. 2015 May; 45(7):1892-905.
doi: 10.1002/eji.201344413.

Inhibitory receptors as targets for cancer immunotherapy

Meghan E Turnis 1 Lawrence P Andrews 2 Dario A A Vignali 1 
  • PMID: 26018646
  •     138 References
  •     53 citations


Inhibitory receptors expressed on T cells control immune responses while limiting autoimmunity. However, tumors can hijack these "checkpoints" for protection from immune attack. Tumor-specific T cells that exhibit an exhausted, unresponsive phenotype express high levels of inhibitory receptors including CTLA4, PD1, and LAG3, among others. Intratumoral regulatory T cells promote immunosuppression and also express multiple inhibitory receptors. Overcoming this inhibitory receptor-mediated immune tolerance has thus been a major focus of recent cancer immunotherapeutic developments. Here, we review how boosting the host's immune system by blocking inhibitory receptor signaling with antagonistic mAbs restores the capacity of T cells to drive durable antitumor immune responses. Clinical trials targeting the CTLA4 and PD1 pathways have shown durable effects in multiple tumor types. Many combinatorial therapies are currently being investigated with encouraging results that highlight enhanced antitumor immunogenicity and improved patient survival. Finally, we will discuss the ongoing identification and dissection of novel T-cell inhibitory receptor pathways, which could lead to the development of new combinatorial therapeutic approaches.

Keywords: CTLA4; Cancer immunotherapy; Inhibitory receptors; LAG3; PD1.

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Highly Cited.
Pembrolizumab versus Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma.
Caroline Robert, Jacob Schachter, +20 authors, KEYNOTE-006 investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Apr 22; 372(26). PMID: 25891173
Highly Cited.
Combined immunotherapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transduced allogeneic prostate cancer cells and ipilimumab in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial.
Alfons J M van den Eertwegh, Jurjen Versluis, +15 authors, Winald R Gerritsen.
Lancet Oncol, 2012 Feb 14; 13(5). PMID: 22326922
Highly Cited.
B7-H3-mediated tumor immunology: Friend or foe?
Ling Wang, Fu-Biao Kang, Bao-En Shan.
Int J Cancer, 2013 Sep 10; 134(12). PMID: 24013874
Th1-specific cell surface protein Tim-3 regulates macrophage activation and severity of an autoimmune disease.
Laurent Monney, Catherine A Sabatos, +9 authors, Vijay K Kuchroo.
Nature, 2002 Feb 02; 415(6871). PMID: 11823861
Highly Cited.
CD200 expression suppresses natural killer cell function and directly inhibits patient anti-tumor response in acute myeloid leukemia.
S J Coles, E C Y Wang, +4 authors, R L Darley.
Leukemia, 2011 Jan 29; 25(5). PMID: 21274000    Free PMC article.
Melanoma drug wins US approval.
Heidi Ledford.
Nature, 2011 Apr 02; 471(7340). PMID: 21455150
The immunoreceptor TIGIT regulates antitumor and antiviral CD8(+) T cell effector function.
Robert J Johnston, Laetitia Comps-Agrar, +9 authors, Jane L Grogan.
Cancer Cell, 2014 Dec 04; 26(6). PMID: 25465800
Highly Cited.
Cutting edge: molecular analysis of the negative regulatory function of lymphocyte activation gene-3.
Creg J Workman, Kari J Dugger, Dario A A Vignali.
J Immunol, 2002 Nov 08; 169(10). PMID: 12421911
TIM-3 expression characterizes regulatory T cells in tumor tissues and is associated with lung cancer progression.
Xin Gao, Yibei Zhu, +7 authors, Binfeng Lu.
PLoS One, 2012 Mar 01; 7(2). PMID: 22363469    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Targeting Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways to reverse T cell exhaustion and restore anti-tumor immunity.
Kaori Sakuishi, Lionel Apetoh, +3 authors, Ana C Anderson.
J Exp Med, 2010 Sep 08; 207(10). PMID: 20819927    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Targeting immune suppressing myeloid-derived suppressor cells in oncology.
Johnny Kao, Eric C Ko, +3 authors, Shu-Hsia Chen.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 2010 Mar 23; 77(1). PMID: 20304669    Free PMC article.
Extended co-expression of inhibitory receptors by human CD8 T-cells depending on differentiation, antigen-specificity and anatomical localization.
Lukas Baitsch, Amandine Legat, +11 authors, Daniel E Speiser.
PLoS One, 2012 Feb 22; 7(2). PMID: 22347406    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Reversal of NK-cell exhaustion in advanced melanoma by Tim-3 blockade.
Ines Pires da Silva, Anne Gallois, +5 authors, Nina Bhardwaj.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2014 May 06; 2(5). PMID: 24795354    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
FcgammaRIV is a mouse IgE receptor that resembles macrophage FcepsilonRI in humans and promotes IgE-induced lung inflammation.
David A Mancardi, Bruno Iannascoli, +3 authors, Pierre Bruhns.
J Clin Invest, 2008 Oct 25; 118(11). PMID: 18949059    Free PMC article.
Differential and tumor-specific expression of CD160 in B-cell malignancies.
Timothy W Farren, Jerome Giustiniani, +11 authors, Samir G Agrawal.
Blood, 2011 Jul 01; 118(8). PMID: 21715317    Free PMC article.
Tumor-infiltrating NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells are negatively regulated by LAG-3 and PD-1 in human ovarian cancer.
Junko Matsuzaki, Sacha Gnjatic, +9 authors, Kunle Odunsi.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2010 Apr 14; 107(17). PMID: 20385810    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CD200R signaling in tumor tolerance and inflammation: A tricky balance.
Tomasz P Rygiel, Linde Meyaard.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2012 Jan 24; 24(2). PMID: 22264927
Trans-endocytosis of CD80 and CD86: a molecular basis for the cell-extrinsic function of CTLA-4.
Omar S Qureshi, Yong Zheng, +12 authors, David M Sansom.
Science, 2011 Apr 09; 332(6029). PMID: 21474713    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Newcastle disease virus: a promising vector for viral therapy, immune therapy, and gene therapy of cancer.
Volker Schirrmacher, Philippe Fournier.
Methods Mol Biol, 2009 Jul 02; 542. PMID: 19565923    Free PMC article.
Development of an Fc-enhanced anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody with potent antitumor activity.
Deryk Loo, Ralph F Alderson, +21 authors, Paul A Moore.
Clin Cancer Res, 2012 May 23; 18(14). PMID: 22615450
Negative regulation of T cell homeostasis by lymphocyte activation gene-3 (CD223).
Creg J Workman, Dario A A Vignali.
J Immunol, 2005 Jan 07; 174(2). PMID: 15634887
A prospective phase II trial exploring the association between tumor microenvironment biomarkers and clinical activity of ipilimumab in advanced melanoma.
Omid Hamid, Henrik Schmidt, +9 authors, David Berman.
J Transl Med, 2011 Nov 30; 9. PMID: 22123319    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
High expression of the inhibitory receptor BTLA in T-follicular helper cells and in B-cell small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Hasni M'Hidi, Marie-Laure Thibult, +5 authors, Luc Xerri.
Am J Clin Pathol, 2009 Sep 19; 132(4). PMID: 19762537
Corrigendum: CEACAM1 regulates TIM-3-mediated tolerance and exhaustion.
Yu-Hwa Huang, Chen Zhu, +21 authors, Richard S Blumberg.
Nature, 2016 Mar 17; 536(7616). PMID: 26982724    Free PMC article.
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-like transcript 2 (TLT-2) is a counter-receptor for B7-H3 and enhances T cell responses.
Masaaki Hashiguchi, Hiroko Kobori, +3 authors, Miyuki Azuma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2008 Jul 25; 105(30). PMID: 18650384    Free PMC article.
The HVEM network: new directions in targeting novel costimulatory/co-inhibitory molecules for cancer therapy.
Christine Pasero, Daniel E Speiser, Laurent Derré, Daniel Olive.
Curr Opin Pharmacol, 2012 Mar 27; 12(4). PMID: 22445654
Increase of circulating B7-H4-expressing CD68+ macrophage correlated with clinical stage of lung carcinomas.
Cheng Chen, Yi-Bei Zhu, +3 authors, Jian-An Huang.
J Immunother, 2012 Apr 13; 35(4). PMID: 22495393
Phenotypic analysis of the murine CD4-related glycoprotein, CD223 (LAG-3).
Creg J Workman, Dennis S Rice, +2 authors, Dario A A Vignali.
Eur J Immunol, 2002 Sep 05; 32(8). PMID: 12209638
Safety and tumor responses with lambrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in melanoma.
Omid Hamid, Caroline Robert, +23 authors, Antoni Ribas.
N Engl J Med, 2013 Jun 04; 369(2). PMID: 23724846    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-1 blockade with nivolumab in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Stephen M Ansell, Alexander M Lesokhin, +16 authors, Philippe Armand.
N Engl J Med, 2014 Dec 09; 372(4). PMID: 25482239    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
B7-H4 expression identifies a novel suppressive macrophage population in human ovarian carcinoma.
Ilona Kryczek, Linhua Zou, +12 authors, Weiping Zou.
J Exp Med, 2006 Apr 12; 203(4). PMID: 16606666    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Enhancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade.
D R Leach, M F Krummel, J P Allison.
Science, 1996 Mar 22; 271(5256). PMID: 8596936
Highly Cited.
Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of PD-1 Expression.
Alexander P R Bally, James W Austin, Jeremy M Boss.
J Immunol, 2016 Mar 06; 196(6). PMID: 26945088    Free PMC article.
Emerging Opportunities and Challenges in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Theresa L Whiteside, Sandra Demaria, +2 authors, Ignacio Melero.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Apr 17; 22(8). PMID: 27084738    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Adverse Events Associated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review of Case Reports.
Noha Abdel-Wahab, Mohsin Shah, Maria E Suarez-Almazor.
PLoS One, 2016 Jul 30; 11(7). PMID: 27472273    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Systematic Review.
Harnessing the immune system to improve cancer therapy.
Nikos E Papaioannou, Ourania V Beniata, +2 authors, Pinelopi Samara.
Ann Transl Med, 2016 Aug 27; 4(14). PMID: 27563648    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Impaired functional responses in follicular lymphoma CD8+TIM-3+ T lymphocytes following TCR engagement.
Pauline Gravelle, Catherine Do, +13 authors, Camille Laurent.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Dec 19; 5(10). PMID: 27990323    Free PMC article.
LAG3 (CD223) as a cancer immunotherapy target.
Lawrence P Andrews, Ariel E Marciscano, Charles G Drake, Dario A A Vignali.
Immunol Rev, 2017 Mar 05; 276(1). PMID: 28258692    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Mechanisms of PD-1/PD-L1 expression and prognostic relevance in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a summary of immunohistochemical studies.
Pauline Gravelle, Barbara Burroni, +7 authors, Camille Laurent.
Oncotarget, 2017 Apr 14; 8(27). PMID: 28402953    Free PMC article.
Aggressive rat prostate tumors reprogram the benign parts of the prostate and regional lymph nodes prior to metastasis.
Kerstin Strömvall, Elin Thysell, Sofia Halin Bergström, Anders Bergh.
PLoS One, 2017 May 05; 12(5). PMID: 28472073    Free PMC article.
Industry 'road tests' new wave of immune checkpoints.
Ken Garber.
Nat Biotechnol, 2017 Jun 08; 35(6). PMID: 28591107
Signals that drive T follicular helper cell formation.
Louise M C Webb, Michelle A Linterman.
Immunology, 2017 Jun 20; 152(2). PMID: 28628194    Free PMC article.
Emerging immunotherapeutics in adenocarcinomas: A focus on CAR-T cells.
Mahboubeh Yazdanifar, Ru Zhou, Pinku Mukherjee.
Curr Trends Immunol, 2016 Jan 01; 17. PMID: 28659689    Free PMC article.
Highly aggressive rat prostate tumors rapidly precondition regional lymph nodes for subsequent metastatic growth.
Kerstin Strömvall, Marie Lundholm, +2 authors, Sofia Halin Bergström.
PLoS One, 2017 Oct 27; 12(10). PMID: 29073272    Free PMC article.
Downregulated IL-21 Response and T Follicular Helper Cell Exhaustion Correlate with Compromised CD8 T Cell Immunity during Chronic Toxoplasmosis.
Magali M Moretto, SuJin Hwang, Imtiaz A Khan.
Front Immunol, 2017 Nov 23; 8. PMID: 29163509    Free PMC article.
Lymphocyte-Activation Gene-3 Expression and Prognostic Value in Neoadjuvant-Treated Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Yunxuan Wang, Tieying Dong, +3 authors, Qingyuan Zhang.
J Breast Cancer, 2018 Jul 03; 21(2). PMID: 29963107    Free PMC article.
Bilateral anterior uveitis after immunotherapy for malignant melanoma.
Chia-Jui Chang, Shih-Jen Chen, De-Kuang Hwang, Catherine Jui-Ling Liu.
Taiwan J Ophthalmol, 2018 Oct 09; 8(3). PMID: 30294532    Free PMC article.
Cardiac morbidity in HIV infection is associated with checkpoint inhibitor LAG-3 on CD4 T cells.
Suresh Pallikkuth, Rajendra Pahwa, +9 authors, Savita Pahwa.
PLoS One, 2018 Nov 01; 13(10). PMID: 30379878    Free PMC article.
Immunophenotypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Meta-analysis of transcriptional subtypes.
Ines de Santiago, Christopher Yau, +5 authors, Shivan Sivakumar.
Int J Cancer, 2019 Feb 06; 145(4). PMID: 30720864    Free PMC article.
The Pathogenesis of Sepsis and Potential Therapeutic Targets.
Min Huang, Shaoli Cai, Jingqian Su.
Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Nov 02; 20(21). PMID: 31671729    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of Relapse After CD19 CAR T-Cell Therapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Its Prevention and Treatment Strategies.
Xinjie Xu, Qihang Sun, +8 authors, Yuhua Li.
Front Immunol, 2019 Dec 05; 10. PMID: 31798590    Free PMC article.
Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3): The next immune checkpoint receptor.
Elisa Ruffo, Richard C Wu, +2 authors, Dario A A Vignali.
Semin Immunol, 2019 Oct 13; 42. PMID: 31604537    Free PMC article.
CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing in the era of CAR T cell immunotherapy.
January Salas-Mckee, Weimin Kong, +4 authors, Joseph A Fraietta.
Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2019 Feb 09; 15(5). PMID: 30735463    Free PMC article.
The role of the innate immune system in the development and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Christoph Roderburg, Alexander Wree, +2 authors, Frank Tacke.
Hepat Oncol, 2020 Apr 11; 7(1). PMID: 32273975    Free PMC article.
LAG3 (LAG-3, CD223) DNA methylation correlates with LAG3 expression by tumor and immune cells, immune cell infiltration, and overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Niklas Klümper, Damian J Ralser, +8 authors, Dimo Dietrich.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Apr 03; 8(1). PMID: 32234847    Free PMC article.
Characterization of a novel anti-human lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) antibody for cancer immunotherapy.
Xiaojie Yu, Xiao Huang, +6 authors, Lijun Zhou.
MAbs, 2019 Jun 27; 11(6). PMID: 31242068    Free PMC article.
From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Management of Antineoplastic Drug-Induced Cardiovascular Toxicity: A Translational Overview.
Carlo Gabriele Tocchetti, Christian Cadeddu, +12 authors, Giuseppe Mercuro.
Antioxid Redox Signal, 2017 Apr 12; 30(18). PMID: 28398124    Free PMC article.
A novel cyclic peptide targeting LAG-3 for cancer immunotherapy by activating antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses.
Wenjie Zhai, Xiuman Zhou, +6 authors, Yanfeng Gao.
Acta Pharm Sin B, 2020 Jul 10; 10(6). PMID: 32642411    Free PMC article.
Critical factors in chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell (CAR-T) therapy for solid tumors.
Lingli Yan, Bainan Liu.
Onco Targets Ther, 2019 Jan 15; 12. PMID: 30636882    Free PMC article.
Adverse Effects of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (Programmed Death-1 Inhibitors and Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein-4 Inhibitors): Results of a Retrospective Study.
Ravneet Bajwa, Anmol Cheema, +10 authors, Mohammad A Hossain.
J Clin Med Res, 2019 Apr 03; 11(4). PMID: 30937112    Free PMC article.
Strategies to Augment Natural Killer (NK) Cell Activity against Solid Tumors.
Ziqing Chen, Ying Yang, Lisa L Liu, Andreas Lundqvist.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Jul 26; 11(7). PMID: 31340613    Free PMC article.
Enhanced antitumor immunity through sequential targeting of PI3Kδ and LAG3.
Sarah Nicol Lauder, Kathryn Smart, +15 authors, Awen Gallimore.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Oct 24; 8(2). PMID: 33093155    Free PMC article.
Clinical implication of cellular vaccine in glioma: current advances and future prospects.
Yuanliang Yan, Shuangshuang Zeng, Zhicheng Gong, Zhijie Xu.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2020 Nov 25; 39(1). PMID: 33228738    Free PMC article.
First line Immunotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Nicola J Nasser, Miguel Gorenberg, Abed Agbarya.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2020 Nov 12; 13(11). PMID: 33171686    Free PMC article.
New emerging targets in cancer immunotherapy: the role of LAG3.
Hannah Christina Puhr, Aysegül Ilhan-Mutlu.
ESMO Open, 2019 Jun 25; 4(2). PMID: 31231559    Free PMC article.
Prognostic immune markers for recurrence and survival in locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Laila Babar, Juliann E Kosovec, +9 authors, Ali H Zaidi.
Oncotarget, 2019 Jul 31; 10(44). PMID: 31360303    Free PMC article.
CD137 agonist-based combination immunotherapy enhances activated, effector memory T cells and prolongs survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Stephen T Muth, May Tun Saung, +3 authors, Lei Zheng.
Cancer Lett, 2020 Dec 04; 499. PMID: 33271264    Free PMC article.
Research Progress Concerning Dual Blockade of Lymphocyte-Activation Gene 3 and Programmed Death-1/Programmed Death-1 Ligand-1 Blockade in Cancer Immunotherapy: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence of This Potentially More Effective Immunotherapy Strategy.
Yihang Qi, Li Chen, +3 authors, Jing Wang.
Front Immunol, 2021 Jan 26; 11. PMID: 33488573    Free PMC article.
Using CRISPR to enhance T cell effector function for therapeutic applications.
Julian J Freen-van Heeren.
Cytokine X, 2021 Feb 20; 3(1). PMID: 33604565    Free PMC article.
Overexpression of poliovirus receptor is associated with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Sun Min Lim, Min Hee Hong, +8 authors, Hye Ryun Kim.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2021 Feb 23; 147(9). PMID: 33616718
Immune Checkpoint Molecules in Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Central Nervous System.
Ahmad Monabati, Pardis Nematollahi, +4 authors, Maral Mokhtari.
Basic Clin Neurosci, 2021 Feb 23; 11(4). PMID: 33613887    Free PMC article.
Resistance to PD1 blockade in the absence of metalloprotease-mediated LAG3 shedding.
Lawrence P Andrews, Ashwin Somasundaram, +14 authors, Dario A A Vignali.
Sci Immunol, 2020 Jul 19; 5(49). PMID: 32680952    Free PMC article.
Clinical Implications of Exosomal PD-L1 in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Sergio Ayala-Mar, Javier Donoso-Quezada, José González-Valdez.
J Immunol Res, 2021 Feb 26; 2021. PMID: 33628854    Free PMC article.
High expression of CDCA7 predicts poor prognosis for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and explores its associations with immunity.
Shouyong Liu, Yi Wang, +2 authors, Zengjun Wang.
Cancer Cell Int, 2021 Mar 03; 21(1). PMID: 33648519    Free PMC article.
Longitudinal Immune Profiling Reveals Unique Myeloid and T-cell Phenotypes Associated with Spontaneous Immunoediting in a Prostate Tumor Model.
Casey R Ager, Aleksandar Z Obradovic, +4 authors, Charles G Drake.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2021 Feb 28; 9(5). PMID: 33637604    Free PMC article.
Hypoxia Supports Differentiation of Terminally Exhausted CD8 T Cells.
Nadia Bannoud, Tomás Dalotto-Moreno, +5 authors, Diego O Croci.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 25; 12. PMID: 34025660    Free PMC article.
Molecular and Clinical Characterization of LAG3 in Breast Cancer Through 2994 Samples.
Qiang Liu, Yihang Qi, +5 authors, Jing Wang.
Front Immunol, 2021 Jul 17; 12. PMID: 34267742    Free PMC article.
Post-transcriptional control of T-cell cytokine production: Implications for cancer therapy.
Julian J Freen-van Heeren.
Immunology, 2021 Apr 23; 164(1). PMID: 33884612    Free PMC article.
The Landscape of Immunotherapy in Advanced NSCLC: Driving Beyond PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors (CTLA-4, LAG3, IDO, OX40, TIGIT, Vaccines).
Andrea De Giglio, Alessandro Di Federico, +2 authors, Francesco Gelsomino.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2021 Aug 29; 23(11). PMID: 34453261    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy Treatment for Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Elizabeth R Berger, Tristen Park, +3 authors, Nita Ahuja.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2021 Aug 29; 14(8). PMID: 34451860    Free PMC article.
The CD112R/CD112 axis: a breakthrough in cancer immunotherapy.
Taofei Zeng, Yuqing Cao, +3 authors, Feng Xu.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2021 Sep 12; 40(1). PMID: 34507594    Free PMC article.
Interrogating Epigenome toward Personalized Approach in Cutaneous Melanoma.
Elena-Georgiana Dobre, Carolina Constantin, Marieta Costache, Monica Neagu.
J Pers Med, 2021 Sep 29; 11(9). PMID: 34575678    Free PMC article.
Immune Checkpoint LAG3 and Its Ligand FGL1 in Cancer.
An-Ping Shi, Xi-Yang Tang, +7 authors, Jin-Bo Zhao.
Front Immunol, 2022 Feb 04; 12. PMID: 35111155    Free PMC article.
Oncology Drug Repurposing for Sepsis Treatment.
Izabela Rumienczyk, Maria Kulecka, +2 authors, Michal Mikula.
Biomedicines, 2022 Apr 24; 10(4). PMID: 35453671    Free PMC article.
Single-cell atlas of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant women.
Dongsheng Chen, Wei Wang, +21 authors, Jianmin Niu.
Clin Transl Med, 2022 May 07; 12(5). PMID: 35522918    Free PMC article.