Review
. 2016 Mar; 34(4):171-81.
doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2016.01.006.

Blocking immune checkpoints in prostate, kidney, and urothelial cancer: An overview

Angela K B Alme 1 Beerinder S Karir 2 Bishoy M Faltas 2 Charles G Drake 3 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 26923782
  •     96 References
  •     19 citations

Abstract

Despite a long history of immunotherapeutic approaches to treatment, most genitourinary malignancies are not cured by existing immunotherapy regimens. More recently, cell surface molecules known as immune checkpoints have become the focus of efforts to develop more effective immunotherapies. Interactions between these molecules and their ligands inhibit the proliferation and function of tumor-specific lymphocytes. A monoclonal antibody blocking 1 of these checkpoints was approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and is now being tested in other malignancies. The objective responses seen in these early trials of checkpoint blockade are driving renewed enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy. There are several ongoing and planned trials in genitourinary malignancies of single-agent inhibitors, as well as combinations targeting multiple checkpoints or adding other types of therapies to checkpoint blockade.

Keywords: Bladder cancer; CTLA-4; Kidney cancer; LAG-3; PD-1; PD-L1; Prostate cancer.

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Dayson Moreira, Tomasz Adamus, +8 authors, Marcin Kortylewski.
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Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: An Overview on Efficacy and Future Perspectives.
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Lymph nodes may be a source for immunetherapy in gastric cancer.
Paula Baraúna Assumpção, Erika Couto Canelas, +6 authors, Paulo Assumpção.
Oncotarget, 2020 Jun 02; 11(19). PMID: 32477462    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy For Ovarian Cancer: Recent Advances And Combination Therapeutic Approaches.
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Am J Clin Exp Urol, 2019 May 30; 7(2). PMID: 31139701    Free PMC article.
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Immunotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer: immuno-cold or the tip of the iceberg?
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Curr Opin Urol, 2017 Aug 22; 27(6). PMID: 28825923    Free PMC article.
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Ovarian Cancer Immunotherapy: Turning up the Heat.
Eleonora Ghisoni, Martina Imbimbo, Stefan Zimmermann, Giorgio Valabrega.
Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Jun 19; 20(12). PMID: 31208030    Free PMC article.
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Quantitative Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics for Biomarker Development in Ovarian Cancer.
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Molecules, 2021 Jun 03; 26(9). PMID: 34063568    Free PMC article.
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Novel Target Opportunities in Non-Metastatic Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Stephanie Gleicher, Baylee A Porter, +6 authors, Leszek Kotula.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 13(10). PMID: 34067832    Free PMC article.
Analyzing and validating the prognostic value and immune microenvironment of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Jingwei Ke, Jie Chen, Xin Liu.
Anim Cells Syst (Seoul), 2022 Apr 29; 26(2). PMID: 35479513    Free PMC article.