. 2015 May; 14(7):487-98.
doi: 10.1038/nrd4506.

Therapeutic approaches to enhance natural killer cell cytotoxicity against cancer: the force awakens

Richard W Childs 1 Mattias Carlsten 1 
  • PMID: 26000725
  •     108 References
  •     103 citations


Scientific insights into the human immune system have recently led to unprecedented breakthroughs in immunotherapy. In the twenty-first century, drugs and cell-based therapies developed to bolster humoral and T cell immunity represent an established and growing component of cancer therapeutics. Although natural killer (NK) cells have long been known to have advantages over T cells in terms of their capacity to induce antigen-independent host immune responses against malignancies, their therapeutic potential in the clinic has been largely unexplored. A growing number of scientific discoveries into pathways that both activate and suppress NK cell function, as well as methods to sensitize tumours to NK cell cytotoxicity, have led to the development of numerous pharmacological and genetic methods to enhance NK cell antitumour immunity. These findings, as well as advances in our ability to expand NK cells ex vivo and manipulate their capacity to home to the tumour, have now provided investigators with a variety of new methods and strategies to harness the full potential of NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy in the clinic.

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Mar Valés-Gómez, Susan E Chisholm, +2 authors, Hugh T Reyburn.
Cancer Res, 2008 Mar 05; 68(5). PMID: 18316620
Surface fucosylation of human cord blood cells augments binding to P-selectin and E-selectin and enhances engraftment in bone marrow.
Lijun Xia, J Michael McDaniel, +2 authors, Rodger P McEver.
Blood, 2004 Jul 29; 104(10). PMID: 15280192
Redistribution, hyperproliferation, activation of natural killer cells and CD8 T cells, and cytokine production during first-in-human clinical trial of recombinant human interleukin-15 in patients with cancer.
Kevin C Conlon, Enrico Lugli, +20 authors, Thomas A Waldmann.
J Clin Oncol, 2014 Nov 19; 33(1). PMID: 25403209    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Two immunoglobulin G fragment C receptor polymorphisms independently predict response to rituximab in patients with follicular lymphoma.
Wen-Kai Weng, Ronald Levy.
J Clin Oncol, 2003 Sep 17; 21(21). PMID: 12975461
Highly Cited.
Targeting the tumor microenvironment to improve natural killer cell-based immunotherapies: On being in the right place at the right time, with resilience.
Shannon Murray, Andreas Lundqvist.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2015 Sep 25; 12(3). PMID: 26402368    Free PMC article.
γδ T cells in cancer.
Bruno Silva-Santos, Karine Serre, Håkan Norell.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2015 Oct 10; 15(11). PMID: 26449179
Highly Cited. Review.
Tumor Therapeutics Work as Stress Inducers to Enhance Tumor Sensitivity to Natural Killer (NK) Cell Cytolysis by Up-regulating NKp30 Ligand B7-H6.
Guoshuai Cao, Jian Wang, +3 authors, Rui Sun.
J Biol Chem, 2015 Oct 17; 290(50). PMID: 26472927    Free PMC article.
Agonist antibody that induces human malignant cells to kill one another.
Kyungmoo Yea, Hongkai Zhang, +7 authors, Richard A Lerner.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015 Oct 22; 112(45). PMID: 26487683    Free PMC article.
Integrated analysis of microRNA regulatory network in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with deep sequencing.
Fan Wang, Juan Lu, +6 authors, Bao Zhang.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Jan 23; 35. PMID: 26795575    Free PMC article.
NK Cells in HIV Disease.
Eileen Scully, Galit Alter.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep, 2016 Mar 24; 13(2). PMID: 27002078    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Natural Killer Cells for Immunotherapy - Advantages of the NK-92 Cell Line over Blood NK Cells.
Hans Klingemann, Laurent Boissel, Frances Toneguzzo.
Front Immunol, 2016 Mar 26; 7. PMID: 27014270    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Underground Adaptation to a Hostile Environment: Acute Myeloid Leukemia vs. Natural Killer Cells.
Nicolas Dulphy, Anne-Sophie Chrétien, +6 authors, Antoine Toubert.
Front Immunol, 2016 Mar 26; 7. PMID: 27014273    Free PMC article.
Efficient mRNA-Based Genetic Engineering of Human NK Cells with High-Affinity CD16 and CCR7 Augments Rituximab-Induced ADCC against Lymphoma and Targets NK Cell Migration toward the Lymph Node-Associated Chemokine CCL19.
Mattias Carlsten, Emily Levy, +5 authors, Richard W Childs.
Front Immunol, 2016 Apr 06; 7. PMID: 27047492    Free PMC article.
Enhancing both CT imaging and natural killer cell-mediated cancer cell killing by a GD2-targeting nanoconstruct.
Peifu Jiao, Mario Otto, +6 authors, Bing Yan.
J Mater Chem B, 2016 Apr 19; 4(3). PMID: 27087966    Free PMC article.
Short Term Hypoxia Synergizes with Interleukin 15 Priming in Driving Glycolytic Gene Transcription and Supports Human Natural Killer Cell Activities.
Sonia Y Velásquez, Doreen Killian, +3 authors, Holger A Lindner.
J Biol Chem, 2016 Apr 30; 291(25). PMID: 27129235    Free PMC article.
Targeting NK Cells for Anticancer Immunotherapy: Clinical and Preclinical Approaches.
Sebastian Carotta.
Front Immunol, 2016 May 06; 7. PMID: 27148271    Free PMC article.
Epigenetic suppression of the antitumor cytotoxicity of NK cells by histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid.
Xiumin Shi, Min Li, +9 authors, Haofan Jin.
Am J Cancer Res, 2016 May 07; 6(3). PMID: 27152238    Free PMC article.
Microfluidic models for adoptive cell-mediated cancer immunotherapies.
Giulia Adriani, Andrea Pavesi, +3 authors, Roger D Kamm.
Drug Discov Today, 2016 May 18; 21(9). PMID: 27185084    Free PMC article.
TriKEs and BiKEs join CARs on the cancer immunotherapy highway.
Szun Szun Tay, Hernan Carol, Maté Biro.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2016 Jun 21; 12(11). PMID: 27322989    Free PMC article.
Concerted action of IFN-α and IFN-λ induces local NK cell immunity and halts cancer growth.
Ahmed Lasfar, Andrew de laTorre, +8 authors, Sergei V Kotenko.
Oncotarget, 2016 Jul 01; 7(31). PMID: 27363032    Free PMC article.
Interaction of Age at Diagnosis with Transcriptional Profiling in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.
Yi-Chiung Hsu, Chien-Liang Liu, +3 authors, Shih-Ping Cheng.
World J Surg, 2016 Jul 08; 40(12). PMID: 27384173
Highly efficient IL-21 and feeder cell-driven ex vivo expansion of human NK cells with therapeutic activity in a xenograft mouse model of melanoma.
Markus Granzin, Ana Stojanovic, +3 authors, Adelheid Cerwenka.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Oct 21; 5(9). PMID: 27757317    Free PMC article.
Cooperation among heterogeneous prostate cancer cells in the bone metastatic niche.
K Shahriari, F Shen, +4 authors, A Fatatis.
Oncogene, 2016 Dec 20; 36(20). PMID: 27991924    Free PMC article.
Immune targets and neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy and precision medicine.
Rong-Fu Wang, Helen Y Wang.
Cell Res, 2016 Dec 28; 27(1). PMID: 28025978    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Relation between Acute GVHD and NK Cell Subset Reconstitution Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Evelyn Ullrich, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, +8 authors, Daniel Wolff.
Front Immunol, 2017 Jan 10; 7. PMID: 28066411    Free PMC article.
Involvement of autophagy in NK cell development and function.
Alejandro López-Soto, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, +2 authors, Segundo Gonzalez.
Autophagy, 2017 Jan 20; 13(3). PMID: 28103115    Free PMC article.
Adaptive NK cells can persist in patients with GATA2 mutation depleted of stem and progenitor cells.
Heinrich Schlums, Moonjung Jung, +18 authors, Yenan T Bryceson.
Blood, 2017 Feb 18; 129(14). PMID: 28209719    Free PMC article.
Interactions between mesenchymal stem cells and the immune system.
Na Li, Jinlian Hua.
Cell Mol Life Sci, 2017 Feb 20; 74(13). PMID: 28214990
Engineering of Anti-CD133 Trispecific Molecule Capable of Inducing NK Expansion and Driving Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity.
Jörg U Schmohl, Martin Felices, +5 authors, Daniel A Vallera.
Cancer Res Treat, 2017 Feb 24; 49(4). PMID: 28231426    Free PMC article.
Molecular checkpoints controlling natural killer cell activation and their modulation for cancer immunotherapy.
Hyung-Joon Kwon, Nayoung Kim, Hun Sik Kim.
Exp Mol Med, 2017 Apr 01; 49(3). PMID: 28360428    Free PMC article.
Curcumin up regulates T helper 1 cells in patients with colon cancer.
Bin Xu, Lin Yu, Li-Zhong Zhao.
Am J Transl Res, 2017 May 05; 9(4). PMID: 28469791    Free PMC article.
Leveraging natural killer cells for cancer immunotherapy.
Steven K Grossenbacher, Ethan G Aguilar, William J Murphy.
Immunotherapy, 2017 May 06; 9(6). PMID: 28472904    Free PMC article.
Intratumoral depletion of regulatory T cells using CD25-targeted photodynamic therapy in a mouse melanoma model induces antitumoral immune responses.
Dong Sun Oh, Heegon Kim, +4 authors, Heung Kyu Lee.
Oncotarget, 2017 May 26; 8(29). PMID: 28537894    Free PMC article.
Natural killer-like signature observed post therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer is a determinant of pathological response and improved survival.
Matthew Alderdice, Philip D Dunne, +12 authors, Vicky M Coyle.
Mod Pathol, 2017 Jun 18; 30(9). PMID: 28621318
Introduction: MHC/KIR and governance of specificity.
Adrian Kelly, John Trowsdale.
Immunogenetics, 2017 Jul 12; 69(8-9). PMID: 28695288    Free PMC article.
Trichostatin A Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to Enhanced NK Cell-mediated Killing by Regulating Immune-related Genes.
Sangsu Shin, Miok Kim, +2 authors, Chang Hoon Lee.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics, 2017 Sep 06; 14(5). PMID: 28871002    Free PMC article.
Zebrafish Xenograft: An Evolutionary Experiment in Tumour Biology.
Rachael A Wyatt, Nhu P V Trieu, Bryan D Crawford.
Genes (Basel), 2017 Sep 06; 8(9). PMID: 28872594    Free PMC article.
Biodegradable Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Regulating Tumor Microenvironment and Enhancing Antitumor Efficiency.
Miao Kong, Jiamin Tang, +5 authors, Zhiping Zhang.
Theranostics, 2017 Sep 14; 7(13). PMID: 28900509    Free PMC article.
Circulating exosomes carrying an immunosuppressive cargo interfere with cellular immunotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia.
Chang-Sook Hong, Priyanka Sharma, +4 authors, Michael Boyiadzis.
Sci Rep, 2017 Nov 02; 7(1). PMID: 29089618    Free PMC article.
TUSC2 Immunogene Therapy Synergizes with Anti-PD-1 through Enhanced Proliferation and Infiltration of Natural Killer Cells in Syngeneic Kras-Mutant Mouse Lung Cancer Models.
Ismail M Meraz, Mourad Majidi, +8 authors, Jack A Roth.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2018 Jan 18; 6(2). PMID: 29339375    Free PMC article.
Natural Killer Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Gynecologic Malignancy: A Review.
Locke D Uppendahl, Carly M Dahl, +2 authors, Melissa A Geller.
Front Immunol, 2018 Jan 23; 8. PMID: 29354116    Free PMC article.
NK Cells and γδT Cells for Relapse Protection After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT).
Moniek A de Witte, Jürgen Kuball, Jeffrey S Miller.
Curr Stem Cell Rep, 2018 Feb 06; 3(4). PMID: 29399441    Free PMC article.
Investigation of antitumor activities of trastuzumab delivered by PLGA nanoparticles.
Barbara Colzani, Laura Pandolfi, +5 authors, Davide Prosperi.
Int J Nanomedicine, 2018 Mar 02; 13. PMID: 29491709    Free PMC article.
Interleukin-15-Stimulated Natural Killer Cells Clear HIV-1-Infected Cells following Latency Reversal Ex Vivo.
Carolina Garrido, Maria Abad-Fernandez, +4 authors, David M Margolis.
J Virol, 2018 Mar 30; 92(12). PMID: 29593039    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Implication of Interleukin-12/15/18 and Ruxolitinib in the Phenotype, Proliferation, and Polyfunctionality of Human Cytokine-Preactivated Natural Killer Cells.
Iñigo Terrén, Idoia Mikelez, +6 authors, Francisco Borrego.
Front Immunol, 2018 May 02; 9. PMID: 29713323    Free PMC article.
Role of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Advanced or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer.
Ena Arora, Muhammad Masab, +3 authors, Claudia Dourado.
Cureus, 2018 Jun 27; 10(4). PMID: 29942724    Free PMC article.
Arsenic Trioxide Enhances the NK Cell Cytotoxicity Against Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia While Simultaneously Inhibiting Its Bio-Genesis.
Ansu Abu Alex, Saravanan Ganesan, +15 authors, Vikram Mathews.
Front Immunol, 2018 Jul 03; 9. PMID: 29963052    Free PMC article.
Adenosinergic signaling as a target for natural killer cell immunotherapy.
Jiao Wang, Sandro Matosevic.
J Mol Med (Berl), 2018 Aug 03; 96(9). PMID: 30069747
Human iPSC-Derived Natural Killer Cells Engineered with Chimeric Antigen Receptors Enhance Anti-tumor Activity.
Ye Li, David L Hermanson, Branden S Moriarity, Dan S Kaufman.
Cell Stem Cell, 2018 Aug 08; 23(2). PMID: 30082067    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Driving Natural Killer cells toward the melanoma tumor battlefield: Autophagy as a valuable therapeutic target.
Muhammad Zaeem Noman, Jerome Paggetti, +2 authors, Bassam Janji.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Sep 18; 7(8). PMID: 30221048    Free PMC article.
NK cell development in a human stem cell niche: KIR expression occurs independently of the presence of HLA class I ligands.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Sandra Weinhold, +5 authors, Markus Uhrberg.
Blood Adv, 2018 Sep 30; 2(19). PMID: 30266820    Free PMC article.
Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Impede IL-33-Mediated Tumor Suppression.
Alan Long, Donye Dominguez, +7 authors, Bin Zhang.
J Immunol, 2018 Oct 31; 201(11). PMID: 30373846    Free PMC article.
NK Cells in HIV-1 Infection: From Basic Science to Vaccine Strategies.
Lizdany Flórez-Álvarez, Juan C Hernandez, Wildeman Zapata.
Front Immunol, 2018 Nov 06; 9. PMID: 30386329    Free PMC article.
An ecosystem framework for understanding and treating disease.
Michael E Hochberg.
Evol Med Public Health, 2018 Nov 30; 2018(1). PMID: 30487969    Free PMC article.
NK Cell Plasticity in Cancer.
Sizhe Liu, Payal Dhar, Jennifer D Wu.
J Clin Med, 2019 Sep 25; 8(9). PMID: 31546818    Free PMC article.
Natural Killer Cells in Myeloid Malignancies: Immune Surveillance, NK Cell Dysfunction, and Pharmacological Opportunities to Bolster the Endogenous NK Cells.
Mattias Carlsten, Marcus Järås.
Front Immunol, 2019 Nov 05; 10. PMID: 31681270    Free PMC article.
Targeting of CXCR3 improves anti-myeloma efficacy of adoptively transferred activated natural killer cells.
Valentina Bonanni, Fabrizio Antonangeli, Angela Santoni, Giovanni Bernardini.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Nov 09; 7(1). PMID: 31699153    Free PMC article.
Tissue-specific tumor microenvironments influence responses to immunotherapies.
Amanda J Oliver, Ashleigh S Davey, +9 authors, Clare Y Slaney.
Clin Transl Immunology, 2019 Nov 27; 8(11). PMID: 31768254    Free PMC article.
Aptamer-Engineered Natural Killer Cells for Cell-Specific Adaptive Immunotherapy.
Shuanghui Yang, Jianguo Wen, +8 authors, Youli Zu.
Small, 2019 Apr 27; 15(22). PMID: 31026116    Free PMC article.
Histidine-rich glycoprotein augments natural killer cell function by modulating PD-1 expression via CLEC-1B.
Yoshito Nishimura, Hidenori Wake, +4 authors, Masahiro Nishibori.
Pharmacol Res Perspect, 2019 May 31; 7(3). PMID: 31143450    Free PMC article.
An Overview of Advances in Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapies Based on the Multiple Immune-Cancer Cell Interactions.
Jialing Zhang, Stephan S Späth, Sherman M Weissman, Samuel G Katz.
Methods Mol Biol, 2019 Nov 30; 2097. PMID: 31776925    Free PMC article.
NK Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Iñigo Terrén, Ane Orrantia, +3 authors, Francisco Borrego.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Feb 06; 12(2). PMID: 32013092    Free PMC article.
Dendritic Cell Vaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy: The Role of Human Conventional Type 1 Dendritic Cells.
João Calmeiro, Mylène A Carrascal, +5 authors, Bruno Miguel Neves.
Pharmaceutics, 2020 Feb 23; 12(2). PMID: 32075343    Free PMC article.
Sugar Free: Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches Targeting Siglecs and Sialic Acids to Enhance Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Against Cancer.
John Daly, Mattias Carlsten, Michael O'Dwyer.
Front Immunol, 2019 May 31; 10. PMID: 31143186    Free PMC article.
Different Features of Tumor-Associated NK Cells in Patients With Low-Grade or High-Grade Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.
Silvia Pesce, Valerio Belgrano, +11 authors, Emanuela Marcenaro.
Front Immunol, 2019 Sep 10; 10. PMID: 31497016    Free PMC article.
Enhanced Bone Marrow Homing of Natural Killer Cells Following mRNA Transfection With Gain-of-Function Variant CXCR4R334X.
Emily Levy, Robert Reger, +5 authors, Richard Childs.
Front Immunol, 2019 Jun 25; 10. PMID: 31231387    Free PMC article.
The Role of Natural Killer Cells as a Platform for Immunotherapy in Pediatric Cancers.
Miriam Santiago Kimpo, Bernice Oh, Shawn Lee.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2019 Sep 11; 21(10). PMID: 31502008    Free PMC article.
Ultrasound-Responsive Cavitation Nuclei for Therapy and Drug Delivery.
Klazina Kooiman, Silke Roovers, +10 authors, Christy K Holland.
Ultrasound Med Biol, 2020 Mar 14; 46(6). PMID: 32165014    Free PMC article.
In Vivo Tracking of Adoptively Transferred Natural Killer Cells in Rhesus Macaques Using 89Zirconium-Oxine Cell Labeling and PET Imaging.
Noriko Sato, Kate Stringaris, +5 authors, Richard W Childs.
Clin Cancer Res, 2020 Feb 09; 26(11). PMID: 32034075    Free PMC article.
The Ovarian Cancer Tumor Immune Microenvironment (TIME) as Target for Therapy: A Focus on Innate Immunity Cells as Therapeutic Effectors.
Denisa Baci, Annalisa Bosi, +5 authors, Lorenzo Mortara.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 May 02; 21(9). PMID: 32354198    Free PMC article.
Checkpoint Inhibitors and Engineered Cells: New Weapons for Natural Killer Cell Arsenal Against Hematological Malignancies.
Massimo Giuliani, Alessandro Poggi.
Cells, 2020 Jul 03; 9(7). PMID: 32610578    Free PMC article.
Overcoming Resistance to Natural Killer Cell Based Immunotherapies for Solid Tumors.
Gaurav Nayyar, Yaya Chu, Mitchell S Cairo.
Front Oncol, 2019 Feb 26; 9. PMID: 30805309    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Natural Killer Cells as Key Players of Tumor Progression and Angiogenesis: Old and Novel Tools to Divert Their Pro-Tumor Activities into Potent Anti-Tumor Effects.
Barbara Bassani, Denisa Baci, +3 authors, Lorenzo Mortara.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Apr 04; 11(4). PMID: 30939820    Free PMC article.
Natural Killer Cells as Allogeneic Effectors in Adoptive Cancer Immunotherapy.
Kyle B Lupo, Sandro Matosevic.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Jun 06; 11(6). PMID: 31163679    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Lenvatinib promotes antitumor immunity by enhancing the tumor infiltration and activation of NK cells.
Qing Zhang, Hongyan Liu, +7 authors, Junnian Zheng.
Am J Cancer Res, 2019 Aug 09; 9(7). PMID: 31392076    Free PMC article.
Oral cancer cell‑derived exosomes modulate natural killer cell activity by regulating the receptors on these cells.
Xueqin Zhu, Xing Qin, +4 authors, Wantao Chen.
Int J Mol Med, 2020 Oct 31; 46(6). PMID: 33125101    Free PMC article.
TRAIL receptor agonists convert the response of breast cancer cells to ONC201 from anti-proliferative to apoptotic.
Marie D Ralff, Aakash Jhaveri, +6 authors, Wafik S El-Deiry.
Oncotarget, 2020 Nov 05; 11(42). PMID: 33144917    Free PMC article.
Selective and Potent CDK8/19 Inhibitors Enhance NK-Cell Activity and Promote Tumor Surveillance.
Marco H Hofmann, Rajeswaran Mani, +21 authors, Jürgen Moll.
Mol Cancer Ther, 2020 Feb 07; 19(4). PMID: 32024684    Free PMC article.
Antitumor, Immunomodulatory and Antiangiogenic Efficacy of Medicinal Mushroom Extract Mixtures in Advanced Colorectal Cancer Animal Model.
Boris Jakopovic, Nada Oršolić, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić.
Molecules, 2020 Nov 01; 25(21). PMID: 33126765    Free PMC article.
Expanded and activated allogeneic NK cells are cytotoxic against B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells with sporadic cases of resistance.
Tania Calvo, Chantal Reina-Ortiz, +13 authors, Alberto Anel.
Sci Rep, 2020 Nov 12; 10(1). PMID: 33173077    Free PMC article.
ZAP-70 Shapes the Immune Microenvironment in B Cell Malignancies.
Jingyu Chen, Andrew Moore, Ingo Ringshausen.
Front Oncol, 2020 Nov 17; 10. PMID: 33194762    Free PMC article.
Ethical considerations of cellular immunotherapy for cancer.
Sang-Sang Ren, Jing-Wen Deng, +4 authors, Zhi Chen.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2019 Jan 08; 20(1). PMID: 30614227    Free PMC article.
Strengthening the AntiTumor NK Cell Function for the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer.
Marco Greppi, Giovanna Tabellini, +7 authors, Emanuela Marcenaro.
Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Feb 23; 20(4). PMID: 30791364    Free PMC article.
Emerging agents and regimens for treatment of relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia.
Longzhen Cui, Yan Liu, +10 authors, Lin Fu.
Cancer Gene Ther, 2019 Jul 12; 27(1-2). PMID: 31292516
Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered natural killer cells for cancer immunotherapy.
Ahmet Yilmaz, Hanwei Cui, Michael A Caligiuri, Jianhua Yu.
J Hematol Oncol, 2020 Dec 09; 13(1). PMID: 33287875    Free PMC article.
Spatially selective depletion of tumor-associated regulatory T cells with near-infrared photoimmunotherapy.
Kazuhide Sato, Noriko Sato, +5 authors, Hisataka Kobayashi.
Sci Transl Med, 2016 Aug 19; 8(352). PMID: 27535621    Free PMC article.
The SIRPα-CD47 immune checkpoint in NK cells.
Tobias Deuse, Xiaomeng Hu, +10 authors, Sonja Schrepfer.
J Exp Med, 2021 Jan 09; 218(3). PMID: 33416832    Free PMC article.
Augmentation of NK Cell Proliferation and Anti-tumor Immunity by Transgenic Expression of Receptors for EPO or TPO.
Chantiya Chanswangphuwana, David S J Allan, +2 authors, Richard W Childs.
Mol Ther, 2020 Oct 04; 29(1). PMID: 33010232    Free PMC article.
Systematic improvements in lentiviral transduction of primary human natural killer cells undergoing ex vivo expansion.
David S J Allan, Mala Chakraborty, +4 authors, Richard W Childs.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev, 2021 Mar 06; 20. PMID: 33665226    Free PMC article.
RNA-Seq Analysis Reveals CCR5 as a Key Target for CRISPR Gene Editing to Regulate In Vivo NK Cell Trafficking.
Emily R Levy, Joseph A Clara, +2 authors, Richard W Childs.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Mar 07; 13(4). PMID: 33669611    Free PMC article.
Renaissance of armored immune effector cells, CAR-NK cells, brings the higher hope for successful cancer therapy.
Faroogh Marofi, Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, +11 authors, Farhad Motavalli Khiavi.
Stem Cell Res Ther, 2021 Mar 24; 12(1). PMID: 33752707    Free PMC article.
Taming of Covid-19: potential and emerging application of mesenchymal stem cells.
Nima Najafi-Ghalehlou, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar, Habib Zayeni Langerodi, Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh.
Cytotechnology, 2021 Mar 30; 73(2). PMID: 33776206    Free PMC article.
Enhancing a Natural Killer: Modification of NK Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Rasa Islam, Aleta Pupovac, +4 authors, Alan Trounson.
Cells, 2021 May 06; 10(5). PMID: 33946954    Free PMC article.
Fc-engineered anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody potentiates cytotoxicity of membrane-bound interleukin-21 expanded natural killer cells in acute myeloid leukemia.
Rajeswaran Mani, Girish Rajgolikar, +7 authors, Sumithira Vasu.
Cytotherapy, 2020 Apr 19; 22(7). PMID: 32303428    Free PMC article.
Recruitment, Infiltration, and Cytotoxicity of HLA-Independent Killer Lymphocytes in Three-Dimensional Melanoma Models.
Ilenia Iaia, Loretta Gammaitoni, +8 authors, Dario Sangiolo.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 13(10). PMID: 34065007    Free PMC article.
Digital Pathology Scoring of Immunohistochemical Staining Reliably Identifies Prognostic Markers and Anatomical Associations in a Large Cohort of Oral Cancers.
Julius Moratin, Andreas Mock, +11 authors, Christian Freudlsperger.
Front Oncol, 2021 Aug 17; 11. PMID: 34395287    Free PMC article.
Nanotechnology-based immunotherapies to combat cancer metastasis.
Yuping Zhao, Muhammad Bilal, +3 authors, Hafiz M N Iqbal.
Mol Biol Rep, 2021 Aug 24; 48(9). PMID: 34424444
Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Cellular Therapy of Hematological Malignancies.
Ugur Sahin, Meral Beksac.
Clin Hematol Int, 2019 Sep 01; 1(3). PMID: 34595423    Free PMC article.
Natural Products with Activity against Lung Cancer: A Review Focusing on the Tumor Microenvironment.
Yue Yang, Ning Li, Tian-Ming Wang, Lei Di.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Oct 14; 22(19). PMID: 34639167    Free PMC article.
Optimisation of the Synthesis and Cell Labelling Conditions for [89Zr]Zr-oxine and [89Zr]Zr-DFO-NCS: a Direct In Vitro Comparison in Cell Types with Distinct Therapeutic Applications.
Ida Friberger, Emma Jussing, +9 authors, Thuy A Tran.
Mol Imaging Biol, 2021 Jul 08; 23(6). PMID: 34231103    Free PMC article.
Checkpoint Inhibition of KIR2D with the Monoclonal Antibody IPH2101 Induces Contraction and Hyporesponsiveness of NK Cells in Patients with Myeloma.
Mattias Carlsten, Neha Korde, +5 authors, Richard W Childs.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Nov 03; 22(21). PMID: 27307594    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Feeder Cells at the Interface of Natural Killer Cell Activation, Expansion and Gene Editing.
Mark Gurney, Soumyadipta Kundu, Shubham Pandey, Michael O'Dwyer.
Front Immunol, 2022 Mar 01; 13. PMID: 35222382    Free PMC article.
CD16/PD-L1 bi-specific aptamer for cancer immunotherapy through recruiting NK cells and acting as immunocheckpoint blockade.
Aixian Zheng, Yanlin Du, +7 authors, Xiaolong Liu.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids, 2022 Mar 02; 27. PMID: 35228895    Free PMC article.
CAR-NK cells for cancer immunotherapy: from bench to bedside.
Leisheng Zhang, Yuan Meng, Xiaoming Feng, Zhongchao Han.
Biomark Res, 2022 Mar 20; 10(1). PMID: 35303962    Free PMC article.
The War Is on: The Immune System against Glioblastoma-How Can NK Cells Drive This Battle?
Lucas Henrique Rodrigues da Silva, Luana Correia Croda Catharino, +2 authors, José Alexandre Marzagão Barbuto.
Biomedicines, 2022 Feb 26; 10(2). PMID: 35203609    Free PMC article.
Augmenting NK cell-based immunotherapy by targeting mitochondrial apoptosis.
Rongqing Pan, Jeremy Ryan, +2 authors, Anthony Letai.
Cell, 2022 Apr 22; 185(9). PMID: 35447071    Free PMC article.
Multipurposing CARs: Same engine, different vehicles.
A K M Nawshad Hossian, Christopher S Hackett, Renier J Brentjens, Sarwish Rafiq.
Mol Ther, 2022 Feb 14; 30(4). PMID: 35151842    Free PMC article.