. 2015 Dec;13(4).
doi: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2015.215.

Clinical relevance of host immunity in breast cancer: from TILs to the clinic

Peter Savas 1 Roberto Salgado 2 Carsten Denkert 3 Christos Sotiriou 2 Phillip K Darcy 1 Mark J Smyth 4 Sherene Loi 1 
  • PMID: 26667975
  •     117 References
  •     150 citations


The clinical relevance of the host immune system in breast cancer has long been unexplored. Studies developed over the past decade have highlighted the biological heterogeneity of breast cancer, prompting researchers to investigate whether the role of the immune system in this malignancy is similar across different molecular subtypes of the disease. The presence of high levels of lymphocytic infiltration has been consistently associated with a more-favourable prognosis in patients with early stage triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. These infiltrates seem to reflect favourable host antitumour immune responses, suggesting that immune activation is important for improving survival outcomes. In this Review, we discuss the composition of the immune infiltrates observed in breast cancers, as well as data supporting the clinical relevance of host antitumour immunity, as represented by lymphocytic infiltration, and how this biomarker could be used in the clinical setting. We also discuss the rationale for enhancing immunity in breast cancer, including early data on the efficacy of T-cell checkpoint inhibition in this setting.

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Efficacy of levo-1-methyl tryptophan and dextro-1-methyl tryptophan in reversing indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-mediated arrest of T-cell proliferation in human epithelial ovarian cancer.
Feng Qian, Jeannine Villella, +15 authors, Kunle Odunsi.
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Lymphoreticular infiltration in human tumours: prognostic and biological implications: a review.
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Tremelimumab in combination with exemestane in patients with advanced breast cancer and treatment-associated modulation of inducible costimulator expression on patient T cells.
Robert H Vonderheide, Patricia M LoRusso, +9 authors, Susan M Domchek.
Clin Cancer Res, 2010 May 19; 16(13). PMID: 20479064
Oncogene amplification correlates with dense lymphocyte infiltration in human breast cancers: a role for hematopoietic growth factor release by tumor cells?
R P Tang, B Kacinski, +7 authors, S Scholl.
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Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: a potential mechanism of immune evasion.
Haidong Dong, Scott E Strome, +10 authors, Lieping Chen.
Nat Med, 2002 Jul 02; 8(8). PMID: 12091876
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Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy.
Michael A Postow, Margaret K Callahan, Jedd D Wolchok.
J Clin Oncol, 2015 Jan 22; 33(17). PMID: 25605845    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without carboplatin in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and triple-negative primary breast cancers.
Carsten Denkert, Gunter von Minckwitz, +27 authors, Sibylle Loibl.
J Clin Oncol, 2014 Dec 24; 33(9). PMID: 25534375
Highly Cited.
Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes on residual disease after primary chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective multicenter study.
M V Dieci, C Criscitiello, +8 authors, F Andre.
Ann Oncol, 2014 Jan 10; 25(3). PMID: 24401929    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Adenosine Receptor 2A Blockade Increases the Efficacy of Anti-PD-1 through Enhanced Antitumor T-cell Responses.
Paul A Beavis, Nicole Milenkovski, +6 authors, Phillip K Darcy.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2015 Feb 13; 3(5). PMID: 25672397
Highly Cited.
Translocation of an intracellular antigen to the surface of medullary breast cancer cells early in apoptosis allows for an antigen-driven antibody response elicited by tumor-infiltrating B cells.
Margit H Hansen, Heidi V Nielsen, Henrik J Ditzel.
J Immunol, 2002 Aug 24; 169(5). PMID: 12193744
Impact of genomic polymorphisms on the repertoire of human MHC class I-associated peptides.
Diana Paola Granados, Dev Sriranganadane, +10 authors, Claude Perreault.
Nat Commun, 2014 Apr 10; 5. PMID: 24714562    Free PMC article.
OX40 is a potent immune-stimulating target in late-stage cancer patients.
Brendan D Curti, Magdalena Kovacsovics-Bankowski, +20 authors, Andrew D Weinberg.
Cancer Res, 2013 Nov 02; 73(24). PMID: 24177180    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Ki-67 expression in luminal type breast cancer and its association with the clinicopathology of the cancer.
Peng Yuan, Benling Xu, +3 authors, Long Yuan.
Oncol Lett, 2016 Mar 22; 11(3). PMID: 26998129    Free PMC article.
Translating neoadjuvant therapy into survival benefits: one size does not fit all.
Leticia De Mattos-Arruda, Ronglai Shen, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Javier Cortés.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2016 Mar 24; 13(9). PMID: 27000962    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer: The Future of Immune Targeting.
Paula García-Teijido, María Luque Cabal, Ignacio Peláez Fernández, Yolanda Fernández Pérez.
Clin Med Insights Oncol, 2016 Apr 16; 10(Suppl 1). PMID: 27081325    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Development and Preclinical Application of an Immunocompetent Transplant Model of Basal Breast Cancer with Lung, Liver and Brain Metastases.
Olga Aprelikova, Christine C Tomlinson, +8 authors, Jeffrey E Green.
PLoS One, 2016 May 14; 11(5). PMID: 27171183    Free PMC article.
Triple-negative breast cancer: challenges and opportunities of a heterogeneous disease.
Giampaolo Bianchini, Justin M Balko, +2 authors, Luca Gianni.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2016 Oct 19; 13(11). PMID: 27184417    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Immunological Mechanisms in Breast Cancer - from Bench to Bedside.
Carsten Denkert, Florian Schütz.
Breast Care (Basel), 2016 May 31; 11(2). PMID: 27239169    Free PMC article.
Checkpoint Inhibitors and Their Application in Breast Cancer.
Davide Bedognetti, Cristina Maccalli, +2 authors, Barbara Seliger.
Breast Care (Basel), 2016 May 31; 11(2). PMID: 27239172    Free PMC article.
Recent trends in microRNA research into breast cancer with particular focus on the associations between microRNAs and intrinsic subtypes.
Sasagu Kurozumi, Yuri Yamaguchi, +3 authors, Jun Horiguchi.
J Hum Genet, 2016 Jul 22; 62(1). PMID: 27439682
Towards tumor immunodiagnostics.
Helen Kourea, Vassiliki Kotoula.
Ann Transl Med, 2016 Aug 27; 4(14). PMID: 27563650    Free PMC article.
Immunological battlefield in gastric cancer and role of immunotherapies.
Minyu Wang, Rita A Busuttil, +2 authors, Alex Boussioutas.
World J Gastroenterol, 2016 Sep 09; 22(28). PMID: 27605873    Free PMC article.
In-silico insights on the prognostic potential of immune cell infiltration patterns in the breast lobular epithelium.
J C L Alfonso, N S Schaadt, +5 authors, H Hatzikirou.
Sci Rep, 2016 Sep 24; 6. PMID: 27659691    Free PMC article.
RNA Sequencing to Predict Response to Neoadjuvant Anti-HER2 Therapy: A Secondary Analysis of the NeoALTTO Randomized Clinical Trial.
Debora Fumagalli, David Venet, +20 authors, Christos Sotiriou.
JAMA Oncol, 2016 Sep 30; 3(2). PMID: 27684533    Free PMC article.
Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes Affect the Outcome of Patients with Operable Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Combination with Mutated Amino Acid Classes.
Vassiliki Kotoula, Sotiris Lakis, +18 authors, George Fountzilas.
PLoS One, 2016 Sep 30; 11(9). PMID: 27685159    Free PMC article.
Antibody-supervised deep learning for quantification of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in hematoxylin and eosin stained breast cancer samples.
Riku Turkki, Nina Linder, +2 authors, Johan Lundin.
J Pathol Inform, 2016 Oct 01; 7. PMID: 27688929    Free PMC article.
Correlation between serum IL-1β and miR-144-3p as well as their prognostic values in LUAD and LUSC patients.
Chen Wu, Bin Xu, +4 authors, Changping Wu.
Oncotarget, 2016 Nov 05; 7(52). PMID: 27811377    Free PMC article.
An immune stratification reveals a subset of PD-1/LAG-3 double-positive triple-negative breast cancers.
Giulia Bottai, Carlotta Raschioni, +10 authors, Libero Santarpia.
Breast Cancer Res, 2016 Dec 04; 18(1). PMID: 27912781    Free PMC article.
The Role of the Tumor Vasculature in the Host Immune Response: Implications for Therapeutic Strategies Targeting the Tumor Microenvironment.
Shona A Hendry, Rae H Farnsworth, +3 authors, Stephen B Fox.
Front Immunol, 2017 Jan 10; 7. PMID: 28066431    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Integrated MicroRNA-mRNA Profiling Identifies Oncostatin M as a Marker of Mesenchymal-Like ER-Negative/HER2-Negative Breast Cancer.
Giulia Bottai, Lixia Diao, +6 authors, Libero Santarpia.
Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Jan 21; 18(1). PMID: 28106823    Free PMC article.
Cytokine profiling of tumor interstitial fluid of the breast and its relationship with lymphocyte infiltration and clinicopathological characteristics.
Jaime A Espinoza, Shakila Jabeen, +10 authors, Irina Gromova.
Oncoimmunology, 2017 Jan 27; 5(12). PMID: 28123884    Free PMC article.
Profiling of microRNAs in tumor interstitial fluid of breast tumors - a novel resource to identify biomarkers for prognostic classification and detection of cancer.
Ann Rita Halvorsen, Åslaug Helland, +7 authors, Vilde D Haakensen.
Mol Oncol, 2017 Feb 02; 11(2). PMID: 28145100    Free PMC article.
Non-anthracycline-containing docetaxel and cyclophosphamide regimen is associated with sustained worse outcome compared with docetaxel, anthracycline and cyclophosphamide in neoadjuvant treatment of triple negative and HER2-positive breast cancer patients: updated follow-up data from NATT study.
Xiaosong Chen, Guolin Ye, +2 authors, Kunwei Shen.
Chin J Cancer Res, 2017 Feb 09; 28(6). PMID: 28174484    Free PMC article.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte composition, organization and PD-1/ PD-L1 expression are linked in breast cancer.
Laurence Buisseret, Soizic Garaud, +14 authors, Karen Willard-Gallo.
Oncoimmunology, 2017 Feb 16; 6(1). PMID: 28197375    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-L1 (CD274) copy number gain, expression, and immune cell infiltration as candidate predictors for response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in soft-tissue sarcoma.
Jan Budczies, Gunhild Mechtersheimer, +17 authors, Albrecht Stenzinger.
Oncoimmunology, 2017 Apr 14; 6(3). PMID: 28405504    Free PMC article.
Differential intratumoral distributions of CD8 and CD163 immune cells as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer.
Sotirios P Fortis, Michael Sofopoulos, +9 authors, Constantin N Baxevanis.
J Immunother Cancer, 2017 Apr 22; 5. PMID: 28428887    Free PMC article.
Advancing Immunotherapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Mariam Mansour, Zhi Ling Teo, Stephen J Luen, Sherene Loi.
Curr Treat Options Oncol, 2017 May 24; 18(6). PMID: 28534250
Immune signature of metastatic breast cancer: Identifying predictive markers of immunotherapy response.
Ji-Yeon Kim, Eunjin Lee, +5 authors, Yeon Hee Park.
Oncotarget, 2017 May 26; 8(29). PMID: 28537889    Free PMC article.
Unmet Needs in Clinical Research in Breast Cancer: Where Do We Need to Go?
Ann H Partridge, Lisa A Carey.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jun 03; 23(11). PMID: 28572255    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer: What Are We Missing?
Robert H Vonderheide, Susan M Domchek, Amy S Clark.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jun 03; 23(11). PMID: 28572258    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Combined immune checkpoint blockade as a therapeutic strategy for BRCA1-mutated breast cancer.
Emma Nolan, Peter Savas, +13 authors, Geoffrey J Lindeman.
Sci Transl Med, 2017 Jun 09; 9(393). PMID: 28592566    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Precision medicine in breast cancer: reality or utopia?
Ali Bettaieb, Catherine Paul, +3 authors, François Ghiringhelli.
J Transl Med, 2017 Jun 19; 15(1). PMID: 28623955    Free PMC article.
Immune Escape in Breast Cancer During In Situ to Invasive Carcinoma Transition.
Carlos R Gil Del Alcazar, Sung Jin Huh, +27 authors, Kornelia Polyak.
Cancer Discov, 2017 Jun 28; 7(10). PMID: 28652380    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Distinct Tertiary Lymphoid Structure Associations and Their Prognostic Relevance in HER2 Positive and Negative Breast Cancers.
Xia Liu, Julia Y S Tsang, +5 authors, Gary M Tse.
Oncologist, 2017 Jul 14; 22(11). PMID: 28701569    Free PMC article.
Adding Adjuvant Systemic Treatment after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Breast Cancer: Review of the Data.
Shetal A Patel, Angela DeMichele.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2017 Jul 25; 19(8). PMID: 28733827
Assessing Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method From the International Immunooncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 1: Assessing the Host Immune Response, TILs in Invasive Breast Carcinoma and Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Metastatic Tumor Deposits and Areas for Further Research.
Shona Hendry, Roberto Salgado, +97 authors, Stephen B Fox.
Adv Anat Pathol, 2017 Aug 05; 24(5). PMID: 28777142    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Chronology of gastrointestinal cancer.
Kentaro Murakami, Hisahiro Matsubara.
Surg Today, 2017 Aug 11; 48(4). PMID: 28795270    Free PMC article.
Breast Cancer Immunotherapy: Facts and Hopes.
Leisha A Emens.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Aug 13; 24(3). PMID: 28801472    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Clinical Validity and Utility of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Routine Clinical Practice for Breast Cancer Patients: Current and Future Directions.
Lironne Wein, Peter Savas, +3 authors, Sherene Loi.
Front Oncol, 2017 Aug 22; 7. PMID: 28824872    Free PMC article.
Treg depletion potentiates checkpoint inhibition in claudin-low breast cancer.
Nicholas A Taylor, Sarah C Vick, +10 authors, Jonathan S Serody.
J Clin Invest, 2017 Aug 22; 127(9). PMID: 28825599    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Predictive and prognostic impact of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Carmen Herrero-Vicent, Angel Guerrero, +7 authors, Amparo Ruiz-Simón.
Ecancermedicalscience, 2017 Sep 14; 11. PMID: 28900472    Free PMC article.
Significance of evaluating tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in breast cancer.
Sasagu Kurozumi, Takaaki Fujii, +4 authors, Hiroyuki Kuwano.
Med Mol Morphol, 2017 Sep 25; 50(4). PMID: 28936553
Genome-wide identification of key modulators of gene-gene interaction networks in breast cancer.
Yu-Chiao Chiu, Li-Ju Wang, +2 authors, Yidong Chen.
BMC Genomics, 2017 Oct 07; 18(Suppl 6). PMID: 28984209    Free PMC article.
PTPN2: a tumor suppressor you want deleted?
Florian Wiede, Tony Tiganis.
Immunol Cell Biol, 2017 Oct 11; 95(10). PMID: 28994418
Breast Cancer Vaccines: New Insights.
Rosaria Benedetti, Carmela Dell'Aversana, +2 authors, Lucia Altucci.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2017 Oct 31; 8. PMID: 29081765    Free PMC article.
DNA methylation at enhancers identifies distinct breast cancer lineages.
Thomas Fleischer, Xavier Tekpli, +14 authors, Vessela N Kristensen.
Nat Commun, 2017 Nov 11; 8(1). PMID: 29123100    Free PMC article.
T cell receptor sequencing of early-stage breast cancer tumors identifies altered clonal structure of the T cell repertoire.
John F Beausang, Amanda J Wheeler, +4 authors, Stephen R Quake.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2017 Nov 16; 114(48). PMID: 29138313    Free PMC article.
Targeting immune checkpoints in breast cancer: an update of early results.
Cinzia Solinas, Andrea Gombos, +3 authors, Laurence Buisseret.
ESMO Open, 2017 Nov 28; 2(5). PMID: 29177095    Free PMC article.
Interplay between Natural Killer Cells and Anti-HER2 Antibodies: Perspectives for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy.
Aura Muntasell, Mariona Cabo, +6 authors, Miguel López-Botet.
Front Immunol, 2017 Nov 29; 8. PMID: 29181007    Free PMC article.
Implications of the tumor immune microenvironment for staging and therapeutics.
Janis M Taube, Jérôme Galon, +8 authors, Ashley Cimino-Mathews.
Mod Pathol, 2017 Dec 02; 31(2). PMID: 29192647    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Prediction of survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer by evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and residual cancer burden.
Yuka Asano, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, +11 authors, Masaichi Ohira.
BMC Cancer, 2017 Dec 29; 17(1). PMID: 29282021    Free PMC article.
Immune Checkpoint Blockade for Breast Cancer.
April Swoboda, Rita Nanda.
Cancer Treat Res, 2018 Jan 20; 173. PMID: 29349763    Free PMC article.
Immune gene expression and response to chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer.
Theodoros Foukakis, John Lövrot, +14 authors, Thomas Hatschek.
Br J Cancer, 2018 Jan 26; 118(4). PMID: 29370583    Free PMC article.
Analysis of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes reveals two new biologically different subgroups of breast ductal carcinoma in situ.
Marie Beguinot, Marie-Melanie Dauplat, +5 authors, Nina Radosevic-Robin.
BMC Cancer, 2018 Feb 06; 18(1). PMID: 29394917    Free PMC article.
Analysis of PD1, PDL1, PDL2 expression and T cells infiltration in 1014 gastric cancer patients.
Xiaofang Xing, Jianping Guo, +23 authors, Jiafu Ji.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Feb 06; 7(3). PMID: 29399387    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Predicting the Efficacy of HER2-Targeted Therapies: A Look at the Host.
Martina Di Modica, Elda Tagliabue, Tiziana Triulzi.
Dis Markers, 2018 Feb 07; 2017. PMID: 29403144    Free PMC article.
Immune Infiltration in Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.
Christine Desmedt, Roberto Salgado, +21 authors, Christos Sotiriou.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2018 Feb 23; 110(7). PMID: 29471435    Free PMC article.
The Expression and Prognostic Impact of Immune Cytolytic Activity-Related Markers in Human Malignancies: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis.
Constantinos Roufas, Dimitrios Chasiotis, +3 authors, Apostolos Zaravinos.
Front Oncol, 2018 Mar 09; 8. PMID: 29515971    Free PMC article.
Study on the progression types of cancer in patients with breast cancer undergoing eribulin chemotherapy and tumor microenvironment.
Shinichiro Kashiwagi, Gen Tsujio, +10 authors, Masaichi Ohira.
J Transl Med, 2018 Mar 11; 16(1). PMID: 29523158    Free PMC article.
Clinical Significance of the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Endocrine Therapy for Stage IV Breast Cancer.
Nozomi Iimori, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, +9 authors, Masaichi Ohira.
In Vivo, 2018 Apr 27; 32(3). PMID: 29695577    Free PMC article.
Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Treatment of Breast Cancer.
Tomas G Lyons, Maura N Dickler, Elizabeth E Comen.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2018 May 02; 20(7). PMID: 29713831
Basal-like breast cancer engages tumor-supportive macrophages via secreted factors induced by extracellular S100A4.
Lina Prasmickaite, Ellen M Tenstad, +10 authors, Gunhild M Maelandsmo.
Mol Oncol, 2018 May 10; 12(9). PMID: 29741811    Free PMC article.
Immune characterization of breast cancer metastases: prognostic implications.
Maria Vittoria Dieci, Vassilena Tsvetkova, +15 authors, Valentina Guarneri.
Breast Cancer Res, 2018 Jun 23; 20(1). PMID: 29929548    Free PMC article.
Probabilistic graphical models relate immune status with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Andrea Zapater-Moros, Angelo Gámez-Pozo, +9 authors, Juan Ángel Fresno Vara.
Oncotarget, 2018 Jul 03; 9(45). PMID: 29963222    Free PMC article.
Human cancer evolution in the context of a human immune system in mice.
Odd L Gammelgaard, Mikkel G Terp, Birgitte Preiss, Henrik J Ditzel.
Mol Oncol, 2018 Aug 19; 12(10). PMID: 30120895    Free PMC article.
Magnetic resonance imaging and molecular features associated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer.
Jia Wu, Xuejie Li, +4 authors, Ruijiang Li.
Breast Cancer Res, 2018 Sep 05; 20(1). PMID: 30176944    Free PMC article.
Evaluation of anti-PD-1-based therapy against triple-negative breast cancer patient-derived xenograft tumors engrafted in humanized mouse models.
Roberto R Rosato, Daniel Dávila-González, +6 authors, Jenny C Chang.
Breast Cancer Res, 2018 Sep 07; 20(1). PMID: 30185216    Free PMC article.
Predicting the response to neoadjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer: tumor-, blood-, and imaging-related biomarkers.
Wenyong Tan, Ming Yang, +2 authors, Weixi Shen.
Cancer Manag Res, 2018 Oct 24; 10. PMID: 30349367    Free PMC article.
Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio as a predictive factor of complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Javier Cuello-López, Ana Fidalgo-Zapata, Laura López-Agudelo, Elsa Vásquez-Trespalacios.
PLoS One, 2018 Nov 15; 13(11). PMID: 30427884    Free PMC article.
Predictive value of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio in the preoperative setting for progression of patients with breast cancer.
Wataru Goto, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, +8 authors, Masaichi Ohira.
BMC Cancer, 2018 Nov 21; 18(1). PMID: 30453914    Free PMC article.
Antigen Specificity and Clinical Significance of IgG and IgA Autoantibodies Produced in situ by Tumor-Infiltrating B Cells in Breast Cancer.
Soizic Garaud, Pawel Zayakin, +7 authors, Aija Linē.
Front Immunol, 2018 Dec 06; 9. PMID: 30515157    Free PMC article.
Assessment of PD-L1 expression across breast cancer molecular subtypes, in relation to mutation rate, BRCA1-like status, tumor-infiltrating immune cells and survival.
Marcelo Sobral-Leite, Koen Van de Vijver, +21 authors, Marjanka K Schmidt.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Dec 14; 7(12). PMID: 30524905    Free PMC article.
Mature dendritic cells correlate with favorable immune infiltrate and improved prognosis in ovarian carcinoma patients.
Iva Truxova, Lenka Kasikova, +17 authors, Jitka Fucikova.
J Immunother Cancer, 2018 Dec 12; 6(1). PMID: 30526667    Free PMC article.
HER2 signaling regulates the tumor immune microenvironment and trastuzumab efficacy.
Tiziana Triulzi, Luca Forte, +6 authors, Elda Tagliabue.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Dec 14; 8(1). PMID: 30546951    Free PMC article.
The Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Luminal B Breast Cancer.
Mauricio Rivas, Francisco Acevedo, +14 authors, Cesar Sanchez.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 Jul 28; 20(7). PMID: 31350986    Free PMC article.
Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 in Breast Cancer: Technical Aspects, Prognostic Implications, and Predictive Value.
Federica Miglietta, Gaia Griguolo, Valentina Guarneri, Maria Vittoria Dieci.
Oncologist, 2019 Aug 25; 24(11). PMID: 31444294    Free PMC article.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells predict survival of triple-negative breast cancer.
H Vihervuori, T A Autere, +5 authors, P Kronqvist.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2019 Sep 29; 145(12). PMID: 31562550    Free PMC article.
Tumor immune microenvironment and genomic evolution in a patient with metastatic triple negative breast cancer and a complete response to atezolizumab.
Luciana Molinero, Yijin Li, +7 authors, Leisha A Emens.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Oct 28; 7(1). PMID: 31647026    Free PMC article.
Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in metastatic breast cancer is not an independent predictor of survival, but depends on other variables.
Alejandra Ivars Rubio, Juan Carlos Yufera, +8 authors, Francisco Ayala de la Peña.
Sci Rep, 2019 Nov 20; 9(1). PMID: 31740715    Free PMC article.
Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Breast Cancer Prognosis: A Sonographic Elastography Study.
Yue You, Yu Song, +2 authors, Huaying Bo.
Med Sci Monit, 2019 Dec 06; 25. PMID: 31802780    Free PMC article.
Evaluation of the Predictive Role of Tumor Immune Infiltrate in Patients with HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Anti-HER2 Therapy without Chemotherapy.
Carmine De Angelis, Chandandeep Nagi, +22 authors, Rachel Schiff.
Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Oct 28; 26(3). PMID: 31653641    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Prognosis: A Pooled Individual Patient Analysis of Early-Stage Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.
Sherene Loi, Damien Drubay, +19 authors, Stefan Michiels.
J Clin Oncol, 2019 Jan 17; 37(7). PMID: 30650045    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Changes in Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Vascular Normalization in Breast Cancer Patients After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Their Correlations With DFS.
Qiong Wang, Qun Xiang, +5 authors, Jing Cheng.
Front Oncol, 2020 Feb 11; 9. PMID: 32039020    Free PMC article.
Development of an Immune-Related Prognostic Signature in Breast Cancer.
Peiling Xie, Yuying Ma, +3 authors, Huimin Zhang.
Front Genet, 2020 Feb 13; 10. PMID: 32047513    Free PMC article.
Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Patients Receiving Trastuzumab/Pertuzumab-Based Chemotherapy: A TRYPHAENA Substudy.
Michail Ignatiadis, Gert Van den Eynden, +16 authors, Christos Sotiriou.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2018 May 23; 111(1). PMID: 29788230    Free PMC article.
Ductal carcinoma in situ: to treat or not to treat, that is the question.
Maartje van Seijen, Esther H Lips, +9 authors, PRECISION team.
Br J Cancer, 2019 Jul 10; 121(4). PMID: 31285590    Free PMC article.
Prognostic utility of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in residual tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer.
Sasagu Kurozumi, Kenichi Inoue, +5 authors, Ken Shirabe.
Sci Rep, 2019 Feb 09; 9(1). PMID: 30733496    Free PMC article.
Relevance of Spatial Heterogeneity of Immune Infiltration for Predicting Risk of Recurrence After Endocrine Therapy of ER+ Breast Cancer.
Andreas Heindl, Ivana Sestak, +3 authors, Yinyin Yuan.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2017 Sep 02; 110(2). PMID: 28859291    Free PMC article.
Checkpoint blockade in the treatment of breast cancer: current status and future directions.
Lironne Wein, Stephen J Luen, +2 authors, Sherene Loi.
Br J Cancer, 2018 May 29; 119(1). PMID: 29808015    Free PMC article.
Spatial Architecture and Arrangement of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes for Predicting Likelihood of Recurrence in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Germán Corredor, Xiangxue Wang, +9 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
Clin Cancer Res, 2018 Sep 12; 25(5). PMID: 30201760    Free PMC article.
Evaluation of the Predictive and Prognostic Values of Stromal Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in HER2-Positive Breast Cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Xia Yang, Jia Rao, Wentao Yang, Ruohong Shui.
Target Oncol, 2018 Nov 09; 13(6). PMID: 30406444    Free PMC article.
Association of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes with distant disease-free survival in the ShortHER randomized adjuvant trial for patients with early HER2+ breast cancer.
M V Dieci, P Conte, +19 authors, V Guarneri.
Ann Oncol, 2019 Jan 19; 30(3). PMID: 30657852    Free PMC article.
Spatially distinct tumor immune microenvironments stratify triple-negative breast cancers.
Tina Gruosso, Mathieu Gigoux, +20 authors, Morag Park.
J Clin Invest, 2019 Feb 13; 129(4). PMID: 30753167    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Reactive oxygen species modulate macrophage immunosuppressive phenotype through the up-regulation of PD-L1.
Cecilia Roux, Soode Moghadas Jafari, +14 authors, Chiara Gorrini.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2019 Feb 17; 116(10). PMID: 30770442    Free PMC article.
A Syngeneic ErbB2 Mammary Cancer Model for Preclinical Immunotherapy Trials.
Zsófia Pénzváltó, Jane Qian Chen, +5 authors, Alexander D Borowsky.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 2019 Feb 28; 24(2). PMID: 30810966    Free PMC article.
Immune Tumor Microenvironment in Breast Cancer and the Participation of Estrogen and Its Receptors in Cancer Physiopathology.
Mariana Segovia-Mendoza, Jorge Morales-Montor.
Front Immunol, 2019 Mar 19; 10. PMID: 30881360    Free PMC article.
Interaction of host immunity with HER2-targeted treatment and tumor heterogeneity in HER2-positive breast cancer.
Gaia Griguolo, Tomás Pascual, +2 authors, Aleix Prat.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Mar 30; 7(1). PMID: 30922362    Free PMC article.
Selectively hampered activation of lymph node-resident dendritic cells precedes profound T cell suppression and metastatic spread in the breast cancer sentinel lymph node.
Kim M van Pul, Ronald J C L M Vuylsteke, +5 authors, Tanja D de Gruijl.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 May 24; 7(1). PMID: 31118093    Free PMC article.
Correlation Analysis of Histopathology and Proteogenomics Data for Breast Cancer.
Xiaohui Zhan, Jun Cheng, +7 authors, Kun Huang.
Mol Cell Proteomics, 2019 Jul 10; 18(8 suppl 1). PMID: 31285282    Free PMC article.
High-throughput targeted long-read single cell sequencing reveals the clonal and transcriptional landscape of lymphocytes.
Mandeep Singh, Ghamdan Al-Eryani, +11 authors, Alexander Swarbrick.
Nat Commun, 2019 Jul 18; 10(1). PMID: 31311926    Free PMC article.
Cancer-immune interactions in ER-positive breast cancers: PI3K pathway alterations and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Marcelo Sobral-Leite, Izhar Salomon, +13 authors, Marleen Kok.
Breast Cancer Res, 2019 Aug 09; 21(1). PMID: 31391067    Free PMC article.
BRCA1 mRNA expression modifies the effect of T cell activation score on patient survival in breast cancer.
Lingeng Lu, Huatian Huang, +3 authors, Zuoheng Wang.
BMC Cancer, 2019 Apr 27; 19(1). PMID: 31023256    Free PMC article.
Targeting the Interplay between Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Transition and the Immune System for Effective Immunotherapy.
Rama Soundararajan, Jared J Fradette, +18 authors, Sendurai A Mani.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 May 30; 11(5). PMID: 31137625    Free PMC article.
KRAS signaling enriched triple negative breast cancer is associated with favorable tumor immune microenvironment and better survival.
Yoshihisa Tokumaru, Masanori Oshi, +7 authors, Kazuaki Takabe.
Am J Cancer Res, 2020 Apr 09; 10(3). PMID: 32266098    Free PMC article.
Sequential Anti-PD1 Therapy Following Dendritic Cell Vaccination Improves Survival in a HER2 Mammary Carcinoma Model and Identifies a Critical Role for CD4 T Cells in Mediating the Response.
Krithika N Kodumudi, Ganesan Ramamoorthi, +10 authors, Brian J Czerniecki.
Front Immunol, 2019 Sep 03; 10. PMID: 31475002    Free PMC article.
Emerging role of deep learning-based artificial intelligence in tumor pathology.
Yahui Jiang, Meng Yang, +2 authors, Yan Sun.
Cancer Commun (Lond), 2020 Apr 12; 40(4). PMID: 32277744    Free PMC article.
Prevalence of PD-L1 expression in matched recurrent and/or metastatic sarcoma samples and in a range of selected sarcomas subtypes.
Ana Cristina Vargas, Fiona M Maclean, +8 authors, Anthony J Gill.
PLoS One, 2020 Apr 16; 15(4). PMID: 32294103    Free PMC article.
Report on computational assessment of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group.
Mohamed Amgad, Elisabeth Specht Stovgaard, +66 authors, International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2020 May 16; 6. PMID: 32411818    Free PMC article.
Pitfalls in assessing stromal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) in breast cancer.
Zuzana Kos, Elvire Roblin, +91 authors, International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2020 May 16; 6. PMID: 32411819    Free PMC article.
Fully Human Antibodies for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Targeting.
Fabio Nicolini, Martine Bocchini, +4 authors, Massimiliano Mazza.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Apr 12; 12(4). PMID: 32276524    Free PMC article.
Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and response to neoadjuvant letrozole in patients with early oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: analysis from a nationwide phase II DBCG trial.
Signe Korsgaard Skriver, Maj-Britt Jensen, +2 authors, Anne-Vibeke Laenkholm.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 May 16; 22(1). PMID: 32410705    Free PMC article.
microRNAs in the Antitumor Immune Response and in Bone Metastasis of Breast Cancer: From Biological Mechanisms to Therapeutics.
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Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Apr 23; 21(8). PMID: 32316552    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic Effect of Trastuzumab in Neoadjuvant-Treated HER2-Positive Breast Cancer with Low Infiltrating Level of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes.
Shiwei Liu, Exian Mou, +8 authors, Jia Xu.
Cancer Manag Res, 2020 May 23; 12. PMID: 32440212    Free PMC article.
Association of TILs with clinical parameters, Recurrence Score® results, and prognosis in patients with early HER2-negative breast cancer (BC)-a translational analysis of the prospective WSG PlanB trial.
Cornelia Kolberg-Liedtke, Oleg Gluz, +13 authors, Nadia Harbeck.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 May 16; 22(1). PMID: 32408905    Free PMC article.
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Yara Abdou, Kristopher Attwood, +9 authors, Angela R Omilian.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 Jun 11; 22(1). PMID: 32517730    Free PMC article.
Targeting Autophagy Facilitates T Lymphocyte Migration by Inducing the Expression of CXCL10 in Gastric Cancer Cell Lines.
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Front Oncol, 2020 Jun 26; 10. PMID: 32582551    Free PMC article.
Immune-infiltration based signature as a novel prognostic biomarker in gastrointestinal stromal tumour.
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EBioMedicine, 2020 Jun 24; 57. PMID: 32574962    Free PMC article.
Independent Prognostic Value of Intratumoral Heterogeneity and Immune Response Features by Automated Digital Immunohistochemistry Analysis in Early Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Carcinoma.
Dovile Zilenaite, Allan Rasmusson, +5 authors, Arvydas Laurinavicius.
Front Oncol, 2020 Jul 03; 10. PMID: 32612954    Free PMC article.
Unraveling Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Tumor Microenvironment Heterogeneity: Towards an Optimized Treatment Approach.
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New Therapeutics in HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer: Towards a Change in Clinical Practices?pi.
Essia Mezni, Cécile Vicier, +3 authors, Anthony Gonçalves.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jun 18; 12(6). PMID: 32545895    Free PMC article.
Extracranial Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy in Oligometastatic or Oligoprogressive Breast Cancer.
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Front Oncol, 2020 Jul 18; 10. PMID: 32676455    Free PMC article.
Predicting therapeutic efficacy of endocrine therapy for stage IV breast cancer by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
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Mol Clin Oncol, 2020 Jul 28; 13(2). PMID: 32714546    Free PMC article.
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Oncoimmunology, 2020 Nov 06; 9(1). PMID: 33150045    Free PMC article.
Immune-Activated Regional Lymph Nodes Predict Favorable Survival in Early-Stage Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
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Identification and Validation of an Immunological Expression-Based Prognostic Signature in Breast Cancer.
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Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase Is a Prognostic Biomarker and Correlated With Immune Infiltrates in Gastric Cancer.
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