. 2016 Apr;129(9).
doi: 10.1242/jcs.183129.

Signatures of breast cancer metastasis at a glance

George S Karagiannis 1 Sumanta Goswami 1 Joan G Jones 2 Maja H Oktay 3 John S Condeelis 4 
  • PMID: 27084578
  •     114 References
  •     30 citations


Gene expression profiling has yielded expression signatures from which prognostic tests can be derived to facilitate clinical decision making in breast cancer patients. Some of these signatures are based on profiling of whole tumor tissue (tissue signatures), which includes all tumor and stromal cells. Prognostic markers have also been derived from the profiling of metastasizing tumor cells, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and migratory-disseminating tumor cells within the primary tumor. The metastasis signatures based on CTCs and migratory-disseminating tumor cells have greater potential for unraveling cell biology insights and mechanistic underpinnings of tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. Of clinical interest is the promise that stratification of patients into high or low metastatic risk, as well as assessing the need for cytotoxic therapy, might be improved if prognostics derived from these two types of signatures are used in a combined way. The aim of this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster is to navigate through both types of signatures and their derived prognostics, as well as to highlight biological insights and clinical applications that could be derived from them, especially when they are used in combination.

Keywords: CTC; Chemotaxis; Circulating tumor cell; HIS; Human invasion signature; Intravasation; Invadopodia; Mena; TMEM; Tumor microenvironment of metastasis.

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Devon A Lawson, Nirav R Bhakta, +10 authors, Zena Werb.
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Claudette Falato, Julie Lorent, +4 authors, Theodoros Foukakis.
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Prospective Validation of a 21-Gene Expression Assay in Breast Cancer.
Joseph A Sparano, Robert J Gray, +28 authors, George W Sledge.
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IMP1, an mRNA binding protein that reduces the metastatic potential of breast cancer in a mouse model.
Chiso U Nwokafor, Rani S Sellers, Robert H Singer.
Oncotarget, 2016 Sep 23; 7(45). PMID: 27655671    Free PMC article.
MenaINV dysregulates cortactin phosphorylation to promote invadopodium maturation.
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Sci Rep, 2016 Nov 09; 6. PMID: 27824079    Free PMC article.
Macrophage-dependent tumor cell transendothelial migration is mediated by Notch1/MenaINV-initiated invadopodium formation.
Jeanine Pignatelli, Jose Javier Bravo-Cordero, +9 authors, John S Condeelis.
Sci Rep, 2016 Dec 03; 6. PMID: 27901093    Free PMC article.
Apoptosis-linked gene 2 promotes breast cancer growth and metastasis by regulating the cytoskeleton.
Juan Qin, Dengwen Li, +7 authors, Jun Zhou.
Oncotarget, 2016 Dec 08; 8(2). PMID: 27926525    Free PMC article.
Tumor Cell Invadopodia: Invasive Protrusions that Orchestrate Metastasis.
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Trends Cell Biol, 2017 Apr 17; 27(8). PMID: 28412099    Free PMC article.
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Neoadjuvant chemotherapy induces breast cancer metastasis through a TMEM-mediated mechanism.
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Sci Transl Med, 2017 Jul 07; 9(397). PMID: 28679654    Free PMC article.
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Mol Cancer Ther, 2017 Aug 26; 16(11). PMID: 28838996    Free PMC article.
Effects of FSTL1 on the proliferation and motility of breast cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells.
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Thorac Cancer, 2017 Sep 01; 8(6). PMID: 28857515    Free PMC article.
A metastasis biomarker (MetaSite Breast™ Score) is associated with distant recurrence in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early-stage breast cancer.
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NPJ Breast Cancer, 2017 Nov 16; 3. PMID: 29138761    Free PMC article.
Chemotherapy-induced metastasis: mechanisms and translational opportunities.
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The Different Routes to Metastasis via Hypoxia-Regulated Programs.
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Trends Cell Biol, 2018 Jul 26; 28(11). PMID: 30041830    Free PMC article.
Development of a Novel Proteomic Risk-Classifier for Prognostication of Patients With Early-Stage Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.
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The emerging roles of macrophages in cancer metastasis and response to chemotherapy.
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