. 2015 Jul;12(10).
doi: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2015.117.

ESR1 mutations—a mechanism for acquired endocrine resistance in breast cancer

Rinath Jeselsohn 1 Gilles Buchwalter 2 Carmine De Angelis 3 Myles Brown 1 Rachel Schiff 3 
  • PMID: 26122181
  •     93 References
  •     119 citations


Approximately 70% of breast cancers are oestrogen receptor α (ER) positive, and are, therefore, treated with endocrine therapies. However, about 25% of patients with primary disease and almost all patients with metastases will present with or eventually develop endocrine resistance. Despite the magnitude of this clinical challenge, the mechanisms underlying the development of resistance remain largely unknown. In the past 2 years, several studies unveiled gain-of-function mutations in ESR1, the gene encoding the ER, in approximately 20% of patients with metastatic ER-positive disease who received endocrine therapies, such as tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. These mutations are clustered in a 'hotspot' within the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the ER and lead to ligand-independent ER activity that promotes tumour growth, partial resistance to endocrine therapy, and potentially enhanced metastatic capacity; thus, ER LBD mutations might account for a mechanism of acquired endocrine resistance in a substantial fraction of patients with metastatic disease. In general, the absence of detectable ESR1 mutations in patients with treatment-naive disease, and the correlation between the frequency of patients with tumours harbouring these mutations and the number of endocrine treatments received suggest that, under selective treatment pressure, clonal expansion of rare mutant clones occurs, leading to resistance. Preclinical and clinical development of rationale-based novel therapeutic strategies that inhibit these ER mutants has the potential to substantially improve treatment outcomes. We discuss the contribution of ESR1 mutations to the development of acquired resistance to endocrine therapy, and evaluate how mutated ER can be detected and targeted to overcome resistance and improve patient outcomes.

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Tomas Reinert, Everardo D Saad, Carlos H Barrios, José Bines.
Front Oncol, 2017 Apr 01; 7. PMID: 28361033    Free PMC article.
Estrogen receptors in breast and bone: from virtue of remodeling to vileness of metastasis.
I Bado, Z Gugala, S A W Fuqua, X H-F Zhang.
Oncogene, 2017 Apr 04; 36(32). PMID: 28368409    Free PMC article.
FAF1 phosphorylation by AKT accumulates TGF-β type II receptor and drives breast cancer metastasis.
Feng Xie, Ke Jin, +13 authors, Long Zhang.
Nat Commun, 2017 Apr 27; 8. PMID: 28443643    Free PMC article.
Embryonic transcription factor SOX9 drives breast cancer endocrine resistance.
Rinath Jeselsohn, MacIntosh Cornwell, +20 authors, Myles Brown.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2017 May 17; 114(22). PMID: 28507152    Free PMC article.
Mutation site and context dependent effects of ESR1 mutation in genome-edited breast cancer cell models.
Amir Bahreini, Zheqi Li, +11 authors, Steffi Oesterreich.
Breast Cancer Res, 2017 May 26; 19(1). PMID: 28535794    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Fluorescence Analysis of Vitamin D Receptor Status of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCS) in Breast Cancer: From Cell Models to Metastatic Patients.
Xi Zhang, Simone Hofmann, +3 authors, Sophie Sixou.
Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Jun 21; 18(6). PMID: 28632174    Free PMC article.
Detection of Activating Estrogen Receptor Gene (ESR1) Mutations in Single Circulating Tumor Cells.
Carmela Paolillo, Zhaomei Mu, +7 authors, Paolo Fortina.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jul 07; 23(20). PMID: 28679775    Free PMC article.
A Review of Fulvestrant in Breast Cancer.
Mark R Nathan, Peter Schmid.
Oncol Ther, 2017 Jul 07; 5(1). PMID: 28680952    Free PMC article.
De-escalation of treatment in HER2-positive breast cancer: Determinants of response and mechanisms of resistance.
Jamunarani Veeraraghavan, Carmine De Angelis, +5 authors, Rachel Schiff.
Breast, 2017 Jul 09; 34 Suppl 1. PMID: 28687441    Free PMC article.
The miR-29 transcriptome in endocrine-sensitive and resistant breast cancer cells.
Penn Muluhngwi, Negin Alizadeh-Rad, +2 authors, Carolyn M Klinge.
Sci Rep, 2017 Jul 14; 7(1). PMID: 28701793    Free PMC article.
Landscape of somatic mutations in different subtypes of advanced breast cancer with circulating tumor DNA analysis.
Zongbi Yi, Fei Ma, +9 authors, Binghe Xu.
Sci Rep, 2017 Jul 22; 7(1). PMID: 28729728    Free PMC article.
Structurally Novel Antiestrogens Elicit Differential Responses from Constitutively Active Mutant Estrogen Receptors in Breast Cancer Cells and Tumors.
Yuechao Zhao, Mary J Laws, +12 authors, Benita S Katzenellenbogen.
Cancer Res, 2017 Sep 15; 77(20). PMID: 28904064    Free PMC article.
Cytoplasmic Cyclin E Mediates Resistance to Aromatase Inhibitors in Breast Cancer.
Iman Doostan, Cansu Karakas, +7 authors, Khandan Keyomarsi.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Sep 28; 23(23). PMID: 28947566    Free PMC article.
18F-16α-17β-Fluoroestradiol Binding Specificity in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.
Kelley Salem, Manoj Kumar, +4 authors, Amy M Fowler.
Radiology, 2017 Sep 29; 286(3). PMID: 28956736    Free PMC article.
Upregulation of IRS1 Enhances IGF1 Response in Y537S and D538G ESR1 Mutant Breast Cancer Cells.
Zheqi Li, Kevin M Levine, +5 authors, Adrian V Lee.
Endocrinology, 2017 Oct 14; 159(1). PMID: 29029116    Free PMC article.
Metastatic breast cancer: Endocrine therapy landscape reshaped.
Mohamad Adham Salkeni, Samantha June Hall.
Avicenna J Med, 2017 Nov 10; 7(4). PMID: 29119080    Free PMC article.
MTA1 is a novel regulator of autophagy that induces tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells.
Min-Ho Lee, Dahae Koh, +7 authors, Mi-Ock Lee.
Autophagy, 2017 Nov 14; 14(5). PMID: 29130361    Free PMC article.
Local estrogen axis in the human bone microenvironment regulates estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.
Derek F Amanatullah, John S Tamaresis, +8 authors, Bonnie L King.
Breast Cancer Res, 2017 Nov 17; 19(1). PMID: 29141657    Free PMC article.
Discovery of naturally occurring ESR1 mutations in breast cancer cell lines modelling endocrine resistance.
Lesley-Ann Martin, Ricardo Ribas, +25 authors, Mitch Dowsett.
Nat Commun, 2017 Dec 02; 8(1). PMID: 29192207    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive Mutation and Copy Number Profiling in Archived Circulating Breast Cancer Tumor Cells Documents Heterogeneous Resistance Mechanisms.
Costanza Paoletti, Andi K Cani, +24 authors, Scott A Tomlins.
Cancer Res, 2017 Dec 14; 78(4). PMID: 29233927    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of Resistance to CDK4/6 Inhibitors in Breast Cancer and Potential Biomarkers of Response.
Cristina Guarducci, Martina Bonechi, +5 authors, Ilenia Migliaccio.
Breast Care (Basel), 2017 Dec 14; 12(5). PMID: 29234249    Free PMC article.
Nuclear receptors in cancer - uncovering new and evolving roles through genomic analysis.
Vineet K Dhiman, Michael J Bolt, Kevin P White.
Nat Rev Genet, 2017 Dec 28; 19(3). PMID: 29279606
Clinically Observed Estrogen Receptor Alpha Mutations within the Ligand-Binding Domain Confer Distinguishable Phenotypes.
Shanhang Jia, Mark T Miedel, +13 authors, Andrew M Stern.
Oncology, 2018 Jan 08; 94(3). PMID: 29306943    Free PMC article.
Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: Exploiting Signaling Pathways Implicated in Endocrine Resistance.
Adam M Brufsky, Maura N Dickler.
Oncologist, 2018 Jan 21; 23(5). PMID: 29352052    Free PMC article.
A Potential Prognostic Long Noncoding RNA Signature to Predict Recurrence among ER-positive Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Tamoxifen.
Kang Wang, Jie Li, +3 authors, Hong-Yuan Li.
Sci Rep, 2018 Feb 18; 8(1). PMID: 29453409    Free PMC article.
A Metabolomic Approach to Predict Breast Cancer Behavior and Chemotherapy Response.
Marcella Regina Cardoso, Juliana Carvalho Santos, +3 authors, Sophie Françoise Mauricette Derchain.
Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Feb 22; 19(2). PMID: 29466297    Free PMC article.
Early circulating tumor DNA dynamics and clonal selection with palbociclib and fulvestrant for breast cancer.
Ben O'Leary, Sarah Hrebien, +10 authors, Nicholas C Turner.
Nat Commun, 2018 Mar 03; 9(1). PMID: 29497091    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
High-sensitivity assay for monitoring ESR1 mutations in circulating cell-free DNA of breast cancer patients receiving endocrine therapy.
Laura Lupini, Anna Moretti, +6 authors, Massimo Negrini.
Sci Rep, 2018 Mar 14; 8(1). PMID: 29531247    Free PMC article.
Pharmacological activation of estrogen receptor beta augments innate immunity to suppress cancer metastasis.
Linjie Zhao, Shuang Huang, +16 authors, Shengtao Zhou.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Mar 30; 115(16). PMID: 29592953    Free PMC article.
Single CpG hypermethylation, allele methylation errors, and decreased expression of multiple tumor suppressor genes in normal body cells of mutation-negative early-onset and high-risk breast cancer patients.
Julia Böck, Silke Appenzeller, +8 authors, Thomas Haaf.
Int J Cancer, 2018 Apr 17; 143(6). PMID: 29659014    Free PMC article.
Structural underpinnings of oestrogen receptor mutations in endocrine therapy resistance.
John A Katzenellenbogen, Christopher G Mayne, +2 authors, Sarat Chandarlapaty.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2018 Apr 18; 18(6). PMID: 29662238    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Implications of ESR1 Mutations in Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.
Tomás Reinert, Rodrigo Gonçalves, José Bines.
Curr Treat Options Oncol, 2018 Apr 19; 19(5). PMID: 29666928
Chromatin reprogramming in breast cancer.
Erin E Swinstead, Ville Paakinaho, Gordon L Hager.
Endocr Relat Cancer, 2018 Apr 26; 25(7). PMID: 29692347    Free PMC article.
Practical consensus recommendations regarding the use of hormonal therapy in metastatic breast cancer.
Senthil Rajappa, J Bajpai, +8 authors, S Aggarwal.
South Asian J Cancer, 2018 May 04; 7(2). PMID: 29721481    Free PMC article.
The Impact of ESR1 Mutations on the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Sasha M Pejerrey, Derek Dustin, +3 authors, Suzanne A W Fuqua.
Horm Cancer, 2018 May 08; 9(4). PMID: 29736566
Estrogen Receptors: New Directions in the New Millennium.
Sylvia C Hewitt, Kenneth S Korach.
Endocr Rev, 2018 Jun 15; 39(5). PMID: 29901737    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Estrogen-regulated feedback loop limits the efficacy of estrogen receptor-targeted breast cancer therapy.
Tengfei Xiao, Wei Li, +18 authors, Myles Brown.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Jul 11; 115(31). PMID: 29987050    Free PMC article.
Disrupting a negative feedback loop drives endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancer.
Charles E Foulds.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Aug 08; 115(33). PMID: 30082387    Free PMC article.
Unraveling the clinicopathological features driving the emergence of ESR1 mutations in metastatic breast cancer.
Yanan Kuang, Bilal Siddiqui, +14 authors, Rinath Jeselsohn.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2018 Aug 08; 4. PMID: 30083595    Free PMC article.
A Digital RNA Signature of Circulating Tumor Cells Predicting Early Therapeutic Response in Localized and Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Tanya T Kwan, Aditya Bardia, +15 authors, Shyamala Maheswaran.
Cancer Discov, 2018 Aug 15; 8(10). PMID: 30104333    Free PMC article.
In silico screening for ERα down modulators identifies thioridazine as an anti-proliferative agent in primary, 4OH-tamoxifen-resistant and Y537S ERα-expressing breast cancer cells.
Claudia Busonero, Stefano Leone, Fabrizio Bianchi, Filippo Acconcia.
Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2018 Sep 06; 41(6). PMID: 30182339
Predictive markers of endocrine response in breast cancer.
Duniya Mosly, Arran Turnbull, +2 authors, Simon Langdon.
World J Exp Med, 2018 Sep 08; 8(1). PMID: 30191138    Free PMC article.
Clinical utility of fulvestrant in the treatment of breast cancer: a report on the emerging clinical evidence.
Andrea Rocca, Roberta Maltoni, +2 authors, Daniele Andreis.
Cancer Manag Res, 2018 Sep 15; 10. PMID: 30214302    Free PMC article.
The predictive ability of plasma ESR1 mutations for the efficacy of endocrine therapy in hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.
Yangfan Du, Na Li, +2 authors, Shunchao Yan.
Onco Targets Ther, 2018 Oct 03; 11. PMID: 30275706    Free PMC article.
Molecular profiling of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancers from patients treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy in the CARMINA 02 trial (UCBG-0609).
Xu Liang, Adrien Briaux, +12 authors, Céline Callens.
J Hematol Oncol, 2018 Oct 12; 11(1). PMID: 30305115    Free PMC article.
Moving Breast Cancer Therapy up a Notch.
Erik W J Mollen, Jonathan Ient, +4 authors, Marc A G G Vooijs.
Front Oncol, 2018 Dec 06; 8. PMID: 30515368    Free PMC article.
Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Transcriptionally Repress ESR1 but Cannot Overcome Constitutive ESR1 Mutant Activity.
David K Lung, Jay W Warrick, +4 authors, Elaine T Alarid.
Endocrinology, 2019 Sep 11; 160(10). PMID: 31504407    Free PMC article.
ERα-targeted endocrine therapy, resistance and the role of GPER.
Richard A Pepermans, Eric R Prossnitz.
Steroids, 2019 Sep 14; 152. PMID: 31518595    Free PMC article.
Signaling Complexity Measured by Shannon Entropy and Its Application in Personalized Medicine.
Alessandra J Conforte, Jack Adam Tuszynski, Fabricio Alves Barbosa da Silva, Nicolas Carels.
Front Genet, 2019 Nov 07; 10. PMID: 31695721    Free PMC article.
Clinical Implications of Monitoring ESR1 Mutations by Circulating Tumor DNA in Estrogen Receptor Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study.
Xuelu Li, Jiawei Lu, +3 authors, Man Li.
Transl Oncol, 2019 Dec 27; 13(2). PMID: 31877464    Free PMC article.
Mutational landscape implicates epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene TGF-β2 mutations for uterine carcinosarcoma after adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast carcinoma.
Ling Shen, Liangli Hong, +2 authors, Ruiqin Mai.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2020 Jan 15; 12(3). PMID: 31933910    Free PMC article.
Combined small molecule and loss-of-function screen uncovers estrogen receptor alpha and CAD as host factors for HDV infection and antiviral targets.
Eloi R Verrier, Amélie Weiss, +13 authors, Thomas F Baumert.
Gut, 2019 Mar 06; 69(1). PMID: 30833451    Free PMC article.
Successful Targeted Therapies for Breast Cancer: the Worcester Foundation and Future Opportunities in Women's Health.
Balkees Abderrahman, V Craig Jordan.
Endocrinology, 2018 Jun 23; 159(8). PMID: 29931061    Free PMC article.
The Emerging Role of ESR1 Mutations in Luminal Breast Cancer as a Prognostic and Predictive Biomarker of Response to Endocrine Therapy.
Irene De Santo, Amelia McCartney, +2 authors, Luca Malorni.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Dec 05; 11(12). PMID: 31795152    Free PMC article.
Prevalence of ESR1 Mutation in Chinese ER-Positive Breast Cancer.
Wenzhen Zhu, Chongyang Ren, +3 authors, Ning Liao.
Onco Targets Ther, 2020 Feb 06; 13. PMID: 32021303    Free PMC article.
ESR1 mutations are frequent in newly diagnosed metastatic and loco-regional recurrence of endocrine-treated breast cancer and carry worse prognosis.
Adi Zundelevich, Maya Dadiani, +14 authors, Einav Nili Gal-Yam.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 Feb 06; 22(1). PMID: 32014063    Free PMC article.
Dynamics Insights Into the Gain of Flexibility by Helix-12 in ESR1 as a Mechanism of Resistance to Drugs in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.
Abbas Khan, Ashfaq-Ur-Rehman, +7 authors, Dong-Qing Wei.
Front Mol Biosci, 2020 Feb 11; 6. PMID: 32039233    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of resistance to estrogen receptor modulators in ER+/HER2- advanced breast cancer.
Jin Zhang, Qianying Wang, +3 authors, Zhengmao Zhu.
Cell Mol Life Sci, 2019 Sep 01; 77(4). PMID: 31471681
Molecular Barcode Sequencing of the Whole Ligand Binding Domain of the ESR1 Gene in Cell-Free DNA from Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Nanae Masunaga, Naofumi Kagara, +8 authors, Shinzaburo Noguchi.
Transl Oncol, 2020 Feb 28; 13(3). PMID: 32105989    Free PMC article.
Comparison of TCGA and GENIE genomic datasets for the detection of clinically actionable alterations in breast cancer.
Pushpinder Kaur, Tania B Porras, +2 authors, Julie E Lang.
Sci Rep, 2019 Feb 08; 9(1). PMID: 30728399    Free PMC article.
Modeling the Effect of the Metastatic Microenvironment on Phenotypes Conferred by Estrogen Receptor Mutations Using a Human Liver Microphysiological System.
Mark T Miedel, Dillon C Gavlock, +3 authors, Andrew M Stern.
Sci Rep, 2019 Jun 07; 9(1). PMID: 31171849    Free PMC article.
Fulvestrant-Based Combination Therapy for Second-Line Treatment of Hormone Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer.
Sarah Sammons, Noah S Kornblum, Kimberly L Blackwell.
Target Oncol, 2018 Aug 24; 14(1). PMID: 30136059    Free PMC article.
The Genetic Landscape and Clonal Evolution of Breast Cancer Resistance to Palbociclib plus Fulvestrant in the PALOMA-3 Trial.
Ben O'Leary, Rosalind J Cutts, +10 authors, Nicholas C Turner.
Cancer Discov, 2018 Sep 13; 8(11). PMID: 30206110    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Uterine Tumor Resembling Ovarian Sex Cord Tumor: A Distinct Entity Characterized by Recurrent NCOA2/3 Gene Fusions.
Brendan C Dickson, Timothy J Childs, +4 authors, Cristina R Antonescu.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2018 Oct 03; 43(2). PMID: 30273195    Free PMC article.
The COSMIC Cancer Gene Census: describing genetic dysfunction across all human cancers.
Zbyslaw Sondka, Sally Bamford, +3 authors, Simon A Forbes.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2018 Oct 08; 18(11). PMID: 30293088    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Combined Blockade of Activating ERBB2 Mutations and ER Results in Synthetic Lethality of ER+/HER2 Mutant Breast Cancer.
Sarah Croessmann, Luigi Formisano, +13 authors, Carlos L Arteaga.
Clin Cancer Res, 2018 Oct 14; 25(1). PMID: 30314968    Free PMC article.
KDM5 Histone Demethylase Activity Links Cellular Transcriptomic Heterogeneity to Therapeutic Resistance.
Kunihiko Hinohara, Hua-Jun Wu, +25 authors, Kornelia Polyak.
Cancer Cell, 2018 Nov 26; 34(6). PMID: 30472020    Free PMC article.
Molecular characterisation of aromatase inhibitor-resistant advanced breast cancer: the phenotypic effect of ESR1 mutations.
Elena Lopez-Knowles, Alex Pearson, +11 authors, Mitch Dowsett.
Br J Cancer, 2018 Dec 20; 120(2). PMID: 30563991    Free PMC article.
Clinical and genetic risk factors for Fulvestrant treatment in post-menopause ER-positive advanced breast cancer patients.
Jingyu Liu, Jing Li, +5 authors, Quchang Ouyang.
J Transl Med, 2019 Jan 17; 17(1). PMID: 30646914    Free PMC article.
Aberrant FGFR signaling mediates resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors in ER+ breast cancer.
Luigi Formisano, Yao Lu, +28 authors, Carlos L Arteaga.
Nat Commun, 2019 Mar 28; 10(1). PMID: 30914635    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Translating insights into tumor evolution to clinical practice: promises and challenges.
Matthew W Fittall, Peter Van Loo.
Genome Med, 2019 Mar 31; 11(1). PMID: 30925887    Free PMC article.
Clinical outcomes after palbociclib with or without endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive and HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer enrolled in the TREnd trial.
Lorenzo Rossi, Chiara Biagioni, +17 authors, Luca Malorni.
Breast Cancer Res, 2019 May 31; 21(1). PMID: 31142370    Free PMC article.
The microcosmos of intratumor heterogeneity: the space-time of cancer evolution.
Michalina Janiszewska.
Oncogene, 2019 Dec 01; 39(10). PMID: 31784650    Free PMC article.
Efficacy of Single-Agent Chemotherapy for Patients with Advanced Invasive Lobular Carcinoma: A Pooled Analysis from Three Clinical Trials.
José Pérez-Garcia, Javier Cortés, Otto Metzger Filho.
Oncologist, 2018 Dec 24; 24(8). PMID: 30578311    Free PMC article.
G1T48, an oral selective estrogen receptor degrader, and the CDK4/6 inhibitor lerociclib inhibit tumor growth in animal models of endocrine-resistant breast cancer.
Kaitlyn J Andreano, Suzanne E Wardell, +15 authors, John D Norris.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2020 Mar 05; 180(3). PMID: 32130619    Free PMC article.
Progesterone Receptor Gene Variants in Metastatic Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer.
Amy M Fowler, Kelley Salem, +6 authors, Aparna M Mahajan.
Horm Cancer, 2020 Jan 17; 11(2). PMID: 31942683    Free PMC article.
Acetylation of histone H3K27 signals the transcriptional elongation for estrogen receptor alpha.
Yujing Gao, Lijia Chen, +16 authors, Qin Feng.
Commun Biol, 2020 Apr 09; 3(1). PMID: 32265480    Free PMC article.
Overcoming Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer.
Ariella B Hanker, Dhivya R Sudhan, Carlos L Arteaga.
Cancer Cell, 2020 Apr 15; 37(4). PMID: 32289273    Free PMC article.
ESR1 Mutations Are Not a Common Mechanism of Endocrine Resistance in Patients With Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Treated With Neoadjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy.
Tomás Reinert, Susana Ramalho, +13 authors, Marcia Silveira Graudenz.
Front Oncol, 2020 Apr 21; 10. PMID: 32309212    Free PMC article.
Although c‑MYC contributes to tamoxifen resistance, it improves cisplatin sensitivity in ER‑positive breast cancer.
Rui Chen, Shipeng Guo, +7 authors, Shengchun Liu.
Int J Oncol, 2020 Apr 23; 56(4). PMID: 32319562    Free PMC article.
Ribonuclease H2 Subunit A impacts invasiveness and chemoresistance resulting in poor survivability of breast cancer in ER dependent manner.
Jianjiang Shen, Sen Lin, Lin Liu, Chenying Wang.
Am J Transl Res, 2020 Jun 09; 12(5). PMID: 32509219    Free PMC article.
Advances in the Detection Technologies and Clinical Applications of Circulating Tumor DNA in Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Hao Liao, Huiping Li.
Cancer Manag Res, 2020 Jun 18; 12. PMID: 32547192    Free PMC article.
Global View of Candidate Therapeutic Target Genes in Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer.
Annamaria Salvati, Valerio Gigantino, +8 authors, Giorgio Giurato.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jun 11; 21(11). PMID: 32517194    Free PMC article.
The Network of Angiotensin Receptors in Breast Cancer.
Filippo Acconcia.
Cells, 2020 May 31; 9(6). PMID: 32471115    Free PMC article.
Phase II Study of AZD4547 in Patients With Tumors Harboring Aberrations in the FGFR Pathway: Results From the NCI-MATCH Trial (EAY131) Subprotocol W.
Young K Chae, Fangxin Hong, +19 authors, Keith T Flaherty.
J Clin Oncol, 2020 May 29; 38(21). PMID: 32463741    Free PMC article.
MAGPEL: an autoMated pipeline for inferring vAriant-driven Gene PanEls from the full-length biomedical literature.
Nafiseh Saberian, Adib Shafi, Azam Peyvandipour, Sorin Draghici.
Sci Rep, 2020 Jul 25; 10(1). PMID: 32703994    Free PMC article.
Endocrine Resistance in Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer-From Mechanism to Therapy.
Aradhana Rani, Justin Stebbing, Georgios Giamas, John Murphy.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2019 Jun 11; 10. PMID: 31178825    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Therapeutic role of recurrent ESR1-CCDC170 gene fusions in breast cancer endocrine resistance.
Li Li, Ling Lin, +6 authors, Xiao-Song Wang.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 Aug 11; 22(1). PMID: 32771039    Free PMC article.
Reprogramming metabolism by histone methyltransferase NSD2 drives endocrine resistance via coordinated activation of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes.
Junjian Wang, Zhijian Duan, +10 authors, Hong-Wu Chen.
Cancer Lett, 2016 May 11; 378(2). PMID: 27164560    Free PMC article.
Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Clinically Actionable BRAF and ESR1 Mutations in Low-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma.
Elizabeth H Stover, Colleen Feltmate, +3 authors, Panagiotis A Konstantinopoulos.
JCO Precis Oncol, 2018 Jan 01; 2018. PMID: 30828692    Free PMC article.
Association of ESR1 Mutations and Visceral Metastasis in Patients with Estrogen Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer from Brazil.
Tomás Reinert, Guilherme Portela Coelho, +5 authors, Marcia Silveira Graudenz.
J Oncol, 2019 Sep 13; 2019. PMID: 31511774    Free PMC article.
Characterization of circulating breast cancer cells with tumorigenic and metastatic capacity.
Claudia Koch, Andra Kuske, +28 authors, Klaus Pantel.
EMBO Mol Med, 2020 Jul 16; 12(9). PMID: 32667137    Free PMC article.
Point-activated ESR1Y541S has a dramatic effect on the development of sexually dimorphic organs.
Alexandra M Simond, Chen Ling, +3 authors, William J Muller.
Genes Dev, 2020 Sep 12; 34(19-20). PMID: 32912899    Free PMC article.
Inter-tumor genomic heterogeneity of breast cancers: comprehensive genomic profile of primary early breast cancers and relapses.
Caterina Fumagalli, Alberto Ranghiero, +8 authors, Massimo Barberis.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 Oct 17; 22(1). PMID: 33059724    Free PMC article.
XBP1 increases transactivation of somatic mutants of ESR1 and loss of XBP1 reverses endocrine resistance conferred by gain-of-function Y537S ESR1 mutation.
David Barua, Benazir Abbasi, Ananya Gupta, Sanjeev Gupta.
Heliyon, 2020 Oct 23; 6(10). PMID: 33088967    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis identifies novel regulators of lung adenocarcinoma.
Amir Mokhlesi, Mahmood Talkhabi.
J Cell Commun Signal, 2020 May 18; 14(4). PMID: 32415511    Free PMC article.
Biomarkers of Targeted Therapy and Immuno-Oncology in Cancers Metastatic to the Breast.
Semir Vranic, Wijendra Senarathne, +3 authors, Zoran Gatalica.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol, 2019 Sep 14; 28(9). PMID: 31517642    Free PMC article.