. 2015 May; 2015:171520.
doi: 10.1155/2015/171520.

Glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein: a key marker of functional regulatory T cells

Simona Ronchetti 1 Erika Ricci 1 Maria Grazia Petrillo 1 Luigi Cari 1 Graziella Migliorati 1 Giuseppe Nocentini 1 Carlo Riccardi 1 
  • PMID: 25961057
  •     155 References
  •     49 citations


Glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR, TNFRSF18, and CD357) is expressed at high levels in activated T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this review, we present data from mouse and human studies suggesting that GITR is a crucial player in the differentiation of thymic Tregs (tTregs), and expansion of both tTregs and peripheral Tregs (pTregs). The role of GITR in Treg expansion is confirmed by the association of GITR expression with markers of memory T cells. In this context, it is not surprising that GITR appears to be a marker of active Tregs, as suggested by the association of GITR expression with other markers of Treg activation or cytokines with suppressive activity (e.g., IL-10 and TGF-β), the presence of GITR(+) cells in tissues where Tregs are active (e.g., solid tumours), or functional studies on Tregs. Furthermore, some Treg subsets including Tr1 cells express either low or no classical Treg markers (e.g., FoxP3 and CD25) and do express GITR. Therefore, when evaluating changes in the number of Tregs in human diseases, GITR expression must be evaluated. Moreover, GITR should be considered as a marker for isolating Tregs.

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David A Schaer, Judith T Murphy, Jedd D Wolchok.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2012 Jan 17; 24(2). PMID: 22245556    Free PMC article.
GITR engagement preferentially enhances proliferation of functionally competent CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells.
Gongxian Liao, Sushrusha Nayak, +7 authors, Cox Terhorst.
Int Immunol, 2010 Feb 09; 22(4). PMID: 20139172    Free PMC article.
A new member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor family inhibits T cell receptor-induced apoptosis.
G Nocentini, L Giunchi, +5 authors, C Riccardi.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1997 Jun 10; 94(12). PMID: 9177197    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Bypassing tumor-associated immune suppression with recombinant adenovirus constructs expressing membrane bound or secreted GITR-L.
Bastien Calmels, Stéphane Paul, +3 authors, Bruce Acres.
Cancer Gene Ther, 2004 Oct 09; 12(2). PMID: 15472713
Genetic and epigenetic basis of Treg cell development and function: from a FoxP3-centered view to an epigenome-defined view of natural Treg cells.
Hiromasa Morikawa, Shimon Sakaguchi.
Immunol Rev, 2014 Apr 10; 259(1). PMID: 24712467
Highly Cited. Review.
Gene expression in the Gitr locus is regulated by NF-κB and Foxp3 through an enhancer.
Yukiko Tone, Yoko Kidani, +5 authors, Masahide Tone.
J Immunol, 2014 Mar 19; 192(8). PMID: 24634496    Free PMC article.
Expression of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-7 receptors discriminates between human regulatory and activated T cells.
Nabila Seddiki, Brigitte Santner-Nanan, +9 authors, Barbara Fazekas de St Groth.
J Exp Med, 2006 Jul 05; 203(7). PMID: 16818676    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
In vivo expansion of naïve CD4+ CD25(high) FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in patients with colorectal carcinoma after IL-2 administration.
Marc Beyer, Beatrix Schumak, +7 authors, Joachim L Schultze.
PLoS One, 2012 Jan 26; 7(1). PMID: 22276195    Free PMC article.
Nature and nurture in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell development, stability, and function.
Terrence L Geiger, Sharyn Tauro.
Hum Immunol, 2012 Jan 14; 73(3). PMID: 22240298    Free PMC article.
Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related (GITR)-Fc fusion protein inhibits GITR triggering and protects from the inflammatory response after spinal cord injury.
Giuseppe Nocentini, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, +7 authors, Carlo Riccardi.
Mol Pharmacol, 2008 Mar 07; 73(6). PMID: 18322000
Correlation of increased blood levels of GITR and GITRL with disease severity in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.
Xiaoxia Gan, Xiaoke Feng, +4 authors, Miaojia Zhang.
Clin Dev Immunol, 2013 Aug 13; 2013. PMID: 23935647    Free PMC article.
GITR-dependent regulation of 4-1BB expression: implications for T cell memory and anti-4-1BB-induced pathology.
Gloria H Y Lin, Laura M Snell, +2 authors, Tania H Watts.
J Immunol, 2013 Mar 29; 190(9). PMID: 23536631
Tumour cell generation of inducible regulatory T-cells in multiple myeloma is contact-dependent and antigen-presenting cell-independent.
Sylvia Feyler, Gina B Scott, +6 authors, Gordon Cook.
PLoS One, 2012 Jun 06; 7(5). PMID: 22666318    Free PMC article.
Phenotypic characterization of ex vivo CD4+CD25highCD127low immune regulatory T cells in allergic asthma: pathogenesis relevance of their FoxP3, GITR, CTLA-4 and FAS expressions.
M Pietruczuk, M Eusebio, +2 authors, P Kuna.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents, 2012 Dec 18; 26(4). PMID: 23241113
Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related receptor (GITR)-expression in tumor infiltrating leucocytes (TILs) is associated with the pathogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinomas with and without Barrett's mucosa.
Burkhard H A von Rahden, S Kircher, +5 authors, M Grimm.
Cancer Biomark, 2010 Jan 01; 7(6). PMID: 21694467
Depletion of regulatory T cells by anti-GITR mAb as a novel mechanism for cancer immunotherapy.
David Coe, Shaima Begom, +3 authors, Jian-Guo Chai.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2010 May 19; 59(9). PMID: 20480365
A subset of CD8+ T cells acquiring selective suppressive properties may play a role in GvHD management.
Irit Avivi, Dina Stroopinsky, Jacob M Rowe, Tamar Katz.
Transpl Immunol, 2012 Dec 01; 28(1). PMID: 23196257
CD4⁺CD25⁺/highCD127low/⁻ regulatory T cells are enriched in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis joints--analysis of frequency and phenotype in synovial membrane, synovial fluid and peripheral blood.
Babak Moradi, Philipp Schnatzer, +7 authors, Theresa Tretter.
Arthritis Res Ther, 2014 Apr 20; 16(2). PMID: 24742142    Free PMC article.
Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related ligand triggering upregulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and promotes leukocyte adhesion.
Pedro Miguel Lacal, Maria Grazia Petrillo, +7 authors, Giuseppe Nocentini.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 2013 Jul 31; 347(1). PMID: 23892569
Treatment of advanced tumors with agonistic anti-GITR mAb and its effects on tumor-infiltrating Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells.
Kuibeom Ko, Sayuri Yamazaki, +7 authors, Shimon Sakaguchi.
J Exp Med, 2005 Sep 28; 202(7). PMID: 16186187    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Expression of GITR ligand abrogates immunosuppressive function of ocular tissue and differentially modulates inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
Sankaranarayana P Mahesh, Zhuqing Li, +2 authors, Robert B Nussenblatt.
Eur J Immunol, 2006 Jul 29; 36(8). PMID: 16874737
GITR pathway activation abrogates tumor immune suppression through loss of regulatory T cell lineage stability.
David A Schaer, Sadna Budhu, +8 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2014 Jan 15; 1(5). PMID: 24416730    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
GITR gene deletion and GITR-FC soluble protein administration inhibit multiple organ failure induced by zymosan.
Maria Galuppo, Giuseppe Nocentini, +7 authors, Salvatore Cuzzocrea.
Shock, 2011 Jun 10; 36(3). PMID: 21654556
GITR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, is costimulatory to mouse T lymphocyte subpopulations.
Simona Ronchetti, Ornella Zollo, +5 authors, Carlo Riccardi.
Eur J Immunol, 2004 Mar 03; 34(3). PMID: 14991590
Decrease in dendritic cells in endomyocardial biopsies of human dilated cardiomyopathy.
Rudin Pistulli, Sebastian König, +8 authors, Atilla Yilmaz.
Eur J Heart Fail, 2013 Apr 23; 15(9). PMID: 23603088
TLR5 signaling enhances the proliferation of human allogeneic CD40-activated B cell induced CD4hiCD25+ regulatory T cells.
Ping-Lung Chan, Jian Zheng, +7 authors, Wenwei Tu.
PLoS One, 2013 Jul 12; 8(7). PMID: 23844139    Free PMC article.
IL-15-dependent upregulation of GITR on CD8 memory phenotype T cells in the bone marrow relative to spleen and lymph node suggests the bone marrow as a site of superior bioavailability of IL-15.
Laura M Snell, Gloria H Y Lin, Tania H Watts.
J Immunol, 2012 May 15; 188(12). PMID: 22581858
Regulatory T cell microRNA expression changes in children with acute Kawasaki disease.
F-F Ni, C-R Li, +3 authors, J Yang.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2014 Jul 22; 178(2). PMID: 25039241    Free PMC article.
The plasticity and stability of regulatory T cells.
Shimon Sakaguchi, Dario A A Vignali, +2 authors, Herman Waldmann.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2013 May 18; 13(6). PMID: 23681097
Highly Cited.
IFN-β induces the proliferation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells through upregulation of GITRL on dendritic cells in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
Meiyue Chen, Guangjie Chen, +3 authors, Jian Hong.
J Neuroimmunol, 2011 Nov 25; 242(1-2). PMID: 22112394
Role of glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family gene (GITR) in collagen-induced arthritis.
Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emira Ayroldi, +7 authors, Carlo Riccardi.
FASEB J, 2005 Jul 30; 19(10). PMID: 16051692
Human CD25+CD4+ T suppressor cell clones produce transforming growth factor beta, but not interleukin 10, and are distinct from type 1 T regulatory cells.
Megan K Levings, Romina Sangregorio, +4 authors, Maria-Grazia Roncarolo.
J Exp Med, 2002 Nov 20; 196(10). PMID: 12438424    Free PMC article.
The contextual role of TNFR family members in CD8(+) T-cell control of viral infections.
Michael E Wortzman, Derek L Clouthier, +2 authors, Tania H Watts.
Immunol Rev, 2013 Aug 21; 255(1). PMID: 23947352
Enhanced GITR/GITRL interactions augment IL-27 expression and induce IL-10-producing Tr-1 like cells.
Yijun Carrier, Matthew J Whitters, +10 authors, Quintus G Medley.
Eur J Immunol, 2012 Jun 09; 42(6). PMID: 22678896
Genetic evidence of regulatory gene variants of the STAT6, IL10R and FOXP3 locus as a susceptibility factor in uncomplicated malaria and parasitaemia in Congolese children.
Felix Koukouikila-Koussounda, Francine Ntoumi, +3 authors, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan.
Malar J, 2013 Jan 10; 12. PMID: 23297791    Free PMC article.
Modulation of Treg cells/T effector function by GITR signaling is context-dependent.
Amal Ephrem, Alan L Epstein, +3 authors, Ethan M Shevach.
Eur J Immunol, 2013 Jun 01; 43(9). PMID: 23722868
MicroRNA-126 regulates the induction and function of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells through PI3K/AKT pathway.
Andong Qin, Zhenke Wen, +5 authors, Lin Xu.
J Cell Mol Med, 2013 Jan 11; 17(2). PMID: 23301798    Free PMC article.
GITR: a modulator of immune response and inflammation.
Giuseppe Nocentini, Carlo Riccardi.
Adv Exp Med Biol, 2009 Sep 18; 647. PMID: 19760073
CD4(+)CD25(+) immunoregulatory T cells: gene expression analysis reveals a functional role for the glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor.
Rebecca S McHugh, Matthew J Whitters, +4 authors, Michael C Byrne.
Immunity, 2002 Mar 01; 16(2). PMID: 11869690
Highly Cited.
Mouse glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor ligand is costimulatory for T cells.
Masahide Tone, Yukiko Tone, +4 authors, Herman Waldmann.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2003 Nov 11; 100(25). PMID: 14608036    Free PMC article.
PIM1 kinase phosphorylates the human transcription factor FOXP3 at serine 422 to negatively regulate its activity under inflammation.
Zhiyuan Li, Fang Lin, +10 authors, Bin Li.
J Biol Chem, 2014 Aug 07; 289(39). PMID: 25096571    Free PMC article.
Tr1 cells and the counter-regulation of immunity: natural mechanisms and therapeutic applications.
Maria Grazia Roncarolo, Silvia Gregori, Rosa Bacchetta, Manuela Battaglia.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 2014 Jul 10; 380. PMID: 25004813
Highly Cited. Review.
Cell-specific and context-dependent effects of GITR in cancer, autoimmunity, and infection.
Derek L Clouthier, Tania H Watts.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 2014 Feb 04; 25(2). PMID: 24484736
GITR-GITRL system, a novel player in shock and inflammation.
Ludovic Tibor Krausz, Rodolfo Bianchini, +3 authors, Carlo Riccardi.
ScientificWorldJournal, 2007 May 26; 7. PMID: 17525820    Free PMC article.
Generation of induced regulatory T cells from primary human naïve and memory T cells.
Gavin I Ellis, Mary Catherine Reneer, +2 authors, Francesc Martí.
J Vis Exp, 2012 Apr 25; (62). PMID: 22525890    Free PMC article.
A unique subset of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ T cells secreting interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta1 mediates suppression in the tumor microenvironment.
Laura Strauss, Christoph Bergmann, +3 authors, Theresa L Whiteside.
Clin Cancer Res, 2007 Aug 03; 13(15 Pt 1). PMID: 17671115
Highly Cited.
Alteration in frequency and function of CD4⁺CD25⁺FOXP3⁺ regulatory T cells in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Nargess Arandi, Abbas Mirshafiey, +6 authors, Asghar Aghamohammadi.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2013 Dec 18; 13(2). PMID: 24338252
IL10 polymorphisms influence neonatal immune responses, atopic dermatitis, and wheeze at age 3 years.
Diana Raedler, Sabina Illi, +4 authors, Bianca Schaub.
J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2012 Oct 02; 131(3). PMID: 23021880
GITRL is associated with increased autoantibody production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Linbo Li, Wen Wen, +4 authors, Zhanguo Li.
Clin Rheumatol, 2016 Apr 22; 35(9). PMID: 27098050
Phenotypical characterization of regulatory T cells in humans and rodents.
A L Rodríguez-Perea, E D Arcia, C M Rueda, P A Velilla.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2016 Apr 29; 185(3). PMID: 27124481    Free PMC article.
Massively parallel digital transcriptional profiling of single cells.
Grace X Y Zheng, Jessica M Terry, +30 authors, Jason H Bielas.
Nat Commun, 2017 Jan 17; 8. PMID: 28091601    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Mechanisms by Which B Cells and Regulatory T Cells Influence Development of Murine Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases.
Jason S Ellis, Helen Braley-Mullen.
J Clin Med, 2017 Jan 31; 6(2). PMID: 28134752    Free PMC article.
The role of GITR single-positive cells in immune homeostasis.
Giuseppe Nocentini, Luigi Cari, Graziella Migliorati, Carlo Riccardi.
Immun Inflamm Dis, 2017 Mar 03; 5(1). PMID: 28250919    Free PMC article.
RGC-32 Promotes Th17 Cell Differentiation and Enhances Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
Violeta Rus, Vinh Nguyen, +9 authors, Horea G Rus.
J Immunol, 2017 Mar 31; 198(10). PMID: 28356385    Free PMC article.
iPSC-Derived Regulatory Dendritic Cells Inhibit Allograft Rejection by Generating Alloantigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells.
Songjie Cai, Jiangang Hou, +9 authors, Xiao-Kang Li.
Stem Cell Reports, 2017 Apr 25; 8(5). PMID: 28434942    Free PMC article.
Na+ influx via Orai1 inhibits intracellular ATP-induced mTORC2 signaling to disrupt CD4 T cell gene expression and differentiation.
Yong Miao, Jaya Bhushan, Adish Dani, Monika Vig.
Elife, 2017 May 12; 6. PMID: 28492364    Free PMC article.
Functional differences between PD-1+ and PD-1- CD4+ effector T cells in healthy donors and patients with glioblastoma multiforme.
Brittany A Goods, Amanda L Hernandez, +7 authors, J Christopher Love.
PLoS One, 2017 Sep 08; 12(9). PMID: 28880903    Free PMC article.
The role of regulatory T cells and genes involved in their differentiation in pathogenesis of selected inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases. Part I: Treg properties and functions.
Bogusław Nedoszytko, Magdalena Lange, +10 authors, Roman Nowicki.
Postepy Dermatol Alergol, 2017 Sep 28; 34(4). PMID: 28951701    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T cells induced by B cells: a novel subpopulation of regulatory T cells.
Chien-Hui Chien, Bor-Luen Chiang.
J Biomed Sci, 2017 Nov 21; 24(1). PMID: 29151021    Free PMC article.
Potential effect of tumor-specific Treg-targeted antibodies in the treatment of human cancers: A bioinformatics analysis.
Luigi Cari, Giuseppe Nocentini, Graziella Migliorati, Carlo Riccardi.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Jan 09; 7(2). PMID: 29308313    Free PMC article.
Targeting of CD122 enhances antitumor immunity by altering the tumor immune environment.
Daniel O Villarreal, Michael J Allegrezza, +3 authors, Linda A Snyder.
Oncotarget, 2018 Jan 10; 8(65). PMID: 29312597    Free PMC article.
High self-reactivity drives T-bet and potentiates Treg function in tissue-specific autoimmunity.
Maran L Sprouse, Marissa A Scavuzzo, +6 authors, Maria Bettini.
JCI Insight, 2018 Jan 26; 3(2). PMID: 29367462    Free PMC article.
Association of Regulatory T-Cell Expansion With Progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Study of Humans and a Transgenic Mouse Model.
Rebecca K Sheean, Fiona C McKay, +16 authors, Bradley J Turner.
JAMA Neurol, 2018 Mar 07; 75(6). PMID: 29507931    Free PMC article.
T-cell Dysfunction in Glioblastoma: Applying a New Framework.
Karolina I Woroniecka, Kristen E Rhodin, +2 authors, Peter E Fecci.
Clin Cancer Res, 2018 Mar 30; 24(16). PMID: 29593027    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Regulatory T Cells As Potential Targets for HIV Cure Research.
Adam J Kleinman, Ranjit Sivanandham, +2 authors, Cristian Apetrei.
Front Immunol, 2018 May 01; 9. PMID: 29706961    Free PMC article.
Dopamine Receptor D5 Signaling Plays a Dual Role in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Potentiating Th17-Mediated Immunity and Favoring Suppressive Activity of Regulatory T-Cells.
Francisco Osorio-Barrios, Carolina Prado, Francisco Contreras, Rodrigo Pacheco.
Front Cell Neurosci, 2018 Jul 26; 12. PMID: 30042660    Free PMC article.
Distinct characteristics of Tregs of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers.
Viktor Černý, Jiří Hrdý, +4 authors, Ludmila Prokešová.
PLoS One, 2018 Nov 27; 13(11). PMID: 30475891    Free PMC article.
The transcription factor NFIL3 controls regulatory T-cell function and stability.
Hyeong Su Kim, Hyogon Sohn, Sung Woong Jang, Gap Ryol Lee.
Exp Mol Med, 2019 Jul 18; 51(7). PMID: 31311918    Free PMC article.
Characterization and Comparison of GITR Expression in Solid Tumors.
Luis Vence, Samantha L Bucktrout, +17 authors, Padmanee Sharma.
Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Jul 31; 25(21). PMID: 31358539    Free PMC article.
T lymphocyte-targeted immune checkpoint modulation in glioma.
William James Kelly, Amber Jin Giles, Mark Gilbert.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Feb 14; 8(1). PMID: 32051289    Free PMC article.
Mature IgDlow/- B cells maintain tolerance by promoting regulatory T cell homeostasis.
Avijit Ray, Mohamed I Khalil, +6 authors, Bonnie N Dittel.
Nat Commun, 2019 Jan 16; 10(1). PMID: 30643147    Free PMC article.
GARP Dampens Cancer Immunity by Sustaining Function and Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells in the Colon.
Mohammad Salem, Caroline Wallace, +11 authors, Zihai Li.
Cancer Res, 2019 Jan 25; 79(6). PMID: 30674536    Free PMC article.
Costimulation of type-2 innate lymphoid cells by GITR promotes effector function and ameliorates type 2 diabetes.
Lauriane Galle-Treger, Ishwarya Sankaranarayanan, +13 authors, Omid Akbari.
Nat Commun, 2019 Feb 14; 10(1). PMID: 30755607    Free PMC article.
The promise of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cell manipulation in vivo: applications for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Sabrina Copsel, Dietlinde Wolf, Krishna V Komanduri, Robert B Levy.
Haematologica, 2019 Jun 22; 104(7). PMID: 31221786    Free PMC article.
Regulatory T cell features in chronic granulomatous disease.
A van de Geer, E Cuadrado, +3 authors, T W Kuijpers.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2019 Mar 30; 197(2). PMID: 30924925    Free PMC article.
Circulating Cytokines Could Not Be Good Prognostic Biomarkers in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Laura Moreno-Martínez, Miriam de la Torre, +4 authors, Rosario Osta.
Front Immunol, 2019 Apr 30; 10. PMID: 31031774    Free PMC article.
The Tolerogenic Function of Regulatory T Cells in Pregnancy and Cancer.
Nanna Jørgensen, Gry Persson, Thomas Vauvert F Hviid.
Front Immunol, 2019 May 28; 10. PMID: 31134056    Free PMC article.
Standardized 11-color flow cytometry panel for the functional phenotyping of human T regulatory cells.
Claire Manuszak, Martha Brainard, +2 authors, Mariano Severgnini.
J Biol Methods, 2020 Apr 22; 7(2). PMID: 32313815    Free PMC article.
Human Regulatory T Cells From Umbilical Cord Blood Display Increased Repertoire Diversity and Lineage Stability Relative to Adult Peripheral Blood.
Keshav Motwani, Leeana D Peters, +11 authors, Todd M Brusko.
Front Immunol, 2020 May 01; 11. PMID: 32351504    Free PMC article.
Cell Intrinsic and Systemic Metabolism in Tumor Immunity and Immunotherapy.
Michael F Coleman, Alyssa J Cozzo, +2 authors, Stephen D Hursting.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Apr 05; 12(4). PMID: 32244756    Free PMC article.
Overcoming Tumor-Induced Immune Suppression: From Relieving Inhibition to Providing Costimulation with T Cell Agonists.
Dana A Emerson, William L Redmond.
BioDrugs, 2018 Apr 11; 32(3). PMID: 29637478    Free PMC article.
Context-Dependent Effect of Glucocorticoids on the Proliferation, Differentiation, and Apoptosis of Regulatory T Cells: A Review of the Empirical Evidence and Clinical Applications.
Luigi Cari, Francesca De Rosa, Giuseppe Nocentini, Carlo Riccardi.
Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Mar 09; 20(5). PMID: 30845709    Free PMC article.
Beneficial effects of curtailing immune susceptibility in an Alzheimer's disease model.
Giulia Di Benedetto, Chiara Burgaletto, +6 authors, Giuseppina Cantarella.
J Neuroinflammation, 2019 Aug 15; 16(1). PMID: 31409354    Free PMC article.
Discovery and Function of B-Cell IgD Low (BDL) B Cells in Immune Tolerance.
Mohamed I Khalil, Cody J Gurski, +2 authors, Bonnie N Dittel.
J Mol Biol, 2020 Jul 03; 433(1). PMID: 32615130    Free PMC article.
The Therapeutic Potential of Regulatory T Cells: Challenges and Opportunities.
Fatemeh Bayati, Mahsa Mohammadi, +3 authors, Ehsan Sharif-Paghaleh.
Front Immunol, 2021 Feb 02; 11. PMID: 33519807    Free PMC article.
Effects of checkpoint kinase 1 inhibition by prexasertib on the tumor immune microenvironment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Ritu Chaudhary, Robbert J C Slebos, +10 authors, Christine H Chung.
Mol Carcinog, 2020 Dec 31; 60(2). PMID: 33378592    Free PMC article.
Immune checkpoint-related serum proteins and genetic variants predict outcomes of localized prostate cancer, a cohort study.
Qinchuan Wang, Yuanqing Ye, +6 authors, Xifeng Wu.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Sep 11; 70(3). PMID: 32909077    Free PMC article.
CD80 Expression on Tumor Cells Alters Tumor Microenvironment and Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy by CTLA-4 Blockade.
Julie Vackova, Ingrid Polakova, Shweta Dilip Johari, Michal Smahel.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 May 01; 13(8). PMID: 33923750    Free PMC article.
Secretome screening reveals immunomodulating functions of IFNα-7, PAP and GDF-7 on regulatory T-cells.
Mei Ding, Rajneesh Malhotra, +16 authors, Lovisa Holmberg Schiavone.
Sci Rep, 2021 Aug 20; 11(1). PMID: 34408239    Free PMC article.
Dysfunctions, Molecular Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Strategies of Regulatory T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Xiaoya Li, Huihui Xu, +4 authors, Cheng Xiao.
Front Pharmacol, 2021 Sep 14; 12. PMID: 34512345    Free PMC article.
Multiple mechanisms for TRAF3-mediated regulation of the T cell costimulatory receptor GITR.
Hanzeng Li, Bruce S Hostager, Tina Arkee, Gail A Bishop.
J Biol Chem, 2021 Aug 22; 297(3). PMID: 34418432    Free PMC article.
Cyclophosphamide enhances the antitumor potency of GITR engagement by increasing oligoclonal cytotoxic T cell fitness.
Daniel Hirschhorn, Allison Betof Warner, +11 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
JCI Insight, 2021 Oct 23; 6(20). PMID: 34676831    Free PMC article.
Targeting regulatory T cells for immunotherapy in melanoma.
Lili Huang, Yeye Guo, +4 authors, Xiaowei Xu.
Mol Biomed, 2021 Nov 23; 2(1). PMID: 34806028    Free PMC article.
A DAP5/eIF3d alternate mRNA translation mechanism promotes differentiation and immune suppression by human regulatory T cells.
Viviana Volta, Sandra Pérez-Baos, +4 authors, Robert J Schneider.
Nat Commun, 2021 Dec 02; 12(1). PMID: 34848685    Free PMC article.
Modulating immune responses to AAV by expanded polyclonal T-regs and capsid specific chimeric antigen receptor T-regulatory cells.
Motahareh Arjomandnejad, Katelyn Sylvia, +7 authors, Allison M Keeler.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev, 2021 Dec 03; 23. PMID: 34853797    Free PMC article.

;. PMID: 35006459
The Implementation of TNFRSF Co-Stimulatory Domains in CAR-T Cells for Optimal Functional Activity.
Yuan He, Martijn Vlaming, Tom van Meerten, Edwin Bremer.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Jan 22; 14(2). PMID: 35053463    Free PMC article.