the association between a validated, gene-expression-based, aggressiveness assay, Oncotype Dx RS, and morphological and texture-based image features extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study received Internal Review Board approval and need for informed consent was waived. Between 2006-2012, we identified breast cancer patients with: 1) ER+, PR+, and HER2- invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC); 2) preoperative breast MRI; and 3) Oncotype Dx RS test results. Extracted features included morphological, histogram, and gray-scale correlation matrix (GLCM)-based texture features computed from tumors contoured on pre- and three postcontrast MR images. Linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between Oncotype Dx RS and different clinical, pathologic, and imaging features. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Ninety-five patients with IDC were included with a median Oncotype Dx RS of 16 (range: 0-45). Using stepwise multiple linear regression modeling, two MR-derived image features, kurtosis in the first and third postcontrast images and histologic nuclear grade, were found to be significantly correlated with the Oncotype Dx RS with P = 0.0056, 0.0005, and 0.0105, respectively. The overall model resulted in statistically significant correlation with Oncotype Dx RS with an R-squared value of 0.23 (adjusted R-squared = 0.20; P = 0.0002) and a Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.49 (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: A model for IDC using imaging and pathology information correlates with Oncotype Dx RS scores, suggesting that image-based features could also predict the likelihood of recurrence and magnitude of chemotherapy benefit.

Keywords: breast cancer subtypes; genotype; invasive ductal carcinoma.

Volumetric texture analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images.
Weijie Chen, Maryellen L Giger, +2 authors, Gillian M Newstead.
Magn Reson Med, 2007 Sep 01; 58(3). PMID: 17763361
Dynamic breast MR imaging: are signal intensity time course data useful for differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions?
C K Kuhl, P Mielcareck, +4 authors, H H Schild.
Radiology, 1999 Apr 06; 211(1). PMID: 10189459
Highly Cited.
Comparison of the prognostic and predictive utilities of the 21-gene Recurrence Score assay and Adjuvant! for women with node-negative, ER-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-14 and NSABP B-20.
Gong Tang, Steven Shak, +6 authors, Norman Wolmark.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2011 Jan 12; 127(1). PMID: 21221771    Free PMC article.
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer.
Michael A Jacobs.
J Am Coll Radiol, 2009 Jun 30; 6(7). PMID: 19560072
Radiogenomic analysis of breast cancer: luminal B molecular subtype is associated with enhancement dynamics at MR imaging.
Maciej A Mazurowski, Jing Zhang, +2 authors, James I Silber.
Radiology, 2014 Jul 17; 273(2). PMID: 25028781
Highly Cited.
CERR: a computational environment for radiotherapy research.
Joseph O Deasy, Angel I Blanco, Vanessa H Clark.
Med Phys, 2003 May 30; 30(5). PMID: 12773007
Highly Cited.
Survival outcomes of breast cancer patients who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy: association with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging with computer-aided evaluation.
Ann Yi, Nariya Cho, +7 authors, Woo Kyung Moon.
Radiology, 2013 Apr 18; 268(3). PMID: 23592770
Histopathologic variables predict Oncotype DX recurrence score.
Melina B Flanagan, David J Dabbs, +2 authors, Rohit Bhargava.
Mod Pathol, 2008 Mar 25; 21(10). PMID: 18360352
Characterization of breast cancer types by texture analysis of magnetic resonance images.
Kirsi Holli, Anna-Leena Lääperi, +6 authors, Hannu Eskola.
Acad Radiol, 2009 Dec 01; 17(2). PMID: 19945302
A population-based study of tumor gene expression and risk of breast cancer death among lymph node-negative patients.
Laurel A Habel, Steven Shak, +12 authors, Charles P Quesenberry.
Breast Cancer Res, 2006 Jun 02; 8(3). PMID: 16737553    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Molecular portraits of human breast tumours.
C M Perou, T Sørlie, +15 authors, D Botstein.
Nature, 2000 Aug 30; 406(6797). PMID: 10963602
Highly Cited.
Prediction of risk of distant recurrence using the 21-gene recurrence score in node-negative and node-positive postmenopausal patients with breast cancer treated with anastrozole or tamoxifen: a TransATAC study.
Mitch Dowsett, Jack Cuzick, +11 authors, Steven Shak.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Mar 10; 28(11). PMID: 20212256
Highly Cited.
STEP: spatiotemporal enhancement pattern for MR-based breast tumor diagnosis.
Yuanjie Zheng, Sarah Englander, +4 authors, Dinggang Shen.
Med Phys, 2009 Aug 14; 36(7). PMID: 19673218    Free PMC article.
Computer-aided diagnosis of mass-like lesion in breast MRI: differential analysis of the 3-D morphology between benign and malignant tumors.
Yan-Hao Huang, Yeun-Chung Chang, +3 authors, Ruey-Feng Chang.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2013 Sep 28; 112(3). PMID: 24070542
American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 update of recommendations for the use of tumor markers in breast cancer.
Lyndsay Harris, Herbert Fritsche, +7 authors, American Society of Clinical Oncology.
J Clin Oncol, 2007 Oct 24; 25(33). PMID: 17954709
Highly Cited. Review.
MRI for breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment.
Monica Morrow, Janet Waters, Elizabeth Morris.
Lancet, 2011 Nov 22; 378(9805). PMID: 22098853
Diagnostic breast MR imaging: current status and future directions.
Elizabeth A Morris.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am, 2009 Dec 08; 18(1). PMID: 19962093
Routine histopathologic characteristics can predict oncotype DX(TM) recurrence score in subsets of breast cancer patients.
Malcolm D Mattes, Justin M Mann, Hani Ashamalla, Ajay Tejwani.
Cancer Invest, 2013 Oct 30; 31(9). PMID: 24164299
Gene expression and benefit of chemotherapy in women with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Soonmyung Paik, Gong Tang, +11 authors, Norman Wolmark.
J Clin Oncol, 2006 May 25; 24(23). PMID: 16720680
Highly Cited.
A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer.
Soonmyung Paik, Steven Shak, +12 authors, Norman Wolmark.
N Engl J Med, 2004 Dec 14; 351(27). PMID: 15591335
Highly Cited.
Correlation between imaging and molecular classification of breast cancers.
M Boisserie-Lacroix, G Hurtevent-Labrot, +3 authors, G Mac Grogan.
Diagn Interv Imaging, 2013 Jul 23; 94(11). PMID: 23867597
Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours.
Cancer Genome Atlas Network.
Nature, 2012 Sep 25; 490(7418). PMID: 23000897    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Risk of recurrence and chemotherapy benefit for patients with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: recurrence score alone and integrated with pathologic and clinical factors.
Gong Tang, Jack Cuzick, +6 authors, Norman Wolmark.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Oct 20; 29(33). PMID: 22010013    Free PMC article.
Prediction of malignant breast lesions from MRI features: a comparison of artificial neural network and logistic regression techniques.
Christine E McLaren, Wen-Pin Chen, Ke Nie, Min-Ying Su.
Acad Radiol, 2009 May 05; 16(7). PMID: 19409817    Free PMC article.
Identification of intrinsic imaging phenotypes for breast cancer tumors: preliminary associations with gene expression profiles.
Ahmed Bilal Ashraf, Dania Daye, +4 authors, Despina Kontos.
Radiology, 2014 Apr 08; 272(2). PMID: 24702725    Free PMC article.
Routine pathologic parameters can predict Oncotype DX recurrence scores in subsets of ER positive patients: who does not always need testing?
K H Allison, P L Kandalaft, +2 authors, A M Gown.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2011 Mar 04; 131(2). PMID: 21369717
Exploring feature-based approaches in PET images for predicting cancer treatment outcomes.
I El Naqa, P Grigsby, +9 authors, J O Deasy.
Pattern Recognit, 2010 Feb 18; 42(6). PMID: 20161266    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Texture analysis in assessment and prediction of chemotherapy response in breast cancer.
Arfan Ahmed, Peter Gibbs, Martin Pickles, Lindsay Turnbull.
J Magn Reson Imaging, 2012 Dec 15; 38(1). PMID: 23238914
Association between the 21-gene recurrence score assay and risk of locoregional recurrence in node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-14 and NSABP B-20.
Eleftherios P Mamounas, Gong Tang, +7 authors, Norman Wolmark.
J Clin Oncol, 2010 Jan 13; 28(10). PMID: 20065188    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
3D lacunarity in multifractal analysis of breast tumor lesions in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
Filipe Soares, Filipe Janela, +2 authors, Mário M Freire.
IEEE Trans Image Process, 2013 Sep 24; 22(11). PMID: 24057004
Prognostic and predictive value of the 21-gene recurrence score assay in postmenopausal women with node-positive, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer on chemotherapy: a retrospective analysis of a randomised trial.
Kathy S Albain, William E Barlow, +20 authors, Breast Cancer Intergroup of North America.
Lancet Oncol, 2009 Dec 17; 11(1). PMID: 20005174    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications.
T Sørlie, C M Perou, +14 authors, A L Børresen-Dale.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2001 Sep 13; 98(19). PMID: 11553815    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Molecular classification of estrogen receptor-positive/luminal breast cancers.
Felipe C Geyer, Daniel N Rodrigues, Britta Weigelt, Jorge S Reis-Filho.
Adv Anat Pathol, 2011 Dec 14; 19(1). PMID: 22156833
Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Martin D Pickles, David J Manton, Martin Lowry, Lindsay W Turnbull.
Eur J Radiol, 2008 Jun 24; 71(3). PMID: 18572340
Evaluation of tumor-derived MRI-texture features for discrimination of molecular subtypes and prediction of 12-month survival status in glioblastoma.
Dalu Yang, Ganesh Rao, +2 authors, Arvind Rao.
Med Phys, 2015 Nov 02; 42(11). PMID: 26520762    Free PMC article.
Breast cancer molecular subtype classifier that incorporates MRI features.
Elizabeth J Sutton, Brittany Z Dashevsky, +5 authors, Joseph O Deasy.
J Magn Reson Imaging, 2016 Jan 13; 44(1). PMID: 26756416    Free PMC article.
Imaging genomics in cancer research: limitations and promises.
Harrison X Bai, Ashley M Lee, +4 authors, Sharon J Diskin.
Br J Radiol, 2016 Feb 13; 89(1061). PMID: 26864054    Free PMC article.
A Radio-genomics Approach for Identifying High Risk Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancers on DCE-MRI: Preliminary Results in Predicting OncotypeDX Risk Scores.
Tao Wan, B Nicolas Bloch, +5 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Sci Rep, 2016 Feb 19; 6. PMID: 26887643    Free PMC article.
How Can Advanced Imaging Be Used to Mitigate Potential Breast Cancer Overdiagnosis?
Habib Rahbar, Elizabeth S McDonald, +2 authors, Christoph I Lee.
Acad Radiol, 2016 Mar 28; 23(6). PMID: 27017136    Free PMC article.
Association between partial-volume corrected SUVmax and Oncotype DX recurrence score in early-stage, ER-positive/HER2-negative invasive breast cancer.
Su Hyun Lee, Seunggyun Ha, +9 authors, Gi Jeong Cheon.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 2016 May 23; 43(9). PMID: 27209424
Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer.
Nariya Cho.
Ultrasonography, 2016 Sep 08; 35(4). PMID: 27599892    Free PMC article.
Progress in the clinical detection of heterogeneity in breast cancer.
Jun-Long Song, Chuang Chen, Jing-Ping Yuan, Sheng-Rong Sun.
Cancer Med, 2016 Oct 25; 5(12). PMID: 27774765    Free PMC article.
Unsupervised Clustering of Quantitative Image Phenotypes Reveals Breast Cancer Subtypes with Distinct Prognoses and Molecular Pathways.
Jia Wu, Yi Cui, +5 authors, Ruijiang Li.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jan 12; 23(13). PMID: 28073839    Free PMC article.
BI-RADS 3-5 microcalcifications can preoperatively predict breast cancer HER2 and Luminal a molecular subtype.
DongZhi Cen, Li Xu, +7 authors, Tingting Luo.
Oncotarget, 2017 Jan 19; 8(8). PMID: 28099938    Free PMC article.
Radiomic analysis reveals DCE-MRI features for prediction of molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
Ming Fan, Hui Li, +3 authors, Lihua Li.
PLoS One, 2017 Feb 07; 12(2). PMID: 28166261    Free PMC article.
Identifying relations between imaging phenotypes and molecular subtypes of breast cancer: Model discovery and external validation.
Jia Wu, Xiaoli Sun, +5 authors, Ruijiang Li.
J Magn Reson Imaging, 2017 Feb 09; 46(4). PMID: 28177554    Free PMC article.
Computer-aided heterogeneity analysis in breast MR imaging assessment of ductal carcinoma in situ: Correlating histologic grade and receptor status.
Shinn-Huey S Chou, Eva C Gombos, +2 authors, Jagadeesan Jayender.
J Magn Reson Imaging, 2017 Apr 04; 46(6). PMID: 28371110    Free PMC article.
Radiogenomic Analysis of Oncological Data: A Technical Survey.
Mariarosaria Incoronato, Marco Aiello, +5 authors, Marco Salvatore.
Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Apr 19; 18(4). PMID: 28417933    Free PMC article.
Apparent diffusion coefficient in estrogen receptor-positive and lymph node-negative invasive breast cancers at 3.0T DW-MRI: A potential predictor for an oncotype Dx test recurrence score.
Sunitha B Thakur, Manuela Durando, +5 authors, Elizabeth A Morris.
J Magn Reson Imaging, 2017 Jun 24; 47(2). PMID: 28640531    Free PMC article.
Heterogeneous Enhancement Patterns of Tumor-adjacent Parenchyma at MR Imaging Are Associated with Dysregulated Signaling Pathways and Poor Survival in Breast Cancer.
Jia Wu, Bailiang Li, +6 authors, Ruijiang Li.
Radiology, 2017 Jul 15; 285(2). PMID: 28708462    Free PMC article.
An Assessment of Imaging Informatics for Precision Medicine in Cancer.
C Chennubhotla, L P Clarke, +9 authors, A Sharma.
Yearb Med Inform, 2017 Oct 25; 26(1). PMID: 29063549    Free PMC article.
Background, current role, and potential applications of radiogenomics.
Katja Pinker, Fuki Shitano, +6 authors, Elizabeth A Morris.
J Magn Reson Imaging, 2017 Nov 03; 47(3). PMID: 29095543    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Diffusion-weighted MRI characteristics associated with prognostic pathological factors and recurrence risk in invasive ER+/HER2- breast cancers.
Nita Amornsiripanitch, Vicky T Nguyen, +4 authors, Savannah C Partridge.
J Magn Reson Imaging, 2017 Nov 28; 48(1). PMID: 29178616    Free PMC article.
MRI texture analysis in differentiating luminal A and luminal B breast cancer molecular subtypes - a feasibility study.
Kirsi Holli-Helenius, Annukka Salminen, +4 authors, Riitta Parkkola.
BMC Med Imaging, 2017 Dec 30; 17(1). PMID: 29284425    Free PMC article.
MRI features predictive of negative surgical margins in patients with HER2 overexpressing breast cancer undergoing breast conservation.
Brittany Z Dashevsky, Jung Hun Oh, +4 authors, Elizabeth J Sutton.
Sci Rep, 2018 Jan 13; 8(1). PMID: 29321645    Free PMC article.
A study of association of Oncotype DX recurrence score with DCE-MRI characteristics using multivariate machine learning models.
Ashirbani Saha, Michael R Harowicz, Weiyao Wang, Maciej A Mazurowski.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2018 Feb 11; 144(5). PMID: 29427210    Free PMC article.
Appearance Constrained Semi-Automatic Segmentation from DCE-MRI is Reproducible and Feasible for Breast Cancer Radiomics: A Feasibility Study.
Harini Veeraraghavan, Brittany Z Dashevsky, +4 authors, Elizabeth J Sutton.
Sci Rep, 2018 Mar 21; 8(1). PMID: 29556054    Free PMC article.
DCE-MRI Pharmacokinetic-Based Phenotyping of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: A Radiomic Study for Prediction of Histological Outcomes.
Serena Monti, Marco Aiello, +6 authors, Marco Salvatore.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging, 2018 Mar 28; 2018. PMID: 29581709    Free PMC article.
Breast MRI radiomics: comparison of computer- and human-extracted imaging phenotypes.
Elizabeth J Sutton, Erich P Huang, +11 authors, TCGA group.
Eur Radiol Exp, 2017 Jan 01; 1(1). PMID: 29708200    Free PMC article.
Non-invasive tumor genotyping using radiogenomic biomarkers, a systematic review and oncology-wide pathway analysis.
Robin W Jansen, Paul van Amstel, +10 authors, Marcus C de Jong.
Oncotarget, 2018 May 08; 9(28). PMID: 29732009    Free PMC article.
Magnetic resonance imaging and molecular features associated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer.
Jia Wu, Xuejie Li, +4 authors, Ruijiang Li.
Breast Cancer Res, 2018 Sep 05; 20(1). PMID: 30176944    Free PMC article.
Effects of MRI scanner parameters on breast cancer radiomics.
Ashirbani Saha, Xiaozhi Yu, Dushyant Sahoo, Maciej A Mazurowski.
Expert Syst Appl, 2018 Oct 16; 87. PMID: 30319179    Free PMC article.
Application of Radiomics and Decision Support Systems for Breast MR Differential Diagnosis.
Ioannis Tsougos, Alexandros Vamvakas, +2 authors, Katerina Vassiou.
Comput Math Methods Med, 2018 Oct 23; 2018. PMID: 30344618    Free PMC article.
Feasibility of an ADC-based radiomics model for predicting pelvic lymph node metastases in patients with stage IB-IIA cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Yan Yan Yu, Rui Zhang, +5 authors, Yue Dong.
Br J Radiol, 2019 Mar 20; 92(1097). PMID: 30888846    Free PMC article.
Precision diagnostics based on machine learning-derived imaging signatures.
Christos Davatzikos, Aristeidis Sotiras, +7 authors, Despina Kontos.
Magn Reson Imaging, 2019 May 10; 64. PMID: 31071473    Free PMC article.
Tumour heterogeneity revealed by unsupervised decomposition of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is associated with underlying gene expression patterns and poor survival in breast cancer patients.
Ming Fan, Pingping Xia, +4 authors, Lihua Li.
Breast Cancer Res, 2019 Oct 19; 21(1). PMID: 31623683    Free PMC article.
Combining molecular and imaging metrics in cancer: radiogenomics.
Roberto Lo Gullo, Isaac Daimiel, Elizabeth A Morris, Katja Pinker.
Insights Imaging, 2020 Jan 05; 11(1). PMID: 31901171    Free PMC article.
Lymph Node Imaging in Patients with Primary Breast Cancer: Concurrent Diagnostic Tools.
Maria Adele Marino, Daly Avendano, +2 authors, Katja Pinker.
Oncologist, 2020 Feb 12; 25(2). PMID: 32043792    Free PMC article.
Contrast-Enhanced Mammography and Radiomics Analysis for Noninvasive Breast Cancer Characterization: Initial Results.
Maria Adele Marino, Katja Pinker, +4 authors, Maxine Jochelson.
Mol Imaging Biol, 2019 Aug 30; 22(3). PMID: 31463822    Free PMC article.
Assessment of the Spatial Heterogeneity of Breast Cancers: Associations Between Computed Tomography and Immunohistochemistry.
David K Woolf, Sonia P Li, +10 authors, Vicky Goh.
Biomark Cancer, 2019 Jun 19; 11. PMID: 31210736    Free PMC article.
Role of texture analysis in breast MRI as a cancer biomarker: A review.
Rhea D Chitalia, Despina Kontos.
J Magn Reson Imaging, 2018 Nov 06; 49(4). PMID: 30390383    Free PMC article.
Machine learning in breast MRI.
Beatriu Reig, Laura Heacock, Krzysztof J Geras, Linda Moy.
J Magn Reson Imaging, 2019 Jul 06; 52(4). PMID: 31276247    Free PMC article.
MRI radiomic features are associated with survival in melanoma brain metastases treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Ankush Bhatia, Maxwell Birger, +13 authors, Robert J Young.
Neuro Oncol, 2019 Oct 18; 21(12). PMID: 31621883    Free PMC article.
Texture Analysis of Breast DCE-MRI Based on Intratumoral Subregions for Predicting HER2 2+ Status.
Hecheng Lu, Jiandong Yin.
Front Oncol, 2020 May 07; 10. PMID: 32373531    Free PMC article.
Use of MRI for Personalized Treatment of More Aggressive Tumors.
Riham H El Khouli, Michael A Jacobs.
Radiology, 2020 Apr 03; 295(3). PMID: 32233918    Free PMC article.
Radiogenomics of magnetic resonance imaging and a new multi-gene classifier for predicting recurrence prognosis in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: A preliminary study.
Yukiko Tokuda, Masahiro Yanagawa, +3 authors, Noriyuki Tomiyama.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2020 Apr 22; 99(16). PMID: 32311939    Free PMC article.
Preliminary study on discriminating HER2 2+ amplification status of breast cancers based on texture features semi-automatically derived from pre-, post-contrast, and subtraction images of DCE-MRI.
Lirong Song, Hecheng Lu, Jiandong Yin.
PLoS One, 2020 Jun 20; 15(6). PMID: 32555662    Free PMC article.
Reliability of tumor segmentation in glioblastoma: Impact on the robustness of MRI-radiomic features.
Florent Tixier, Hyemin Um, Robert J Young, Harini Veeraraghavan.
Med Phys, 2019 May 28; 46(8). PMID: 31131906    Free PMC article.
The Potential Use of DCE-MRI Texture Analysis to Predict HER2 2+ Status.
Zejun Jiang, Lirong Song, Hecheng Lu, Jiandong Yin.
Front Oncol, 2019 Apr 30; 9. PMID: 31032222    Free PMC article.
Integrated Multiparametric Radiomics and Informatics System for Characterizing Breast Tumor Characteristics with the OncotypeDX Gene Assay.
Michael A Jacobs, Christopher B Umbricht, +5 authors, Antonio C Wolff.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Oct 01; 12(10). PMID: 32992569    Free PMC article.
Breast cancer MRI radiomics: An overview of algorithmic features and impact of inter-reader variability in annotating tumors.
Ashirbani Saha, Michael R Harowicz, Maciej A Mazurowski.
Med Phys, 2018 Apr 18; 45(7). PMID: 29663411    Free PMC article.
Radiomics signature on 3T dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancers: Preliminary results for correlation with Oncotype DX recurrence scores.
Kyung Jin Nam, Hyunjin Park, +3 authors, Jeong Eon Lee.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Jun 07; 98(23). PMID: 31169691    Free PMC article.
[Multimodal, multiparametric and genetic breast imaging].
Roberto LoGullo, Joao Horvat, Jeffrey Reiner, Katja Pinker.
Radiologe, 2021 Jan 20; 61(2). PMID: 33464404
Imaging features of breast cancer molecular subtypes: state of the art.
Nariya Cho.
J Pathol Transl Med, 2020 Nov 07; 55(1). PMID: 33153242    Free PMC article.
The Era of Radiogenomics in Precision Medicine: An Emerging Approach to Support Diagnosis, Treatment Decisions, and Prognostication in Oncology.
Lin Shui, Haoyu Ren, +5 authors, Pixian Shui.
Front Oncol, 2021 Feb 13; 10. PMID: 33575207    Free PMC article.
Background Parenchymal Enhancement on Breast MRI as a Prognostic Surrogate: Correlation With Breast Cancer Oncotype Dx Score.
Michelle Zhang, Meredith Sadinski, +5 authors, Elizabeth J Sutton.
Front Oncol, 2021 Feb 23; 10. PMID: 33614481    Free PMC article.