Review
. 2015 Apr;12(7).
doi: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2015.73.

Clinical management of breast cancer heterogeneity

Dimitrios Zardavas 1 Alexandre Irrthum 1 Charles Swanton 2 Martine Piccart 3 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 25895611
  •     167 References
  •     118 citations

Abstract

Traditionally, intertumour heterogeneity in breast cancer has been documented in terms of different histological subtypes, treatment sensitivity profiles, and clinical outcomes among different patients. Results of high-throughput molecular profiling studies have subsequently revealed the true extent of this heterogeneity. Further complicating this scenario, the heterogeneous expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 has been reported in different areas of the same tumour. Furthermore, discordance, in terms of ER, PR and HER2 expression, has also been reported between primary tumours and their matched metastatic lesions. High-throughput molecular profiling studies have confirmed that spatial and temporal intratumour heterogeneity of breast cancers exist at a level beyond common expectations. We describe the different levels of tumour heterogeneity, and discuss the strategies that can be adopted by clinicians to tackle treatment response and resistance issues associated with such heterogeneity, including a rationally selected combination of agents that target driver mutations, the targeting of deleterious passenger mutations, identifying and eradicating the 'lethal' clone, targeting the tumour microenvironment, or using adaptive treatments and immunotherapy. The identification of the most-appropriate strategies and their implementation in the clinic will prove highly challenging and necessitate the adoption of radically new practices for the optimal clinical management of breast malignancies.

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Mol Syst Biol, 2012 Feb 02; 8. PMID: 22294094    Free PMC article.
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Breast Cancer Res, 2010 Sep 04; 12(5). PMID: 20813035    Free PMC article.
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Michael Weller, Martin van den Bent, +13 authors, European Association for Neuro-Oncology (EANO) Task Force on Malignant Glioma.
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Exploiting cancer cell vulnerabilities to develop a combination therapy for ras-driven tumors.
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Cancer Cell, 2011 Sep 13; 20(3). PMID: 21907929    Free PMC article.
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N Engl J Med, 2013 Mar 15; 368(13). PMID: 23484797
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The rebel angel: mutant p53 as the driving oncogene in breast cancer.
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Wen Qiu, Min Hu, +10 authors, Ian G Campbell.
Nat Genet, 2008 Apr 15; 40(5). PMID: 18408720    Free PMC article.
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Oncogenic targets, magnitude of benefit, and market pricing of antineoplastic drugs.
Eitan Amir, Bostjan Seruga, +4 authors, Alberto Ocaña.
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Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2015 Apr 22; 12(8). PMID: 25895610
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American Society of Clinical Oncology/College Of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.
M Elizabeth H Hammond, Daniel F Hayes, +29 authors, Antonio C Wolff.
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Highly Cited. Systematic Review.
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Nat Rev Genet, 2012 Oct 10; 13(11). PMID: 23044827    Free PMC article.
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Cancer Cell, 2012 Mar 24; 21(3). PMID: 22439926
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A census of human cancer genes.
P Andrew Futreal, Lachlan Coin, +5 authors, Michael R Stratton.
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Kristian Cibulskis, Michael S Lawrence, +7 authors, Gad Getz.
Nat Biotechnol, 2013 Feb 12; 31(3). PMID: 23396013    Free PMC article.
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Addressing genetic tumor heterogeneity through computationally predictive combination therapy.
Boyang Zhao, Justin R Pritchard, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Michael T Hemann.
Cancer Discov, 2013 Dec 10; 4(2). PMID: 24318931    Free PMC article.
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Ariosto S Silva, Yoonseok Kam, +3 authors, Robert A Gatenby.
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Molecular profiling of the residual disease of triple-negative breast cancers after neoadjuvant chemotherapy identifies actionable therapeutic targets.
Justin M Balko, Jennifer M Giltnane, +24 authors, Carlos L Arteaga.
Cancer Discov, 2013 Dec 21; 4(2). PMID: 24356096    Free PMC article.
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Toward understanding and exploiting tumor heterogeneity.
Ash A Alizadeh, Victoria Aranda, +24 authors, Jessica Zucman-Rossi.
Nat Med, 2015 Aug 08; 21(8). PMID: 26248267    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase activity and intracellular distribution correlate with aggressiveness and invasiveness of human breast carcinoma.
Raquel G Coelho, Isadora C Calaça, +4 authors, Mauro Sola-Penna.
Oncotarget, 2015 Sep 01; 6(30). PMID: 26320188    Free PMC article.
Revealing the Complexity of Breast Cancer by Next Generation Sequencing.
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015 Nov 19; 112(46). PMID: 26578779    Free PMC article.
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Haiping Song, Wenshan He, +2 authors, Tao Huang.
Tumour Biol, 2015 Nov 26; 37(5). PMID: 26596836
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Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2016 Feb 10; 13(8). PMID: 26856744
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Quantitative molecular phenotyping with topically applied SERS nanoparticles for intraoperative guidance of breast cancer lumpectomy.
Yu Wang, Soyoung Kang, +9 authors, Jonathan T C Liu.
Sci Rep, 2016 Feb 18; 6. PMID: 26878888    Free PMC article.
miR-342 overexpression results in a synthetic lethal phenotype in BRCA1-mutant HCC1937 breast cancer cells.
Elisabetta Crippa, Marco Folini, +3 authors, Manuela Gariboldi.
Oncotarget, 2016 Feb 27; 7(14). PMID: 26919240    Free PMC article.
Human lung adenocarcinoma cell cultures derived from malignant pleural effusions as model system to predict patients chemosensitivity.
Giuseppe Roscilli, Claudia De Vitis, +15 authors, Rita Mancini.
J Transl Med, 2016 Mar 02; 14. PMID: 26928703    Free PMC article.
Multiplexed immunofluorescence delineates proteomic cancer cell states associated with metabolism.
Anup Sood, Alexandra M Miller, +15 authors, Ingo K Mellinghoff.
JCI Insight, 2016 May 18; 1(6). PMID: 27182557    Free PMC article.
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Wai-Mei Phang, Aik-Aun Tan, +3 authors, Yeng Chen.
Int J Med Sci, 2016 May 27; 13(5). PMID: 27226773    Free PMC article.
Targeting BET bromodomain proteins in solid tumors.
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Oncotarget, 2016 Jun 11; 7(33). PMID: 27283767    Free PMC article.
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Emma H Allott, Joseph Geradts, +10 authors, Melissa A Troester.
Breast Cancer Res, 2016 Jun 29; 18(1). PMID: 27349894    Free PMC article.
Deciphering and Targeting Oncogenic Mutations and Pathways in Breast Cancer.
Libero Santarpia, Giulia Bottai, +3 authors, Lajos Pusztai.
Oncologist, 2016 Jul 08; 21(9). PMID: 27384237    Free PMC article.
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Metastatic breast cancer: The Odyssey of personalization.
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Novel method for rapid in-situ hybridization of HER2 using non-contact alternating-current electric-field mixing.
Yoshitaro Saito, Kazuhiro Imai, +5 authors, Yoshihiro Minamiya.
Sci Rep, 2016 Jul 23; 6. PMID: 27443187    Free PMC article.
Surgical Guidance via Multiplexed Molecular Imaging of Fresh Tissues Labeled with SERS-Coded Nanoparticles.
Yu Wang, Soyoung Kang, +2 authors, Jonathan T C Liu.
IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron, 2016 Aug 16; 22(4). PMID: 27524875    Free PMC article.
The Role of Genomic Profiling in Advanced Breast Cancer: The Two Faces of Janus.
Yesim Eralp.
Transl Oncogenomics, 2016 Aug 23; 8(Suppl 1). PMID: 27547031    Free PMC article.
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SIAH and EGFR, Two RAS Pathway Biomarkers, are Highly Prognostic in Locally Advanced and Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Lauren L Siewertsz van Reesema, Vasilena Zheleva, +17 authors, Amy H Tang.
EBioMedicine, 2016 Aug 30; 11. PMID: 27569656    Free PMC article.
Multiplexed Molecular Imaging of Fresh Tissue Surfaces Enabled by Convection-Enhanced Topical Staining with SERS-Coded Nanoparticles.
Yu W Wang, Josh D Doerksen, +4 authors, Jonathan T C Liu.
Small, 2016 Oct 21; 12(40). PMID: 27571395    Free PMC article.
Analysis of the hormone receptor status of circulating tumor cell subpopulations based on epithelial-mesenchymal transition: a proof-of-principle study on the heterogeneity of circulating tumor cells.
Xiuwen Guan, Fei Ma, +7 authors, Binghe Xu.
Oncotarget, 2016 Sep 08; 7(40). PMID: 27602758    Free PMC article.
Cyclin G2 promotes cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells responding to fulvestrant and metformin and correlates with patient survival.
Maike Zimmermann, Aruni P S Arachchige-Don, +2 authors, Mary C Horne.
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 2016 Nov 03; 15(23). PMID: 27753529    Free PMC article.
One microenvironment does not fit all: heterogeneity beyond cancer cells.
Ik Sun Kim, Xiang H-F Zhang.
Cancer Metastasis Rev, 2016 Nov 20; 35(4). PMID: 27858305    Free PMC article.
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Tumour biomarkers: homeostasis as a novel prognostic indicator.
Michela Falco, Giuseppe Palma, +7 authors, Claudio Arra.
Open Biol, 2016 Dec 09; 6(12). PMID: 27927793    Free PMC article.
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Unsupervised Clustering of Quantitative Image Phenotypes Reveals Breast Cancer Subtypes with Distinct Prognoses and Molecular Pathways.
Jia Wu, Yi Cui, +5 authors, Ruijiang Li.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jan 12; 23(13). PMID: 28073839    Free PMC article.
Whole-genome single-cell copy number profiling from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples.
Luciano G Martelotto, Timour Baslan, +20 authors, Jorge S Reis-Filho.
Nat Med, 2017 Feb 07; 23(3). PMID: 28165479    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Clinical Implications of ESR1 Mutations in Hormone Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer.
Tomas Reinert, Everardo D Saad, Carlos H Barrios, José Bines.
Front Oncol, 2017 Apr 01; 7. PMID: 28361033    Free PMC article.
Review.
Comparative clinical utility of tumor genomic testing and cell-free DNA in metastatic breast cancer.
Kara N Maxwell, Danielle Soucier-Ernst, +15 authors, Angela DeMichele.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2017 May 14; 164(3). PMID: 28500398    Free PMC article.
Buparlisib plus fulvestrant versus placebo plus fulvestrant in postmenopausal, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer (BELLE-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
José Baselga, Seock-Ah Im, +22 authors, Mario Campone.
Lancet Oncol, 2017 Jun 04; 18(7). PMID: 28576675    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
RAS pathway biomarkers for breast cancer prognosis.
Lauren L Siewertsz van Reesema, Michael P Lee, +5 authors, Amy H Tang.
Clin Lab Int, 2017 Jun 06; 40. PMID: 28579913    Free PMC article.
Targeting EphA2 impairs cell cycle progression and growth of basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers.
W Song, Y Hwang, +4 authors, D M Brantley-Sieders.
Oncogene, 2017 Jun 06; 36(40). PMID: 28581527    Free PMC article.
Raman-Encoded Molecular Imaging with Topically Applied SERS Nanoparticles for Intraoperative Guidance of Lumpectomy.
Yu Winston Wang, Nicholas P Reder, +6 authors, Jonathan T C Liu.
Cancer Res, 2017 Jun 16; 77(16). PMID: 28615226    Free PMC article.
SRGN-TGFβ2 regulatory loop confers invasion and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer.
Z Zhang, Y Deng, +10 authors, Z He.
Oncogenesis, 2017 Jul 12; 6(7). PMID: 28692037    Free PMC article.
Adding Adjuvant Systemic Treatment after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Breast Cancer: Review of the Data.
Shetal A Patel, Angela DeMichele.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2017 Jul 25; 19(8). PMID: 28733827
Review.
Increased Tumour Infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocytes in Patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer Suggests Susceptibility to Immune Therapy
Bushra Sikandar, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, +2 authors, Talat Mirza.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2017 Jul 28; 18(7). PMID: 28749113    Free PMC article.
A comparative study of Ki-67 antigen expression between luminal A and triple-negative subtypes of breast cancer.
Umbelina Soares Borges, Danylo Rafhael Costa-Silva, +6 authors, Pedro Vitor Lopes-Costa.
Med Oncol, 2017 Aug 07; 34(9). PMID: 28780646
Ex-vivo assessment of drug response on breast cancer primary tissue with preserved microenvironments.
Manuele G Muraro, Simone Muenst, +6 authors, Savas D Soysal.
Oncoimmunology, 2017 Aug 16; 6(7). PMID: 28811974    Free PMC article.
Potential Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Oligonucleotide Aptamers in Breast Cancer.
Xiaoqiu Wu, Atik Badshah Shaikh, +4 authors, Ge Zhang.
Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Aug 26; 18(9). PMID: 28841163    Free PMC article.
Review.
CHST9 rs1436904 genetic variant contributes to prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer.
Jupeng Yuan, Nasha Zhang, +4 authors, Ming Yang.
Sci Rep, 2017 Sep 20; 7(1). PMID: 28924212    Free PMC article.
Texture analysis of high-resolution dedicated breast 18 F-FDG PET images correlates with immunohistochemical factors and subtype of breast cancer.
Alexis Moscoso, Álvaro Ruibal, +7 authors, Pablo Aguiar.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 2017 Sep 25; 45(2). PMID: 28936601
Cell-free circulating tumor DNA analysis for breast cancer and its clinical utilization as a biomarker.
Ru Wang, Xiao Li, +2 authors, Jianjun He.
Oncotarget, 2017 Nov 02; 8(43). PMID: 29088906    Free PMC article.
Review.
Combating subclonal evolution of resistant cancer phenotypes.
Samuel W Brady, Jasmine A McQuerry, +25 authors, Andrea H Bild.
Nat Commun, 2017 Nov 03; 8(1). PMID: 29093439    Free PMC article.
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Andrea Nicolini, Paola Ferrari, Lucrezia Diodati, Angelo Carpi.
Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Nov 04; 18(11). PMID: 29099748    Free PMC article.
Review.
Aptamer selection and applications for breast cancer diagnostics and therapy.
Mei Liu, Xiaocheng Yu, +9 authors, Nongyue He.
J Nanobiotechnology, 2017 Nov 15; 15(1). PMID: 29132385    Free PMC article.
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Microscopic investigation of" topically applied nanoparticles for molecular imaging of fresh tissue surfaces.
Soyoung Kang, Yu Winston Wang, +3 authors, Jonathan T C Liu.
J Biophotonics, 2017 Dec 12; 11(4). PMID: 29227576    Free PMC article.
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Gulisa Turashvili, Edi Brogi.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2017 Dec 26; 4. PMID: 29276709    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Molecular Subtypes of Indonesian Breast Carcinomas - Lack of Association with Patient Age and Tumor Size
Yeni Rahmawati, Yunita Setyawati, +2 authors, Dewajani Purnomosari.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2018 Jan 28; 19(1). PMID: 29373908    Free PMC article.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) expression differentiates tumor subtypes and predicts clinical outcome in breast cancer patients.
Christoforos Haritos, Kleita Michaelidou, +4 authors, Andreas Scorilas.
Clin Exp Med, 2018 Feb 13; 18(2). PMID: 29435805
High-dimensional regression analysis links magnetic resonance imaging features and protein expression and signaling pathway alterations in breast invasive carcinoma.
Michael Lehrer, Anindya Bhadra, +14 authors, TCGA Breast Phenotype Research Group.
Oncoscience, 2018 Mar 21; 5(1-2). PMID: 29556516    Free PMC article.
Optoacoustics delineates murine breast cancer models displaying angiogenesis and vascular mimicry.
Isabel Quiros-Gonzalez, Michal R Tomaszewski, +6 authors, Sarah E Bohndiek.
Br J Cancer, 2018 Mar 27; 118(8). PMID: 29576623    Free PMC article.
Current Status of Neoadjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer.
Tomás Reinert, Rodrigo Gonçalves, Matthew J Ellis.
Curr Treat Options Oncol, 2018 Apr 18; 19(5). PMID: 29663173
Review.
Canonical NF-κB signaling in myeloid cells promotes lung metastasis in a mouse breast cancer model.
Tobias Neumann, Özge Canli, Florian R Greten.
Oncotarget, 2018 Apr 24; 9(24). PMID: 29682184    Free PMC article.
Intratumoral Spatial Heterogeneity at Perfusion MR Imaging Predicts Recurrence-free Survival in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
Jia Wu, Guohong Cao, +6 authors, Ruijiang Li.
Radiology, 2018 May 02; 288(1). PMID: 29714680    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
New insights from the widening homogeneity perspective to target intratumor heterogeneity.
Mengying Tong, Ziqian Deng, +4 authors, Quentin Liu.
Cancer Commun (Lond), 2018 May 17; 38(1). PMID: 29764517    Free PMC article.
Review.
Functional significance of co-occurring mutations in PIK3CA and MAP3K1 in breast cancer.
Alvaro Avivar-Valderas, Robert McEwen, +6 authors, Francisco Cruzalegui.
Oncotarget, 2018 May 17; 9(30). PMID: 29765551    Free PMC article.
Levels of miR-126 and miR-218 are elevated in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and inhibit malignant potential of DCIS derived cells.
Stefano Volinia, Valeria Bertagnolo, +18 authors, Silvano Capitani.
Oncotarget, 2018 May 29; 9(34). PMID: 29805754    Free PMC article.
Genome doubling shapes the evolution and prognosis of advanced cancers.
Craig M Bielski, Ahmet Zehir, +17 authors, Barry S Taylor.
Nat Genet, 2018 Jul 18; 50(8). PMID: 30013179    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Methylation Profiles of BRCA1, RASSF1A and GSTP1 in Vietnamese Women with Breast Cancer
Trang Lan Vu, Trang Thu Nguyen, Van Thi Hong Doan, Lan Thi Thuong Vo.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2018 Jul 28; 19(7). PMID: 30049201    Free PMC article.
Integrative analysis of the inter-tumoral heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer.
Alec M Chiu, Mithun Mitra, Lari Boymoushakian, Hilary A Coller.
Sci Rep, 2018 Aug 09; 8(1). PMID: 30087365    Free PMC article.
Design and synthesis of cenocladamide analogues and their evaluation against breast cancer cell lines.
Carla C F Santos, Luciana S Paradela, +2 authors, Julio C Pastre.
Medchemcomm, 2016 Nov 25; 8(4). PMID: 30108794    Free PMC article.
An Update on the Clinical Use of CDK4/6 Inhibitors in Breast Cancer.
Marie Robert, Jean-Sébastien Frenel, +5 authors, Mario Campone.
Drugs, 2018 Aug 26; 78(13). PMID: 30143968
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Prognostic value of DKK2 from the Dickkopf family in human breast cancer.
You-Cheng Shao, Xiao-Cui Nie, +3 authors, Xiao-Yan Xu.
Int J Oncol, 2018 Oct 16; 53(6). PMID: 30320375    Free PMC article.
Differences in the starvation-induced autophagy response in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Wanyun Zhu, Hao Qu, +6 authors, Hong-Ye Zhao.
Anim Cells Syst (Seoul), 2017 May 30; 21(3). PMID: 30460069    Free PMC article.
Characterizing Trastuzumab-Induced Alterations in Intratumoral Heterogeneity with Quantitative Imaging and Immunohistochemistry in HER2+ Breast Cancer.
Anum K Syed, Ryan Woodall, +2 authors, Anna G Sorace.
Neoplasia, 2018 Nov 26; 21(1). PMID: 30472501    Free PMC article.
Moving Breast Cancer Therapy up a Notch.
Erik W J Mollen, Jonathan Ient, +4 authors, Marc A G G Vooijs.
Front Oncol, 2018 Dec 06; 8. PMID: 30515368    Free PMC article.
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Quantifying Risk Pathway Crosstalk Mediated by miRNA to Screen Precision drugs for Breast Cancer Patients.
Yingqi Xu, Shuting Lin, +7 authors, Yanjun Xu.
Genes (Basel), 2019 Aug 31; 10(9). PMID: 31466383    Free PMC article.
Adipocytes and microRNAs Crosstalk: A Key Tile in the Mosaic of Breast Cancer Microenvironment.
Erika Bandini, Tania Rossi, Giulia Gallerani, Francesco Fabbri.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Oct 02; 11(10). PMID: 31569710    Free PMC article.
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The Histone Demethylase LSD1/ΚDM1A Mediates Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer via Regulation of a Stem Cell Program.
John Verigos, Panagiotis Karakaidos, +5 authors, Angeliki Magklara.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Oct 20; 11(10). PMID: 31627418    Free PMC article.
Subtype-Based Prognostic Analysis of Cell-in-Cell Structures in Early Breast Cancer.
Xin Zhang, Zubiao Niu, +10 authors, Qiang Sun.
Front Oncol, 2019 Nov 05; 9. PMID: 31681557    Free PMC article.
Alliance with EPR Effect: Combined Strategies to Improve the EPR Effect in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Jooho Park, Yongwhan Choi, +3 authors, Ick Chan Kwon.
Theranostics, 2019 Nov 23; 9(26). PMID: 31754382    Free PMC article.
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Exploiting metabolic glycoengineering to advance healthcare.
Christian Agatemor, Matthew J Buettner, +3 authors, Kevin J Yarema.
Nat Rev Chem, 2019 Nov 30; 3(10). PMID: 31777760    Free PMC article.
TRIB3 supports breast cancer stemness by suppressing FOXO1 degradation and enhancing SOX2 transcription.
Jin-Mei Yu, Wei Sun, +17 authors, Zhuo-Wei Hu.
Nat Commun, 2019 Dec 18; 10(1). PMID: 31844113    Free PMC article.
Peritumoral ADC values in breast cancer: region of interest selection, associations with hyaluronan intensity, and prognostic significance.
Tiia Kettunen, Hidemi Okuma, +8 authors, Ritva Vanninen.
Eur Radiol, 2019 Jul 31; 30(1). PMID: 31359124    Free PMC article.
PET imaging of a 68Ga labeled modified HER2 affibody in breast cancers: from xenografts to patients.
Yuping Xu, Lizhen Wang, +8 authors, Min Yang.
Br J Radiol, 2019 Oct 09; 92(1104). PMID: 31593482    Free PMC article.
T1-2N1M0 triple-negative breast cancer patients from the SEER database showed potential benefit from post-mastectomy radiotherapy.
Xueying Wang, Yingying Xu, +6 authors, Liang Zong.
Oncol Lett, 2020 Jan 04; 19(1). PMID: 31897189    Free PMC article.
Predictive factors and prognostic value of pathologic complete response of ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph nodes in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Jiujun Zhu, Dechuang Jiao, +8 authors, Zhenzhen Liu.
Ann Transl Med, 2020 Jan 14; 7(22). PMID: 31930067    Free PMC article.
Artichoke Polyphenols Sensitize Human Breast Cancer Cells to Chemotherapeutic Drugs via a ROS-Mediated Downregulation of Flap Endonuclease 1.
Anna Maria Mileo, Donato Di Venere, Stefania Mardente, Stefania Miccadei.
Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2020 Jan 31; 2020. PMID: 31998443    Free PMC article.
Nitric Oxide and S-Nitrosylation in Cancers: Emphasis on Breast Cancer.
Deepshikha Mishra, Vaibhav Patel, Debabrata Banerjee.
Breast Cancer (Auckl), 2020 Feb 08; 14. PMID: 32030066    Free PMC article.
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SETD3 acts as a prognostic marker in breast cancer patients and modulates the viability and invasion of breast cancer cells.
Nourhan Hassan, Niklas Rutsch, +2 authors, Martin Götte.
Sci Rep, 2020 Feb 12; 10(1). PMID: 32042016    Free PMC article.
Designing Highly Crystalline Multifunctional Multicolor Luminescence Nanosystem for Tracking Breast Cancer Heterogeneity.
Avijit Pramanik, Salma Begum, +11 authors, Paresh Chandra Ray.
Nanoscale Adv, 2019 Sep 24; 1(3). PMID: 31544171    Free PMC article.
The Roles of CD38 and CD157 in the Solid Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Immunotherapy.
Yu Jun Wo, Adelia Shin Ping Gan, +4 authors, Joe Poh Sheng Yeong.
Cells, 2019 Dec 22; 9(1). PMID: 31861847    Free PMC article.
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Development of a Non-invasive Assessment of Hypoxia and Neovascularization with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors: Initial Results.
Andreas Stadlbauer, Max Zimmermann, +6 authors, Katja Pinker.
Mol Imaging Biol, 2018 Nov 28; 21(4). PMID: 30478507    Free PMC article.
Clinical factors associated with circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in primary breast cancer.
Yidong Zhou, Yaping Xu, +11 authors, Qiang Sun.
Mol Oncol, 2019 Jan 24; 13(5). PMID: 30672098    Free PMC article.
Clonal replacement and heterogeneity in breast tumors treated with neoadjuvant HER2-targeted therapy.
Jennifer L Caswell-Jin, Katherine McNamara, +17 authors, Christina Curtis.
Nat Commun, 2019 Feb 10; 10(1). PMID: 30737380    Free PMC article.
Alternative RNA Splicing as a Potential Major Source of Untapped Molecular Targets in Precision Oncology and Cancer Disparities.
Timothy J Robinson, Jennifer A Freedman, +5 authors, Steven R Patierno.
Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Feb 14; 25(10). PMID: 30755441    Free PMC article.
SHON expression predicts response and relapse risk of breast cancer patients after anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy or tamoxifen treatment.
Tarek M A Abdel-Fatah, Reuben J Broom, +20 authors, Dong-Xu Liu.
Br J Cancer, 2019 Mar 01; 120(7). PMID: 30816325    Free PMC article.
Investigating circulating tumor cells and distant metastases in patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models of triple-negative breast cancer.
Vishnu C Ramani, Clementine A Lemaire, +10 authors, Stefanie S Jeffrey.
Breast Cancer Res, 2019 Aug 30; 21(1). PMID: 31462307    Free PMC article.
Radiomic signatures with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of breast cancer receptor status and molecular subtypes: initial results.
Doris Leithner, Joao V Horvat, +7 authors, Katja Pinker.
Breast Cancer Res, 2019 Sep 14; 21(1). PMID: 31514736    Free PMC article.
Biological correlates of tumor perfusion and its heterogeneity in newly diagnosed breast cancer using dynamic first-pass 18F-FDG PET/CT.
Neree Payan, Benoit Presles, +4 authors, Alexandre Cochet.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging, 2019 Aug 10; 47(5). PMID: 31396665
Long non-coding RNA LINC00968 reduces cell proliferation and migration and angiogenesis in breast cancer through up-regulation of PROX1 by reducing hsa-miR-423-5p.
Xianfu Sun, Tao Huang, +4 authors, Zhenzhen Liu.
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 2019 Jun 20; 18(16). PMID: 31213129    Free PMC article.
Cellular, transcriptomic and isoform heterogeneity of breast cancer cell line revealed by full-length single-cell RNA sequencing.
Shaocheng Wu, Hongjiu Zhang, +6 authors, Yuanfang Guan.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J, 2020 Apr 08; 18. PMID: 32257051    Free PMC article.
Dynamic nuclear polarisation: The future of imaging in oncology?
Eva M Serrao, Kevin M Brindle.
Porto Biomed J, 2017 May 01; 2(3). PMID: 32258590    Free PMC article.
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Cancer Diagnosis through SERS and Other Related Techniques.
Maria Blanco-Formoso, Ramon A Alvarez-Puebla.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Mar 28; 21(6). PMID: 32214017    Free PMC article.
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SH3BGRL2 exerts a dual function in breast cancer growth and metastasis and is regulated by TGF-β1.
Dou-Dou Li, Ling Deng, +2 authors, Da-Qiang Li.
Am J Cancer Res, 2020 May 06; 10(4). PMID: 32368399    Free PMC article.
Sodium-Dependent Glucose Transporter 1 (SGLT1) Stabled by HER2 Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation by Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in HER2+ Breast Cancer.
Jinlu Wang, Hongfei Ji, +8 authors, Qingyuan Zhang.
Dis Markers, 2020 May 08; 2020. PMID: 32377271    Free PMC article.
Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of nestin expression in patients with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Xinyi Zhang, Changsheng Xing, +4 authors, Kai Xie.
Cancer Cell Int, 2020 May 30; 20. PMID: 32467665    Free PMC article.
Unmet Clinical Need: Developing Prognostic Biomarkers and Precision Medicine to Forecast Early Tumor Relapse, Detect Chemo-Resistance and Improve Overall Survival in High-Risk Breast Cancer.
Gagan Gupta, Caroline Dasom Lee, +10 authors, Amy H Tang.
Ann Breast Cancer Ther, 2020 Jun 17; 4(1). PMID: 32542231    Free PMC article.
Chemogenomic profiling of breast cancer patient-derived xenografts reveals targetable vulnerabilities for difficult-to-treat tumors.
Paul Savage, Alain Pacis, +24 authors, Morag Park.
Commun Biol, 2020 Jun 18; 3(1). PMID: 32546838    Free PMC article.
New generation breast cancer cell lines developed from patient-derived xenografts.
Jessica Finlay-Schultz, Britta M Jacobsen, +6 authors, Carol A Sartorius.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 Jun 25; 22(1). PMID: 32576280    Free PMC article.
Multiparametric Analysis of Longitudinal Quantitative MRI data to Identify Distinct Tumor Habitats in Preclinical Models of Breast Cancer.
Anum K Syed, Jennifer G Whisenant, +2 authors, Thomas E Yankeelov.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 01; 12(6). PMID: 32599906    Free PMC article.
Effect of neoadjuvant therapy on breast cancer biomarker profile.
Laura Rey-Vargas, Juan Carlos Mejía-Henao, María Carolina Sanabria-Salas, Silvia J Serrano-Gomez.
BMC Cancer, 2020 Jul 20; 20(1). PMID: 32682413    Free PMC article.
Potential of Using Cell-Free DNA and miRNA in Breast Milk to Screen Early Breast Cancer.
Qinghe Song, Yingying Zhang, Hongtao Liu, Yuguang Du.
Biomed Res Int, 2020 Jul 28; 2020. PMID: 32714986    Free PMC article.
Homologous repair deficiency score for identifying breast cancers with defective DNA damage response.
Ahrum Min, Kwangsoo Kim, +6 authors, Seock-Ah Im.
Sci Rep, 2020 Jul 29; 10(1). PMID: 32719318    Free PMC article.
Non-Invasive Assessment of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes with Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Radiomics.
Doris Leithner, Marius E Mayerhoefer, +4 authors, Katja Pinker.
J Clin Med, 2020 Jun 18; 9(6). PMID: 32545851    Free PMC article.
miR-622 is a novel potential biomarker of breast carcinoma and impairs motility of breast cancer cells through targeting NUAK1 kinase.
Francesca Maria Orlandella, Raffaela Mariarosaria Mariniello, +11 authors, Giuliana Salvatore.
Br J Cancer, 2020 May 19; 123(3). PMID: 32418991    Free PMC article.
SETER/PR: a robust 18-gene predictor for sensitivity to endocrine therapy for metastatic breast cancer.
Bruno V Sinn, Chunxiao Fu, +23 authors, W Fraser Symmans.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2019 Jun 25; 5. PMID: 31231679    Free PMC article.
Non-Invasive Assessment of Hypoxia and Neovascularization with MRI for Identification of Aggressive Breast Cancer.
Barbara Bennani-Baiti, Katja Pinker, +6 authors, Andreas Stadlbauer.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 30; 12(8). PMID: 32721996    Free PMC article.
Potential Management of Circulating Tumor DNA as a Biomarker in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Mao Shang, Chunxiao Chang, +3 authors, HuiHui Li.
J Cancer, 2018 Dec 28; 9(24). PMID: 30588246    Free PMC article.
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Transcriptomic analyses identify key differentially expressed genes and clinical outcomes between triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancer.
Bo Chen, Hailin Tang, +4 authors, Ning Liao.
Cancer Manag Res, 2019 Jan 08; 11. PMID: 30613165    Free PMC article.
Clinical Predictive Factors for the Efficacy of Everolimus in Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study in Japan.
Yuichiro Kikawa, Takeshi Kotake, +5 authors, Masakazu Toi.
Breast Cancer (Auckl), 2019 Feb 09; 13. PMID: 30733627    Free PMC article.
Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2 Promotes Human Breast Cancer Cell Growth by Positively Regulating the MAPK/ERK Pathway.
Mengjiao Cai, Xin Liang, +5 authors, Suxia Han.
Front Oncol, 2019 Apr 04; 9. PMID: 30941313    Free PMC article.
Personalized medicine in breast cancer: pharmacogenomics approaches.
Shabnam Jeibouei, Mohammad Esmael Akbari, +4 authors, Hakimeh Zali.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med, 2019 Jun 20; 12. PMID: 31213877    Free PMC article.
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The New Paradigm of Network Medicine to Analyze Breast Cancer Phenotypes.
Anna Maria Grimaldi, Federica Conte, +9 authors, Mariarosaria Incoronato.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Sep 17; 21(18). PMID: 32932728    Free PMC article.
An immune-related prognostic signature for predicting breast cancer recurrence.
Zelin Tian, Jianing Tang, +3 authors, Gaosong Wu.
Cancer Med, 2020 Aug 26; 9(20). PMID: 32841536    Free PMC article.
Perspectives on Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Current Treatment Strategies, Unmet Needs, and Potential Targets for Future Therapies.
Gagan K Gupta, Amber L Collier, +13 authors, Amy H Tang.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Aug 28; 12(9). PMID: 32846967    Free PMC article.
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Hormone-Independent Mouse Mammary Adenocarcinomas with Different Metastatic Potential Exhibit Different Metabolic Signatures.
Daniela Bispo, Victoria Fabris, +3 authors, Ana M Gil.
Biomolecules, 2020 Sep 02; 10(9). PMID: 32867141    Free PMC article.
Association of Low Tumor Endothelial Cell pY397-Focal Adhesion Kinase Expression With Survival in Patients With Neoadjuvant-Treated Locally Advanced Breast Cancer.
Marina Roy-Luzarraga, Tarek Abdel-Fatah, +6 authors, Kairbaan Hodivala-Dilke.
JAMA Netw Open, 2020 Oct 28; 3(10). PMID: 33107920    Free PMC article.
Identification of long-term survival-associated gene in breast cancer.
Shipeng Ning, Hui Li, +10 authors, Da Pang.
Aging (Albany NY), 2020 Oct 21; 12(20). PMID: 33080569    Free PMC article.