. 2015 May; 7(5):243-76.
doi: 10.4330/wjc.v7.i5.243.

Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute myocardial infarction

Koushik Reddy 1 Asma Khaliq 1 Robert J Henning 1 
  • PMID: 26015857
  •     273 References
  •     50 citations


The Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) requires cardiac myocyte necrosis with an increase and/or a decrease in a patient's plasma of cardiac troponin (cTn) with at least one cTn measurement greater than the 99(th) percentile of the upper normal reference limit during: (1) symptoms of myocardial ischemia; (2) new significant electrocardiogram (ECG) ST-segment/T-wave changes or left bundle branch block; (3) the development of pathological ECG Q waves; (4) new loss of viable myocardium or regional wall motion abnormality identified by an imaging procedure; or (5) identification of intracoronary thrombus by angiography or autopsy. Myocardial infarction, when diagnosed, is now classified into five types. Detection of a rise and a fall of troponin are essential to the diagnosis of acute MI. However, high sensitivity troponin assays can increase the sensitivity but decrease the specificity of MI diagnosis. The ECG remains a cornerstone in the diagnosis of MI and should be frequently repeated, especially if the initial ECG is not diagnostic of MI. There have been significant advances in adjunctive pharmacotherapy, procedural techniques and stent technology in the treatment of patients with MIs. The routine use of antiplatelet agents such as clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor, in addition to aspirin, reduces patient morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a timely manner is the primary treatment of patients with acute ST segment elevation MI. Drug eluting coronary stents are safe and beneficial with primary coronary intervention. Treatment with direct thrombin inhibitors during PCI is non-inferior to unfractionated heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists and is associated with a significant reduction in bleeding. The intra-coronary use of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist can reduce infarct size. Pre- and post-conditioning techniques can provide additional cardioprotection. However, the incidence and mortality due to MI continues to be high despite all these recent advances. The initial ten year experience with autologous human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) in patients with MI showed modest but significant increases in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, decreases in LV end-systolic volume and reductions in MI size. These studies established that the intramyocardial or intracoronary administration of stem cells is safe. However, many of these studies consisted of small numbers of patients who were not randomized to BMCs or placebo. The recent LateTime, Time, and Swiss Multicenter Trials in patients with MI did not demonstrate significant improvement in patient LV ejection fraction with BMCs in comparison with placebo. Possible explanations include the early use of PCI in these patients, heterogeneous BMC populations which died prematurely from patients with chronic ischemic disease, red blood cell contamination which decreases BMC renewal, and heparin which decreases BMC migration. In contrast, cardiac stem cells from the right atrial appendage and ventricular septum and apex in the SCIPIO and CADUCEUS Trials appear to reduce patient MI size and increase viable myocardium. Additional clinical studies with cardiac stem cells are in progress.

Keywords: Bone marrow stem cells; Cardiac stem cells; Cardioprotection; Fibrinolytic therapy; Myocardial necrosis; Percutaneous coronary intervention; Thienopyridines; Troponin assays; Type 1-5 myocardial infarctions.

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Willem J M Dewilde, Tom Oirbans, +11 authors, WOEST study investigators.
Lancet, 2013 Feb 19; 381(9872). PMID: 23415013
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Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.
David Mocini, Mario Staibano, +7 authors, Massimo Santini.
Am Heart J, 2005 Dec 22; 151(1). PMID: 16368317
Factors affecting the turnaround time for manufacturing, testing, and release of cellular therapy products prepared at multiple sites in support of multicenter cardiovascular regenerative medicine protocols: a Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) study.
Sara Richman, Adrian P Gee, +15 authors, Sonia I Skarlatos.
Transfusion, 2012 Feb 11; 52(10). PMID: 22320233    Free PMC article.
Late assessment of thrombolytic efficacy (LATE) study: prognosis in patients with non-Q wave myocardial infarction. (LATE Study Investigators)
A Langer, S G Goodman, +4 authors, P W Armstrong.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 1996 May 01; 27(6). PMID: 8626939
ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: The Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Christian W Hamm, Jean-Pierre Bassand, +15 authors, ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines.
Eur Heart J, 2011 Aug 30; 32(23). PMID: 21873419
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Stem cells for cardiac repair: problems and possibilities.
Robert J Henning.
Future Cardiol, 2013 Nov 05; 9(6). PMID: 24180543
Impact of a statewide ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction regionalization program on treatment times for women, minorities, and the elderly.
Seth W Glickman, Christopher B Granger, +8 authors, James G Jollis.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, 2010 Sep 03; 3(5). PMID: 20807883
Bivalirudin versus heparin with or without glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: pooled patient-level analysis from the HORIZONS-AMI and EUROMAX trials.
Gregg W Stone, Roxana Mehran, +11 authors, Philippe Gabriel Steg.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2015 Jan 13; 65(1). PMID: 25572507
Primary versus tenecteplase-facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (ASSENT-4 PCI): randomised trial.
Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of a New Treatment Strategy with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (ASSENT-4 PCI) investigators.
Lancet, 2006 Feb 21; 367(9510). PMID: 16488800
Peri-procedural myocardial injury: 2005 update.
Joerg Herrmann.
Eur Heart J, 2005 Sep 24; 26(23). PMID: 16176941
Relative roles of direct regeneration versus paracrine effects of human cardiosphere-derived cells transplanted into infarcted mice.
Isotta Chimenti, Rachel Ruckdeschel Smith, +4 authors, Eduardo Marbán.
Circ Res, 2010 Jan 30; 106(5). PMID: 20110532    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Cytochrome p-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel.
Jessica L Mega, Sandra L Close, +8 authors, Marc S Sabatine.
N Engl J Med, 2008 Dec 25; 360(4). PMID: 19106084
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Red blood cell contamination of the final cell product impairs the efficacy of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy.
Birgit Assmus, Torsten Tonn, +7 authors, Stefanie Dimmeler.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2010 Mar 27; 55(13). PMID: 20338501
Recommendations for the use of cardiac troponin measurement in acute cardiac care.
Kristian Thygesen, Johannes Mair, +16 authors, Study Group on Biomarkers in Cardiology of the ESC Working Group on Acute Cardiac Care.
Eur Heart J, 2010 Aug 06; 31(18). PMID: 20685679
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Relation of cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism to occurrence of drug-eluting coronary stent thrombosis.
Betti Giusti, Anna Maria Gori, +7 authors, Gian Franco Gensini.
Am J Cardiol, 2009 Mar 10; 103(6). PMID: 19268736
Association of door-to-balloon time and mortality in patients admitted to hospital with ST elevation myocardial infarction: national cohort study.
Saif S Rathore, Jeptha P Curtis, +5 authors, National Cardiovascular Data Registry.
BMJ, 2009 May 21; 338. PMID: 19454739    Free PMC article.
Effect of cyclosporine on reperfusion injury in acute myocardial infarction.
Christophe Piot, Pierre Croisille, +18 authors, Michel Ovize.
N Engl J Med, 2008 Aug 02; 359(5). PMID: 18669426
Highly Cited.
Autologous transplantation of mononuclear bone marrow cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction: the effect of the dose of transplanted cells on myocardial function.
Jaroslav Meluzín, Jirí Mayer, +13 authors, Jaroslava Vinklárková.
Am Heart J, 2006 Oct 31; 152(5). PMID: 17070173
Time course and mechanisms of circulating progenitor cell reduction in the natural history of type 2 diabetes.
Gian Paolo Fadini, Elisa Boscaro, +6 authors, Angelo Avogaro.
Diabetes Care, 2010 Feb 13; 33(5). PMID: 20150295    Free PMC article.
Association between hyper- and hypoglycaemia and 2 year all-cause mortality risk in diabetic patients with acute coronary events.
Ann-Marie Svensson, Darren K McGuire, Putte Abrahamsson, Mikael Dellborg.
Eur Heart J, 2005 Apr 12; 26(13). PMID: 15821004
Addition of clopidogrel to aspirin in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Z M Chen, L X Jiang, +6 authors, COMMIT (ClOpidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial) collaborative group.
Lancet, 2005 Nov 08; 366(9497). PMID: 16271642
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Adenosine as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial: the Acute Myocardial Infarction STudy of ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial.
K W Mahaffey, J A Puma, +12 authors, C B Granger.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 1999 Nov 30; 34(6). PMID: 10577561
Effect of early, pre-hospital initiation of high bolus dose tirofiban in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction on short- and long-term clinical outcome.
Jurriën M ten Berg, Arnoud W J van 't Hof, +9 authors, On-TIME 2 Study Group.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2010 Jun 01; 55(22). PMID: 20510211
Clinical outcomes of primary stenting versus balloon angioplasty in patients with myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Alain J Nordmann, Peter Hengstler, +2 authors, Heiner C Bucher.
Am J Med, 2004 Feb 19; 116(4). PMID: 14969654
Clinical characteristics of dialysis patients with acute myocardial infarction in the United States: a collaborative project of the United States Renal Data System and the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction.
Charles A Herzog, Kathee Littrell, +2 authors, Martha Blaney.
Circulation, 2007 Sep 06; 116(13). PMID: 17785621
Safety of single versus multi-vessel angioplasty for patients with acute myocardial infarction and multi-vessel coronary artery disease: report from the New York State Angioplasty Registry.
James A Kong, Eric T Chou, +2 authors, Mun K Hong.
Coron Artery Dis, 2005 Dec 24; 17(1). PMID: 16374145
Radial versus femoral randomized investigation in ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: the RIFLE-STEACS (Radial Versus Femoral Randomized Investigation in ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome) study.
Enrico Romagnoli, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, +13 authors, Giuseppe Sangiorgi.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2012 Aug 04; 60(24). PMID: 22858390
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Role of adjunctive thrombectomy and embolic protection devices in acute myocardial infarction: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized trials.
Anthony A Bavry, Dharam J Kumbhani, Deepak L Bhatt.
Eur Heart J, 2008 Sep 25; 29(24). PMID: 18812323
Cardiopoietic stem cell therapy in heart failure: the C-CURE (Cardiopoietic stem Cell therapy in heart failURE) multicenter randomized trial with lineage-specified biologics.
Jozef Bartunek, Atta Behfar, +16 authors, Andre Terzic.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2013 Apr 16; 61(23). PMID: 23583246
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Regenerating new heart with stem cells.
Piero Anversa, Jan Kajstura, Marcello Rota, Annarosa Leri.
J Clin Invest, 2013 Jan 03; 123(1). PMID: 23281411    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Intracoronary versus intravenous administration of abciximab in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with thrombus aspiration: the comparison of intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab administration during emergency reperfusion of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (CICERO) trial.
Youlan L Gu, Marthe A Kampinga, +11 authors, Bart J G L de Smet.
Circulation, 2010 Nov 26; 122(25). PMID: 21098442
Intracoronary cardiosphere-derived cells after myocardial infarction: evidence of therapeutic regeneration in the final 1-year results of the CADUCEUS trial (CArdiosphere-Derived aUtologous stem CElls to reverse ventricUlar dySfunction).
Konstantinos Malliaras, Raj R Makkar, +11 authors, Eduardo Marbán.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2013 Sep 17; 63(2). PMID: 24036024    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Human cord blood cells and myocardial infarction: effect of dose and route of administration on infarct size.
Robert J Henning, Jose D Burgos, +4 authors, Michael B Morgan.
Cell Transplant, 2008 Feb 26; 16(9). PMID: 18293889
Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study.
S R Mehta, S Yusuf, +10 authors, Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent Events trial (CURE) Investigators.
Lancet, 2001 Aug 25; 358(9281). PMID: 11520521
Highly Cited.
Evaluation of the time saved by prehospital initiation of reteplase for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results of The Early Retavase-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (ER-TIMI) 19 trial.
David A Morrow, Elliott M Antman, +10 authors, Eugene Braunwald.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2002 Jul 10; 40(1). PMID: 12103258
Validation of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to monitor regenerative efficacy after cell therapy in a porcine model of convalescent myocardial infarction.
Konstantinos Malliaras, Rachel R Smith, +16 authors, Eduardo Marbán.
Circulation, 2013 Sep 26; 128(25). PMID: 24061088    Free PMC article.
Prehospital high-dose tirofiban in patients undergoing primary percutaneous intervention. The AGIR-2 study.
Carlos El Khoury, Pierre-Yves Dubien, +8 authors, AGIR-2 Investigators.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis, 2010 Jul 14; 103(5). PMID: 20619238
Mitochondrial non-specific pores remain closed during cardiac ischaemia, but open upon reperfusion.
E J Griffiths, A P Halestrap.
Biochem J, 1995 Apr 01; 307 ( Pt 1). PMID: 7717999    Free PMC article.
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Intracoronary injection of mononuclear bone marrow cells in acute myocardial infarction.
Ketil Lunde, Svein Solheim, +17 authors, Kolbjørn Forfang.
N Engl J Med, 2006 Sep 23; 355(12). PMID: 16990383
Highly Cited.
Adult cardiac stem cells are multipotent and support myocardial regeneration.
Antonio P Beltrami, Laura Barlucchi, +11 authors, Piero Anversa.
Cell, 2003 Sep 25; 114(6). PMID: 14505575
Highly Cited.
Intracoronary cardiosphere-derived cells for heart regeneration after myocardial infarction (CADUCEUS): a prospective, randomised phase 1 trial.
Raj R Makkar, Rachel R Smith, +12 authors, Eduardo Marbán.
Lancet, 2012 Feb 18; 379(9819). PMID: 22336189    Free PMC article.
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Recent trends in the care of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: insights from the CRUSADE initiative.
Rajendra H Mehta, Matthew T Roe, +11 authors, Eric D Peterson.
Arch Intern Med, 2006 Oct 13; 166(18). PMID: 17030838
Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
Lars Wallentin, Richard C Becker, +16 authors, Mona Thorsén.
N Engl J Med, 2009 Sep 01; 361(11). PMID: 19717846
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Early glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors in primary angioplasty-abciximab long-term results (EGYPT-ALT) cooperation: individual patient's data meta-analysis.
G DE Luca, F Bellandi, +10 authors, D Dudek.
J Thromb Haemost, 2011 Sep 21; 9(12). PMID: 21929513
Structural and functional basis of CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha) binding to heparin.
James W Murphy, Yoonsang Cho, +3 authors, Elias Lolis.
J Biol Chem, 2007 Feb 01; 282(13). PMID: 17264079    Free PMC article.
Prehospital initiation of tirofiban in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty (On-TIME 2): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.
Arnoud W J Van't Hof, Jurriën Ten Berg, +11 authors, Ongoing Tirofiban In Myocardial infarction Evaluation (On-TIME) 2 study group.
Lancet, 2008 Aug 19; 372(9638). PMID: 18707985
Randomised trial of late thrombolysis in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. EMERAS (Estudio Multicéntrico Estreptoquinasa Repúblicas de América del Sur) Collaborative Group.
Lancet, 1993 Sep 25; 342(8874). PMID: 8103875
Regenerative potential of cardiosphere-derived cells expanded from percutaneous endomyocardial biopsy specimens.
Rachel Ruckdeschel Smith, Lucio Barile, +6 authors, Eduardo Marbán.
Circulation, 2007 Feb 07; 115(7). PMID: 17283259
Highly Cited.
Intravenous enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin in primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the international randomised open-label ATOLL trial.
Gilles Montalescot, Uwe Zeymer, +21 authors, ATOLL Investigators.
Lancet, 2011 Aug 23; 378(9792). PMID: 21856483
Everolimus-eluting stent versus bare-metal stent in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (EXAMINATION): 1 year results of a randomised controlled trial.
Manel Sabate, Angel Cequier, +21 authors, Patrick W Serruys.
Lancet, 2012 Sep 07; 380(9852). PMID: 22951305
Intracoronary compared to intravenous Abciximab and high-dose bolus compared to standard dose in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing transradial primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a two-by-two factorial placebo-controlled randomized study.
Olivier F Bertrand, Josep Rodés-Cabau, +12 authors, EArly Discharge after Transradial Stenting of CoronarY Arteries in Acute Myocardial Infarction (EASY-MI) Study Investigators.
Am J Cardiol, 2010 May 25; 105(11). PMID: 20494655
Transradial versus transfemoral percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes: re-evaluation of the current body of evidence.
Michael S Lee, Michael Wolfe, Gregg W Stone.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv, 2013 Nov 23; 6(11). PMID: 24262614
Cardiac death and reinfarction after 1 year in the Thrombus Aspiration during Percutaneous coronary intervention in Acute myocardial infarction Study (TAPAS): a 1-year follow-up study.
Pieter J Vlaar, Tone Svilaas, +9 authors, Felix Zijlstra.
Lancet, 2008 Jun 10; 371(9628). PMID: 18539223
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Effects of CYP2C19 genotype on outcomes of clopidogrel treatment.
Guillaume Paré, Shamir R Mehta, +7 authors, John W Eikelboom.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Oct 29; 363(18). PMID: 20979470
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Regeneration of human infarcted heart muscle by intracoronary autologous bone marrow cell transplantation in chronic coronary artery disease: the IACT Study.
Bodo E Strauer, Michael Brehm, +8 authors, Matthias Köstering.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2005 Nov 01; 46(9). PMID: 16256864
Rheolytic thrombectomy with percutaneous coronary intervention for infarct size reduction in acute myocardial infarction: 30-day results from a multicenter randomized study.
Arshad Ali, David Cox, +10 authors, AIMI Investigators.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2006 Jul 18; 48(2). PMID: 16843170
Clinical predictors of early infarct-related artery patency following thrombolytic therapy: importance of body weight, smoking history, infarct-related artery and choice of thrombolytic regimen: the GUSTO-I experience. Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries.
C F Lundergan, J S Reiner, +3 authors, A M Ross.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 1998 Sep 19; 32(3). PMID: 9741505
Implications and reasons for the lack of use of reperfusion therapy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: findings from the CRUSADE initiative.
Shahyar Michael Gharacholou, Karen P Alexander, +7 authors, Matthew T Roe.
Am Heart J, 2010 May 04; 159(5). PMID: 20435183
Multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with multivessel disease and acute myocardial infarction.
Roberto A Corpus, John A House, +8 authors, Barry D Rutherford.
Am Heart J, 2004 Sep 25; 148(3). PMID: 15389238
Randomized trial of primary PCI with or without routine manual thrombectomy.
Sanjit S Jolly, John A Cairns, +31 authors, TOTAL Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Apr 09; 372(15). PMID: 25853743    Free PMC article.
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Patterns of hospital performance in acute myocardial infarction and heart failure 30-day mortality and readmission.
Harlan M Krumholz, Angela R Merrill, +10 authors, Elizabeth E Drye.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, 2009 Dec 25; 2(5). PMID: 20031870
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Value of the electrocardiogram in localizing the occlusion site in the left anterior descending coronary artery in acute anterior myocardial infarction.
D J Engelen, A P Gorgels, +6 authors, H J Wellens.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 1999 Aug 10; 34(2). PMID: 10440150
Eptifibatide is noninferior to abciximab in primary percutaneous coronary intervention: results from the SCAAR (Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry).
Axel Akerblom, Stefan K James, +4 authors, Jonas Oldgren.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2010 Jul 31; 56(6). PMID: 20670756
Electrocardiographic findings in acute right ventricular infarction: sensitivity and specificity of electrocardiographic alterations in right precordial leads V4R, V3R, V1, V2, and V3.
J Lopez-Sendon, I Coma-Canella, +2 authors, C Gamallo.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 1985 Dec 01; 6(6). PMID: 4067105
Cell isolation procedures matter: a comparison of different isolation protocols of bone marrow mononuclear cells used for cell therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Florian H Seeger, Torsten Tonn, +2 authors, Stefanie Dimmeler.
Eur Heart J, 2007 Feb 15; 28(6). PMID: 17298974
Prospective observational cohort study of time saved by prehospital thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction delivered by paramedics.
David K Pedley, Kim Bissett, +6 authors, M C Jones.
BMJ, 2003 Jul 05; 327(7405). PMID: 12842951    Free PMC article.
Absolute and relative kinetic changes of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in acute coronary syndrome and in patients with increased troponin in the absence of acute coronary syndrome.
Matthias Mueller, Moritz Biener, +5 authors, Evangelos Giannitsis.
Clin Chem, 2011 Dec 03; 58(1). PMID: 22134520
Intracoronary autologous bone-marrow cell transfer after myocardial infarction: the BOOST randomised controlled clinical trial.
Kai C Wollert, Gerd P Meyer, +11 authors, Helmut Drexler.
Lancet, 2004 Jul 13; 364(9429). PMID: 15246726
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Low-molecular-weight heparins in renal impairment and obesity: available evidence and clinical practice recommendations across medical and surgical settings.
Edith A Nutescu, Sarah A Spinler, Ann Wittkowsky, William E Dager.
Ann Pharmacother, 2009 May 22; 43(6). PMID: 19458109
Culprit vessel percutaneous coronary intervention versus multivessel and staged percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with multivessel disease.
Edward L Hannan, Zaza Samadashvili, +6 authors, Spencer B King.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv, 2010 Feb 05; 3(1). PMID: 20129564
Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients.
Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration.
BMJ, 2002 Jan 12; 324(7329). PMID: 11786451    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Baseline troponin level: key to understanding the importance of post-PCI troponin elevations.
Wayne L Miller, Kirk N Garratt, +3 authors, Allan S Jaffe.
Eur Heart J, 2006 Feb 17; 27(9). PMID: 16481332
A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMISTAD-II).
Allan M Ross, Raymond J Gibbons, +3 authors, AMISTAD-II Investigators.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2005 Jun 07; 45(11). PMID: 15936605
Trends in the use of evidence-based treatments for coronary artery disease among women and the elderly: findings from the get with the guidelines quality-improvement program.
William R Lewis, A Gray Ellrodt, +5 authors, Gregg C Fonarow.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, 2009 Dec 25; 2(6). PMID: 20031902
Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells activate the survival protein Akt in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells that limits apoptosis and necrosis during hypoxia.
Robert J Henning, Steve Dennis, +3 authors, Leslie Miller.
Transl Res, 2012 May 29; 159(6). PMID: 22633101
Cardiac stem cells in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (SCIPIO): initial results of a randomised phase 1 trial.
Roberto Bolli, Atul R Chugh, +17 authors, Piero Anversa.
Lancet, 2011 Nov 18; 378(9806). PMID: 22088800    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Impact of prehospital thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction on 1-year outcome: results from the French Nationwide USIC 2000 Registry.
Nicolas Danchin, Didier Blanchard, +10 authors, USIC 2000 Investigators.
Circulation, 2004 Sep 29; 110(14). PMID: 15451803
Is it possible to transform cardiac scar tissue into beating heart muscle in humans?
Michael T Chin, Charles E Murry.
Regen Med, 2012 Sep 08; 7(5). PMID: 22954430
Development of systems of care for ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients: executive summary.
Alice K Jacobs, Elliott M Antman, +2 authors, Penelope Solis.
Circulation, 2007 Jun 01; 116(2). PMID: 17538045
Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Beijing between 1984 and 1999.
Julia Critchley, Jing Liu, +2 authors, Simon Capewell.
Circulation, 2004 Sep 01; 110(10). PMID: 15337690
Human cardiac stem cells.
Claudia Bearzi, Marcello Rota, +18 authors, Piero Anversa.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2007 Aug 22; 104(35). PMID: 17709737    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The clinical study of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation by intracoronary infusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Zhan-quan Li, Ming Zhang, +7 authors, Tie-shi Hu.
Int J Cardiol, 2006 Jul 11; 115(1). PMID: 16822566
Myocardial protection at a crossroads: the need for translation into clinical therapy.
Roberto Bolli, Lance Becker, +4 authors, NHLBI Working Group on the Translation of Therapies for Protecting the Heart from Ischemia.
Circ Res, 2004 Jul 24; 95(2). PMID: 15271864
Highly Cited. Review.
Increasingly sensitive assays for cardiac troponins: a review.
James A de Lemos.
JAMA, 2013 Jun 06; 309(21). PMID: 23736735
Impact of community-wide police car deployment of automated external defibrillators on survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Robert J Myerburg, Jeffrey Fenster, +6 authors, Agustin Castellanos.
Circulation, 2002 Aug 28; 106(9). PMID: 12196329
Outcomes of rapid defibrillation by security officers after cardiac arrest in casinos.
T D Valenzuela, D J Roe, +3 authors, R G Hardman.
N Engl J Med, 2000 Nov 09; 343(17). PMID: 11071670
Highly Cited.
Time delay to treatment and mortality in primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction: every minute of delay counts.
Giuseppe De Luca, Harry Suryapranata, Jan Paul Ottervanger, Elliott M Antman.
Circulation, 2004 Mar 10; 109(10). PMID: 15007008
Highly Cited.
Reactive oxygen species, but not Ca2+ overloading, trigger pH- and mitochondrial permeability transition-dependent death of adult rat myocytes after ischemia-reperfusion.
Jae-Sung Kim, Yingai Jin, John J Lemasters.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2006 Jan 10; 290(5). PMID: 16399872
Highly Cited.
Comparison of door-to-balloon times for primary PCI using transradial versus transfemoral approach.
Samir Pancholy, Tanuj Patel, +2 authors, Tejas Patel.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv, 2010 Jun 03; 75(7). PMID: 20517957
Involvement of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of lethal myocardial reperfusion injury.
Jakob Vinten-Johansen.
Cardiovasc Res, 2004 Feb 14; 61(3). PMID: 14962479
Highly Cited. Review.
Three-, 6-, and 12-month results of autologous transplantation of mononuclear bone marrow cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Jaroslav Meluzín, Stanislav Janousek, +13 authors, Jaroslava Vinklárková.
Int J Cardiol, 2007 Sep 04; 128(2). PMID: 17764767
Transcoronary transplantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors into infarcted human myocardium.
Demosthenes G Katritsis, Panagiota A Sotiropoulou, +5 authors, Michael Papamichail.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv, 2005 Jun 15; 65(3). PMID: 15954106
Myocyte turnover in the aging human heart.
Jan Kajstura, Narasimman Gurusamy, +15 authors, Piero Anversa.
Circ Res, 2010 Nov 20; 107(11). PMID: 21088285
Highly Cited.
Timing is everything: motivating patients to call 9-1-1 at onset of acute myocardial infarction.
D Faxon, C Lenfant.
Circulation, 2001 Sep 12; 104(11). PMID: 11551867
Rescue angioplasty after failed thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction.
Anthony H Gershlick, Amanda Stephens-Lloyd, +15 authors, REACT Trial Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2005 Dec 31; 353(26). PMID: 16382062
Efficacy of emergent transcatheter transplantation of stem cells for treatment of acute myocardial infarction (TCT-STAMI).
J Ge, Y Li, +8 authors, Y Zou.
Heart, 2006 Jun 16; 92(12). PMID: 16775089    Free PMC article.
Late Assessment of Thrombolytic Efficacy (LATE) study with alteplase 6-24 hours after onset of acute myocardial infarction.
Lancet, 1993 Sep 25; 342(8874). PMID: 8103874
Global outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: comparisons of the Enoxaparin and Thrombolysis Reperfusion for Acute Myocardial Infarction Treatment-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction study 25 (ExTRACT-TIMI 25) registry and trial.
Benjamin A Steinberg, Nazanin Moghbeli, +10 authors, Elliott M Antman.
Am Heart J, 2007 Jun 23; 154(1). PMID: 17584551
Long-term diabetes impairs repopulation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and dysregulates the cytokine expression in the bone marrow microenvironment in mice.
Alessia Orlandi, Emmanouil Chavakis, +3 authors, Stefanie Dimmeler.
Basic Res Cardiol, 2010 Jul 24; 105(6). PMID: 20652278
Thrombolytic therapy vs primary percutaneous coronary intervention for myocardial infarction in patients presenting to hospitals without on-site cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial.
Thomas Aversano, Lynnet T Aversano, +5 authors, Atlantic Cardiovascular Patient Outcomes Research Team (C-PORT).
JAMA, 2002 Apr 19; 287(15). PMID: 11960536
Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: collaborative overview of early mortality and major morbidity results from all randomised trials of more than 1000 patients. Fibrinolytic Therapy Trialists' (FTT) Collaborative Group.
Lancet, 1994 Feb 05; 343(8893). PMID: 7905143
Highly Cited. Review.
Facilitated PCI in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
Stephen G Ellis, Michal Tendera, +23 authors, FINESSE Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2008 May 24; 358(21). PMID: 18499565
Dose comparisons of clopidogrel and aspirin in acute coronary syndromes.
CURRENT-OASIS 7 Investigators, Shamir R Mehta, +12 authors, Salim Yusuf.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Sep 08; 363(10). PMID: 20818903
Highly Cited.
Fibrinolysis or primary PCI in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
Paul W Armstrong, Anthony H Gershlick, +20 authors, STREAM Investigative Team.
N Engl J Med, 2013 Mar 12; 368(15). PMID: 23473396
Highly Cited.
Analysis of risk of bleeding complications after different doses of aspirin in 192,036 patients enrolled in 31 randomized controlled trials.
Victor L Serebruany, Steven R Steinhubl, +4 authors, Eric J Topol.
Am J Cardiol, 2005 May 10; 95(10). PMID: 15877994
Recovery of regional but not global contractile function by the direct intramyocardial autologous bone marrow transplantation: results from a randomized controlled clinical trial.
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Circulation, 2006 Jul 06; 114(1 Suppl). PMID: 16820557
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J Am Coll Cardiol, 2010 Jul 17; 56(4). PMID: 20633817
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Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism and stent thrombosis following percutaneous coronary intervention.
Dirk Sibbing, Julia Stegherr, +7 authors, Nicolas von Beckerath.
Eur Heart J, 2009 Feb 06; 30(8). PMID: 19193675
Third universal definition of myocardial infarction.
Kristian Thygesen, Joseph S Alpert, +4 authors, Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction.
Nat Rev Cardiol, 2012 Aug 28; 9(11). PMID: 22922597
Role of aspiration and mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty: an updated meta-analysis of randomized trials.
Dharam J Kumbhani, Anthony A Bavry, +2 authors, Deepak L Bhatt.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2013 May 15; 62(16). PMID: 23665372
2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.
Patrick T O'Gara, Frederick G Kushner, +20 authors, David X Zhao.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2012 Dec 22; 61(4). PMID: 23256914
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Myocardial no-reflow in humans.
Giampaolo Niccoli, Francesco Burzotta, Leonarda Galiuto, Filippo Crea.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2009 Jul 18; 54(4). PMID: 19608025
Highly Cited. Review.
Administration of cardiac stem cells in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: the SCIPIO trial: surgical aspects and interim analysis of myocardial function and viability by magnetic resonance.
Atul R Chugh, Garth M Beache, +10 authors, Roberto Bolli.
Circulation, 2012 Sep 22; 126(11 Suppl 1). PMID: 22965994    Free PMC article.
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Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies.
S Yusuf, S Reddy, S Ounpuu, S Anand.
Circulation, 2001 Dec 06; 104(23). PMID: 11733407
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Early routine percutaneous coronary intervention after fibrinolysis vs. standard therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.
Francesco Borgia, Shaun G Goodman, +9 authors, Carlo Di Mario.
Eur Heart J, 2010 Jul 06; 31(17). PMID: 20601393
Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia.
Stephen A Bernard, Timothy W Gray, +4 authors, Karen Smith.
N Engl J Med, 2002 Feb 22; 346(8). PMID: 11856794
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Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group.
Lancet, 1988 Aug 13; 2(8607). PMID: 2899772
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Direct comparison of different stem cell types and subpopulations reveals superior paracrine potency and myocardial repair efficacy with cardiosphere-derived cells.
Tao-Sheng Li, Ke Cheng, +9 authors, Eduardo Marbán.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2012 Mar 03; 59(10). PMID: 22381431    Free PMC article.
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Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest.
Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study Group.
N Engl J Med, 2002 Feb 22; 346(8). PMID: 11856793
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Third universal definition of myocardial infarction.
Kristian Thygesen, Joseph S Alpert, +57 authors, ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG).
Eur Heart J, 2012 Aug 28; 33(20). PMID: 22922414
Highly Cited.
Assessment of left ventricular segmental function after autologous bone marrow stem cells transplantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction by tissue tracking and strain imaging.
Wen Ruan, Cui-zhen Pan, +3 authors, Xian-hong Shu.
Chin Med J (Engl), 2005 Aug 25; 118(14). PMID: 16117862
Effectiveness of in-laboratory high-dose clopidogrel loading versus routine pre-load in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: results of the ARMYDA-5 PRELOAD (Antiplatelet therapy for Reduction of MYocardial Damage during Angioplasty) randomized trial.
Germano Di Sciascio, Giuseppe Patti, +4 authors, ARMYDA-5 PRELOAD Investigators.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2010 Aug 07; 56(7). PMID: 20688209
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Warren K Laskey, Sam Yoon, Norberto Calzada, Mark J Ricciardi.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv, 2008 Jun 12; 72(2). PMID: 18546233
Rural interhospital transfer of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients for percutaneous coronary revascularization: the Stat Heart Program.
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Circulation, 2008 Feb 13; 117(9). PMID: 18268151
Effect of early metoprolol on infarct size in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: the Effect of Metoprolol in Cardioprotection During an Acute Myocardial Infarction (METOCARD-CNIC) trial.
Borja Ibanez, Carlos Macaya, +34 authors, Valentin Fuster.
Circulation, 2013 Sep 05; 128(14). PMID: 24002794
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Prognostic value of very low plasma concentrations of troponin T in patients with stable chronic heart failure.
Roberto Latini, Serge Masson, +10 authors, Val-HeFT Investigators.
Circulation, 2007 Aug 19; 116(11). PMID: 17698733
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Short- versus long-term duration of dual-antiplatelet therapy after coronary stenting: a randomized multicenter trial.
Marco Valgimigli, Gianluca Campo, +18 authors, Prolonging Dual Antiplatelet Treatment After Grading Stent-Induced Intimal Hyperplasia Study (PRODIGY) Investigators.
Circulation, 2012 Mar 23; 125(16). PMID: 22438530
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Use of the electrocardiogram in acute myocardial infarction.
Peter J Zimetbaum, Mark E Josephson.
N Engl J Med, 2003 Mar 07; 348(10). PMID: 12621138
Effect of intracoronary delivery of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells 2 to 3 weeks following acute myocardial infarction on left ventricular function: the LateTIME randomized trial.
Jay H Traverse, Timothy D Henry, +43 authors, Cardiovascular Cell Therapy ResearchNetwork.
JAMA, 2011 Nov 16; 306(19). PMID: 22084195    Free PMC article.
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Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with persistent ST-segment elevation: the Task Force on the Management of ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology.
Frans Van de Werf, Jeroen Bax, +14 authors, ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG).
Eur Heart J, 2008 Nov 14; 29(23). PMID: 19004841
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Acute myocardial infarction in patients with end-stage renal disease.
C A Herzog.
Kidney Int Suppl, 1999 Jul 21; 71. PMID: 10412756
High-sensitivity cardiac troponins: no more 'negatives'.
James H P Gamble, Edward W Carlton, William P Orr, Kim Greaves.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther, 2013 Aug 28; 11(9). PMID: 23977868
Outcomes in diabetic patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute anterior myocardial infarction: results from the INFUSE-AMI study.
Elias A Sanidas, Sorin J Brener, +7 authors, Gregg W Stone.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv, 2013 Sep 14; 83(5). PMID: 24030863
The door-to-balloon alliance for quality: who joins national collaborative efforts and why?
Elizabeth H Bradley, Brahmajee K Nallamothu, +7 authors, Harlan M Krumholz.
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Effect on left ventricular function of intracoronary transplantation of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
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Am J Cardiol, 2004 Jun 29; 94(1). PMID: 15219514
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Primary angioplasty versus prehospital fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: a randomised study.
Eric Bonnefoy, Frédéric Lapostolle, +11 authors, Comparison of Angioplasty and Prehospital Thromboysis in Acute Myocardial Infarction study group.
Lancet, 2002 Sep 24; 360(9336). PMID: 12243916
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Patrick Staat, Gilles Rioufol, +8 authors, Michel Ovize.
Circulation, 2005 Sep 28; 112(14). PMID: 16186417
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Acute coronary care in the elderly, part I: Non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology: in collaboration with the Society of Geriatric Cardiology.
Karen P Alexander, L Kristin Newby, +12 authors, Society of Geriatric Cardiology.
Circulation, 2007 May 16; 115(19). PMID: 17502590
Highly Cited. Review.
How to use high-sensitivity cardiac troponins in acute cardiac care.
Kristian Thygesen, Johannes Mair, +17 authors, Study Group on Biomarkers in Cardiology of ESC Working Group on Acute Cardiac Care.
Eur Heart J, 2012 Jun 23; 33(18). PMID: 22723599
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Preconditioning with ischemia: a delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium.
C E Murry, R B Jennings, K A Reimer.
Circulation, 1986 Nov 01; 74(5). PMID: 3769170
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The burden of cardiovascular disease in the Indian subcontinent.
Abhinav Goyal, Salim Yusuf.
Indian J Med Res, 2006 Nov 07; 124(3). PMID: 17085827
The Public Access Defibrillation (PAD) trial: study design and rationale.
Joseph P Ornato, Mary Ann McBurnie, +7 authors, PAD Trial Investigators.
Resuscitation, 2003 Feb 19; 56(2). PMID: 12589986
Comparison of rheolytic thrombectomy before direct infarct artery stenting versus direct stenting alone in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction.
David Antoniucci, Renato Valenti, +4 authors, Roberto Sciagrà.
Am J Cardiol, 2004 Apr 15; 93(8). PMID: 15081450
Clinical implications of the Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction.
Harvey D White, Kristian Thygesen, Joseph S Alpert, Allan S Jaffe.
Heart, 2013 Apr 30; 100(5). PMID: 23624485
Commentary: the role of percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction.
Eric R Bates, Brahmajee K Nallamothu.
Circulation, 2008 Jul 30; 118(5). PMID: 18663104
Selective functional exhaustion of hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow of patients with postinfarction heart failure.
Christine K Kissel, Ralf Lehmann, +7 authors, Andreas M Zeiher.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2007 Jun 19; 49(24). PMID: 17572250
Transcoronary transplantation of progenitor cells after myocardial infarction.
Birgit Assmus, Jörg Honold, +10 authors, Andreas M Zeiher.
N Engl J Med, 2006 Sep 23; 355(12). PMID: 16990385
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A new season for cardiac troponin assays: it's time to keep a scorecard.
Fred S Apple.
Clin Chem, 2009 May 30; 55(7). PMID: 19478023
Why all the struggle about CK-MB and PCI?
Allan S Jaffe, Fred S Apple, +2 authors, Hugo A Katus.
Eur Heart J, 2012 Jan 14; 33(9). PMID: 22240499
Adenosine: trigger and mediator of cardioprotection.
Michael V Cohen, James M Downey.
Basic Res Cardiol, 2007 Nov 14; 103(3). PMID: 17999026
Effects of fondaparinux on mortality and reinfarction in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the OASIS-6 randomized trial.
Salim Yusuf, Shamir R Mehta, +10 authors, OASIS-6 Trial Group.
JAMA, 2006 Mar 16; 295(13). PMID: 16537725
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Human bone marrow stromal cells suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by cellular or nonspecific mitogenic stimuli.
Massimo Di Nicola, Carmelo Carlo-Stella, +5 authors, Alessandro M Gianni.
Blood, 2002 May 03; 99(10). PMID: 11986244
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Prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
Stephen D Wiviott, Eugene Braunwald, +12 authors, TRITON-TIMI 38 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2007 Nov 06; 357(20). PMID: 17982182
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Heart disease and stroke statistics--2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association.
WRITING GROUP MEMBERS, Donald Lloyd-Jones, +35 authors, American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee.
Circulation, 2009 Dec 19; 121(7). PMID: 20019324
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Heparin disrupts the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis and impairs the functional capacity of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells used for cardiovascular repair.
Florian H Seeger, Tina Rasper, +10 authors, Stefanie Dimmeler.
Circ Res, 2012 Jul 24; 111(7). PMID: 22821930
Intracoronary administration of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells improves left ventricular function in patients at risk for adverse remodeling after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results of the Reinfusion of Enriched Progenitor cells And Infarct Remodeling in Acute Myocardial Infarction study (REPAIR-AMI) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging substudy.
Thorsten Dill, Volker Schächinger, +7 authors, Christian Hamm.
Am Heart J, 2009 Mar 03; 157(3). PMID: 19249426
The prequel: defining prognostically important criteria in the periprocedural PCI troponin saga.
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N Engl J Med, 2009 Aug 28; 361(9). PMID: 19710484
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Comparison of intravenous urokinase plus heparin versus heparin alone in acute myocardial infarction. Urochinasi per via Sistemica nell'Infarto Miocardico (USIM) Collaborative Group.
P Rossi, L Bolognese.
Am J Cardiol, 1991 Sep 01; 68(6). PMID: 1877476
Early thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction: reappraisal of the golden hour.
E Boersma, A C Maas, J W Deckers, M L Simoons.
Lancet, 1996 Sep 21; 348(9030). PMID: 8813982
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Analytical characteristics of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays.
Fred S Apple, Paul O Collinson, IFCC Task Force on Clinical Applications of Cardiac Biomarkers.
Clin Chem, 2011 Oct 04; 58(1). PMID: 21965555
Highly Cited. Review.
Routine early angioplasty after fibrinolysis for acute myocardial infarction.
Warren J Cantor, David Fitchett, +12 authors, TRANSFER-AMI Trial Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2009 Jun 26; 360(26). PMID: 19553646
Clinical impact of thrombectomy in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an individual patient-data pooled analysis of 11 trials.
Francesco Burzotta, Maria De Vita, +11 authors, Felix Zijlstra.
Eur Heart J, 2009 Sep 04; 30(18). PMID: 19726437
A randomized trial of rescue angioplasty versus a conservative approach for failed fibrinolysis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the Middlesbrough Early Revascularization to Limit INfarction (MERLIN) trial.
Andrew G C Sutton, Philip G Campbell, +13 authors, Mark A de Belder.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 2004 Jul 21; 44(2). PMID: 15261920
Troponin elevation in patients with heart failure: on behalf of the third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction Global Task Force: Heart Failure Section.
James L Januzzi, Gerasimos Filippatos, Markku Nieminen, Mihai Gheorghiade.
Eur Heart J, 2012 Jun 30; 33(18). PMID: 22745356
Diabetes mellitus is associated with distal embolization, impaired myocardial perfusion, and higher mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors.
Giuseppe De Luca, C Michael Gibson, +13 authors, Arnoud W J Van't Hof.
Atherosclerosis, 2009 May 12; 207(1). PMID: 19426981
One-year survival following early revascularization for cardiogenic shock.
J S Hochman, L A Sleeper, +17 authors, SHOCK Investigators. Should We Emergently Revascularize Occluded Coronaries for Cardiogenic Shock.
JAMA, 2001 Feb 15; 285(2). PMID: 11176812
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Thomas W Concannon, David M Kent, +7 authors, Harry P Selker.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, 2010 Jul 29; 3(5). PMID: 20664025    Free PMC article.
Acute myocardial infarction with isolated ST-segment elevation in posterior chest leads V7-9: "hidden" ST-segment elevations revealing acute posterior infarction.
S Matetzky, D Freimark, +5 authors, H Hod.
J Am Coll Cardiol, 1999 Sep 14; 34(3). PMID: 10483956
Repair of infarcted myocardium by autologous intracoronary mononuclear bone marrow cell transplantation in humans.
Bodo E Strauer, Michael Brehm, +5 authors, Peter Wernet.
Circulation, 2002 Oct 09; 106(15). PMID: 12370212
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Aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease: the association of aspirin dose and clopidogrel with thrombosis and bleeding.
Steven R Steinhubl, Deepak L Bhatt, +6 authors, CHARISMA Investigators.
Ann Intern Med, 2009 Mar 19; 150(6). PMID: 19293071
Intravenous streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction. Effects on global and regional systolic function.
G V Martin, F H Sheehan, +4 authors, J W Kennedy.
Circulation, 1988 Aug 01; 78(2). PMID: 3396164
Serial changes in highly sensitive troponin I assay and early diagnosis of myocardial infarction.
Till Keller, Tanja Zeller, +14 authors, Stefan Blankenberg.
JAMA, 2011 Dec 29; 306(24). PMID: 22203537
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Autologous bone marrow-derived stem-cell transfer in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: double-blind, randomised controlled trial.
Stefan Janssens, Christophe Dubois, +18 authors, Frans Van de Werf.
Lancet, 2006 Jan 18; 367(9505). PMID: 16413875
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Effect of the use and timing of bone marrow mononuclear cell delivery on left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction: the TIME randomized trial.
Jay H Traverse, Timothy D Henry, +45 authors, Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN).
JAMA, 2012 Nov 07; 308(22). PMID: 23129008    Free PMC article.
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MicroRNA-137 Negatively Regulates H₂O₂-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis Through CDC42.
Junnan Wang, Rihao Xu, Junduo Wu, Zhibo Li.
Med Sci Monit, 2015 Nov 14; 21. PMID: 26566162    Free PMC article.
Immunotolerant Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Updated Review.
Whitney Faiella, Rony Atoui.
Stem Cells Int, 2016 Feb 04; 2016. PMID: 26839557    Free PMC article.
Cardiac Myocyte-specific Knock-out of Calcium-independent Phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) Decreases Oxidized Fatty Acids during Ischemia/Reperfusion and Reduces Infarct Size.
Sung Ho Moon, David J Mancuso, +10 authors, Richard W Gross.
J Biol Chem, 2016 Jul 28; 291(37). PMID: 27453526    Free PMC article.
Functional Effects of Delivering Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Seeded Biological Sutures to an Infarcted Heart.
Katrina J Hansen, John T Favreau, +8 authors, Glenn R Gaudette.
Biores Open Access, 2016 Sep 10; 5(1). PMID: 27610271    Free PMC article.
Plant-based foods containing cell wall polysaccharides rich in specific active monosaccharides protect against myocardial injury in rat myocardial infarction models.
Sun Ha Lim, Yaesil Kim, +4 authors, Jongwon Lee.
Sci Rep, 2016 Dec 09; 6. PMID: 27929093    Free PMC article.
Vascular Adaptation: Pattern Formation and Cross Validation between an Agent Based Model and a Dynamical System.
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J Theor Biol, 2017 Jun 25; 429. PMID: 28645858    Free PMC article.
Upper Gastrointestinal Complications and Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Risk Calculator in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Treated with Aspirin.
Lei Wen.
Chin Med J (Engl), 2017 Aug 05; 130(16). PMID: 28776541    Free PMC article.
Two novel direct SPIO labels and in vivo MRI detection of labeled cells after acute myocardial infarct.
Riikka M Korpi, Kirsi Alestalo, +10 authors, Roberto Blanco Sequieros.
Acta Radiol Open, 2017 Aug 16; 6(8). PMID: 28811932    Free PMC article.
Incidence of Myocardial Infarction After High-Risk Vascular Operations in Adults.
Yen-Yi Juo, Aditya Mantha, +2 authors, Peyman Benharash.
JAMA Surg, 2017 Sep 07; 152(11). PMID: 28877308    Free PMC article.
Roles of mitochondrial dynamics modulators in cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion injury.
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J Cell Mol Med, 2017 Sep 25; 21(11). PMID: 28941171    Free PMC article.
The continuing evolution of cardiac troponin I biomarker analysis: from protein to proteoform.
Daniel Soetkamp, Koen Raedschelders, +3 authors, Jennifer Van Eyk.
Expert Rev Proteomics, 2017 Oct 07; 14(11). PMID: 28984473    Free PMC article.
Short-term application of tocilizumab during myocardial infarction (STAT-MI).
Matthew B Carroll, Charles Haller, Christopher Smith.
Rheumatol Int, 2017 Oct 27; 38(1). PMID: 29067495
MR Assessment of Acute Pathologic Process after Myocardial Infarction in a Permanent Ligation Mouse Model: Role of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Contrasted MRI.
Cheongsoo Park, Eun-Hye Park, +5 authors, Kwan Soo Hong.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging, 2017 Nov 09; 2017. PMID: 29114174    Free PMC article.
Preventive effect of Agnucastoside C against Isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury.
Sunanda Panda, Anand Kar, Sagarika Biswas.
Sci Rep, 2017 Nov 25; 7(1). PMID: 29170391    Free PMC article.
Co-cultured the MSCs and cardiomyocytes can promote the growth of cardiomyocytes.
Hui Jiang, Huishan Wang, +3 authors, Hongguang Han.
Cytotechnology, 2018 Jan 27; 70(2). PMID: 29372466    Free PMC article.
Identification of potentially relevant genes for myocardial infarction using RNA sequencing data analysis.
Qiang Zhao, Ke Wu, +2 authors, Fenglin Jin.
Exp Ther Med, 2018 Feb 06; 15(2). PMID: 29399125    Free PMC article.
Predictors of mortality in ST-elevation MI patients: A prospective study.
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Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Mar 01; 97(9). PMID: 29489667    Free PMC article.
The Healthcare Cost Burden of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Alberta, Canada.
Dat T Tran, Arto Ohinmaa, +2 authors, Padma Kaul.
Pharmacoecon Open, 2018 Apr 07; 2(4). PMID: 29623635    Free PMC article.
Roles of melatonin and its receptors in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.
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Cell Mol Life Sci, 2018 Aug 15; 75(22). PMID: 30105616
Effect of CCR2 inhibitor-loaded lipid micelles on inflammatory cell migration and cardiac function after myocardial infarction.
Jinli Wang, Min Jeong Seo, +3 authors, Juliane Nguyen.
Int J Nanomedicine, 2018 Nov 10; 13. PMID: 30410330    Free PMC article.
Micelles Loaded With Puerarin And Modified With Triphenylphosphonium Cation Possess Mitochondrial Targeting And Demonstrate Enhanced Protective Effect Against Isoprenaline-Induced H9c2 Cells Apoptosis.
Wen-Qun Li, Jun-Yong Wu, +5 authors, Xin-Yi Liu.
Int J Nanomedicine, 2019 Nov 07; 14. PMID: 31695371    Free PMC article.
Protective Effect Of Vasicine Against Myocardial Infarction In Rats Via Modulation Of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, And The PI3K/Akt Pathway.
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MicroRNA-101 Protects Against Cardiac Remodeling Following Myocardial Infarction via Downregulation of Runt-Related Transcription Factor 1.
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J Am Heart Assoc, 2019 Nov 27; 8(23). PMID: 31766975    Free PMC article.
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Tirofiban hydrochloride sodium chloride injection combined with cardiovascular intervention in the treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction.
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Association between TGF-β1 -913G/C polymorphism and myocardial infarction risk in a Chinese Han population: a case-control study.
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Transl Stroke Res, 2018 Nov 11; 10(5). PMID: 30414101
Heart rate variability, the dynamic nature of the retinal microvasculature and cardiac stress: providing insight into the brain-retina-heart link: the SABPA study.
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ST-Segment Elevation in the Setting of Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Is It Acute Coronary Syndrome?
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Microencapsulated Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 therapy improves cardiac function and reduces fibrosis in a porcine acute myocardial infarction model.
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Acute dapagliflozin administration exerts cardioprotective effects in rats with cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.
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PTEN inhibitor improves vascular remodeling and cardiac function after myocardial infarction through PI3k/Akt/VEGF signaling pathway.
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