. 2015 Jun; 166(5):412-24.
doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2015.06.005.

Immune-mediated adverse events of anticytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 antibody therapy in metastatic melanoma

Shannon K Quirk 1 Anna K Shure 1 Devendra K Agrawal 2 
  • PMID: 26118951
  •     100 References
  •     16 citations


Ipilimumab, an antibody that blocks cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4; CD152), was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2011 for the treatment of unresectable stage III or IV malignant melanoma. Although the addition of this particular immunotherapy has broadened treatment options, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are associated with ipilimumab therapy, including dermatologic effects, colitis and diarrhea, endocrine effects, hepatotoxicity, ocular effects, renal effects, neurologic effects, and others. In this article, a critical evaluation of the underlying mechanisms of irAEs associated with anti-CTLA-4 therapy is presented. Additionally, potentially beneficial effects of combinational therapies to alleviate ipilimumab-induced irAEs in malignant melanoma are discussed. Future research is warranted to elucidate the efficacy of such combination therapies and specific biomarkers that would help to predict a clinical response to ipilimumab in patients with malignant melanoma.

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JNCI Cancer Spectr, 2018 Jul 31; 2(3). PMID: 30057972    Free PMC article.
Toxicities of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Itis-Ending Adverse Reactions and More.
Moataz Ellithi, Radowan Elnair, Guy Vin Chang, Mohamed A Abdallah.
Cureus, 2020 Mar 20; 12(2). PMID: 32190487    Free PMC article.
Ipilimumab and Nivolumab induced steroid-refractory colitis treated with infliximab: A case report.
Ammar B Nassri, Valery Muenyi, +4 authors, Silvio W de Melo.
World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther, 2019 Jan 31; 10(1). PMID: 30697447    Free PMC article.
Diagnosis and Management of Hematological Adverse Events Induced by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Systematic Review.
Nabil E Omar, Kareem A El-Fass, +8 authors, Said Dermime.
Front Immunol, 2020 Nov 17; 11. PMID: 33193289    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Immune Thrombocytopenia Induced by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Solid Cancer: Case Report and Literature Review.
Xiaolin Liu, Xiuju Liang, +2 authors, Jun Wang.
Front Oncol, 2020 Dec 29; 10. PMID: 33365266    Free PMC article.
Inflammation and tumor progression: signaling pathways and targeted intervention.
Huakan Zhao, Lei Wu, +4 authors, Yongsheng Li.
Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2021 Jul 13; 6(1). PMID: 34248142    Free PMC article.
Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia induced with durvalumab after chemoradiotherapy in a non-small cell lung cancer patient: A case report.
Tomonori Makiguchi, Hisashi Tanaka, +3 authors, Sadatomo Tasaka.
Thorac Cancer, 2021 Aug 19; 12(20). PMID: 34405563    Free PMC article.
Immune Thrombocytopenia Induced by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitrs in Lung Cancer: Case Report and Literature Review.
Wang Xie, NaNa Hu, LeJie Cao.
Front Immunol, 2021 Dec 28; 12. PMID: 34956221    Free PMC article.