. 2016 Apr; 22(8):1845-55.
doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-0049.

Emerging Opportunities and Challenges in Cancer Immunotherapy

Theresa L Whiteside 1 Sandra Demaria 2 Maria E Rodriguez-Ruiz 3 Hassane M Zarour 1 Ignacio Melero 4 
  • PMID: 27084738
  •     131 References
  •     106 citations


Immunotherapy strategies against cancer are emerging as powerful weapons for treatment of this disease. The success of checkpoint inhibitors against metastatic melanoma and adoptive T-cell therapy with chimeric antigen receptor T cells against B-cell-derived leukemias and lymphomas are only two examples of developments that are changing the paradigms of clinical cancer management. These changes are a result of many years of intense research into complex and interrelated cellular and molecular mechanisms controling immune responses. Promising advances come from the discovery of cancer mutation-encoded neoantigens, improvements in vaccine development, progress in delivery of cellular therapies, and impressive achievements in biotechnology. As a result, radical transformation of cancer treatment is taking place in which conventional cancer treatments are being integrated with immunotherapeutic agents. Many clinical trials are in progress testing potential synergistic effects of treatments combining immunotherapy with other therapies. Much remains to be learned about the selection, delivery, and off-target effects of immunotherapy used alone or in combination. The existence of numerous escape mechanisms from the host immune system that human tumors have evolved still is a barrier to success. Efforts to understand the rules of immune cell dysfunction and of cancer-associated local and systemic immune suppression are providing new insights and fuel the enthusiasm for new therapeutic strategies. In the future, it might be possible to tailor immune therapy for each cancer patient. The use of new immune biomarkers and the ability to assess responses to therapy by noninvasive monitoring promise to improve early cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Personalized immunotherapy based on individual genetic, molecular, and immune profiling is a potentially achievable future goal. The current excitement for immunotherapy is justified in view of many existing opportunities for harnessing the immune system to treat cancer.

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Evolving synergistic combinations of targeted immunotherapies to combat cancer.
Ignacio Melero, David M Berman, +3 authors, John Haanen.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2015 Jul 25; 15(8). PMID: 26205340
Highly Cited. Review.
Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells: Critical Cells Driving Immune Suppression in the Tumor Microenvironment.
Katherine H Parker, Daniel W Beury, Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg.
Adv Cancer Res, 2015 Jul 29; 128. PMID: 26216631    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Role of Local Radiation Therapy in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Sandra Demaria, Encouse B Golden, Silvia C Formenti.
JAMA Oncol, 2015 Aug 14; 1(9). PMID: 26270858
Highly Cited. Review.
The Next Hurdle in Cancer Immunotherapy: Overcoming the Non-T-Cell-Inflamed Tumor Microenvironment.
Thomas F Gajewski.
Semin Oncol, 2015 Sep 01; 42(4). PMID: 26320069    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Metabolic Competition in the Tumor Microenvironment Is a Driver of Cancer Progression.
Chih-Hao Chang, Jing Qiu, +11 authors, Erika L Pearce.
Cell, 2015 Sep 01; 162(6). PMID: 26321679    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Phosphoenolpyruvate Is a Metabolic Checkpoint of Anti-tumor T Cell Responses.
Ping-Chih Ho, Jessica Dauz Bihuniak, +15 authors, Susan M Kaech.
Cell, 2015 Sep 01; 162(6). PMID: 26321681    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Chimeric antigen receptor T cells persist and induce sustained remissions in relapsed refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
David L Porter, Wei-Ting Hwang, +15 authors, Carl H June.
Sci Transl Med, 2015 Sep 04; 7(303). PMID: 26333935    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Control of Regulatory T Cell Migration, Function, and Homeostasis.
Daniel J Campbell.
J Immunol, 2015 Sep 06; 195(6). PMID: 26342103    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Safety and Antitumor Activity of Anti-PD-1 Antibody, Nivolumab, in Patients With Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.
Junzo Hamanishi, Masaki Mandai, +18 authors, Ikuo Konishi.
J Clin Oncol, 2015 Sep 10; 33(34). PMID: 26351349
Highly Cited.
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells against CD19 for Multiple Myeloma.
Alfred L Garfall, Marcela V Maus, +13 authors, Edward A Stadtmauer.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Sep 10; 373(11). PMID: 26352815    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
FDA Approval: Blinatumomab.
Donna Przepiorka, Chia-Wen Ko, +15 authors, Richard Pazdur.
Clin Cancer Res, 2015 Sep 17; 21(18). PMID: 26374073
Highly Cited.
Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or Monotherapy in Untreated Melanoma.
James Larkin, F Stephen Hodi, Jedd D Wolchok.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Sep 24; 373(13). PMID: 26398076
Highly Cited.
Nivolumab versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma.
Robert J Motzer, Bernard Escudier, +25 authors, CheckMate 025 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Sep 26; 373(19). PMID: 26406148    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Nivolumab versus Docetaxel in Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Hossein Borghaei, Luis Paz-Ares, +25 authors, Julie R Brahmer.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Sep 29; 373(17). PMID: 26412456    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Combination cancer immunotherapies tailored to the tumour microenvironment.
Mark J Smyth, Shin Foong Ngiow, Antoni Ribas, Michele W L Teng.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2015 Nov 26; 13(3). PMID: 26598942
Highly Cited. Review.
Immune suppressive mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment.
David H Munn, Vincenzo Bronte.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2015 Nov 27; 39. PMID: 26609943    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Pembrolizumab versus docetaxel for previously treated, PD-L1-positive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-010): a randomised controlled trial.
Roy S Herbst, Paul Baas, +16 authors, Edward B Garon.
Lancet, 2015 Dec 30; 387(10027). PMID: 26712084
Highly Cited.
Reversing T-cell Dysfunction and Exhaustion in Cancer.
Hassane M Zarour.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Apr 17; 22(8). PMID: 27084739    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The Where, the When, and the How of Immune Monitoring for Cancer Immunotherapies in the Era of Checkpoint Inhibition.
Priti S Hegde, Vaios Karanikas, Stefan Evers.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Apr 17; 22(8). PMID: 27084740
Highly Cited. Review.
Making Better Chimeric Antigen Receptors for Adoptive T-cell Therapy.
Marcela V Maus, Carl H June.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Apr 17; 22(8). PMID: 27084741    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Targeting the Heterogeneity of Cancer with Individualized Neoepitope Vaccines.
Özlem Türeci, Mathias Vormehr, +3 authors, Ugur Sahin.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Apr 17; 22(8). PMID: 27084742
Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy: State of the Art and Beyond.
Kalijn F Bol, Gerty Schreibelt, +2 authors, Carl G Figdor.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Apr 17; 22(8). PMID: 27084743
Highly Cited. Review.
The role of regulatory T cells in cancer immunology.
Theresa L Whiteside.
Immunotargets Ther, 2015 Jan 01; 4. PMID: 27471721    Free PMC article.
Effect of host immune capability on radiocurability and subsequent transplantability of a murine fibrosarcoma.
H B Stone, L J Peters, L Milas.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 1979 Nov 01; 63(5). PMID: 291749
Highly Cited.
Specific activation and targeting of cytotoxic lymphocytes through chimeric single chains consisting of antibody-binding domains and the gamma or zeta subunits of the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptors.
Z Eshhar, T Waks, G Gross, D G Schindler.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1993 Jan 15; 90(2). PMID: 8421711    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Enhancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade.
D R Leach, M F Krummel, J P Allison.
Science, 1996 Mar 22; 271(5256). PMID: 8596936
Highly Cited.
Challenges of Using High-Dose Fractionation Radiotherapy in Combination Therapy.
Ying-Chieh Yang, Chi-Shiun Chiang.
Front Oncol, 2016 Jul 23; 6. PMID: 27446811    Free PMC article.
A critical review of recent developments in radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.
Sarah Baker, Max Dahele, Frank J Lagerwaard, Suresh Senan.
Radiat Oncol, 2016 Sep 08; 11(1). PMID: 27600665    Free PMC article.
Understanding the Impact of ErbB Activating Events and Signal Transduction on Antigen Processing and Presentation: MHC Expression as a Model.
Anna E Kersh, Maiko Sasaki, +2 authors, Brian P Pollack.
Front Pharmacol, 2016 Oct 13; 7. PMID: 27729860    Free PMC article.
FCGR Polymorphisms Influence Response to IL2 in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Amy K Erbe, Wei Wang, +15 authors, Paul M Sondel.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Nov 01; 23(9). PMID: 27742794    Free PMC article.
Dendritic cell immunotherapy versus bevacizumab plus irinotecan in recurrent malignant glioma patients: a survival gain analysis.
Stefan-Alexandru Artene, Adina Turcu-Stiolica, +7 authors, Anica Dricu.
Onco Targets Ther, 2016 Nov 24; 9. PMID: 27877052    Free PMC article.
Advancing Immune and Cell-Based Therapies Through Imaging.
Vladimir Ponomarev.
Mol Imaging Biol, 2017 Mar 09; 19(3). PMID: 28271366    Free PMC article.
Exosomes carrying immunoinhibitory proteins and their role in cancer.
T L Whiteside.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2017 Apr 04; 189(3). PMID: 28369805    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Tracking dendritic cell migration into lymph nodes by using a novel PET probe 18F-tetrafluoroborate for sodium/iodide symporter.
Sang Bong Lee, Ho Won Lee, +5 authors, Shin Young Jeong.
EJNMMI Res, 2017 Apr 06; 7(1). PMID: 28378292    Free PMC article.
Autoimmune Diabetes and Thyroiditis Complicating Treatment with Nivolumab.
Li Li, Awais Masood, +2 authors, Alan B Grosbach.
Case Rep Oncol, 2017 Jun 15; 10(1). PMID: 28611636    Free PMC article.
Identification of new MUC1 epitopes using HLA-transgenic animals: implication for immunomonitoring.
Tanja Scheikl-Gatard, Caroline Tosch, François Lemonnier, Ronald Rooke.
J Transl Med, 2017 Jul 07; 15(1). PMID: 28679396    Free PMC article.
Pembrolizumab reactivates pulmonary granulomatosis.
Majdi Al-Dliw, Mohammed Megri, +3 authors, Yousef Shweihat.
Respir Med Case Rep, 2017 Aug 11; 22. PMID: 28794963    Free PMC article.
From Famine to Feast: Developing Early-Phase Combination Immunotherapy Trials Wisely.
Daphne Day, Arta M Monjazeb, +4 authors, Marcus O Butler.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Sep 03; 23(17). PMID: 28864726    Free PMC article.
Combined immunotherapy with anti-PDL-1/PD-1 and anti-CD4 antibodies cures syngeneic disseminated neuroblastoma.
Valentina Rigo, Laura Emionite, +6 authors, Michela Croce.
Sci Rep, 2017 Oct 27; 7(1). PMID: 29070883    Free PMC article.
Neutralization of IL-8 decreases tumor PMN-MDSCs and reduces mesenchymalization of claudin-low triple-negative breast cancer.
Charli Dominguez, Kristen K McCampbell, Justin M David, Claudia Palena.
JCI Insight, 2017 Nov 03; 2(21). PMID: 29093275    Free PMC article.
The effect of tumor-derived exosomes on immune regulation and cancer immunotherapy.
Theresa L Whiteside.
Future Oncol, 2017 Dec 05; 13(28). PMID: 29198150    Free PMC article.
Towards personalized, tumour-specific, therapeutic vaccines for cancer.
Zhuting Hu, Patrick A Ott, Catherine J Wu.
Nat Rev Immunol, 2017 Dec 12; 18(3). PMID: 29226910    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Modelling the immunosuppressive effect of liver SBRT by simulating the dose to circulating lymphocytes: an in-silico planning study.
L Basler, N Andratschke, +2 authors, S Tanadini-Lang.
Radiat Oncol, 2018 Jan 24; 13(1). PMID: 29357886    Free PMC article.
Dendritic cell vaccine induces antigen-specific CD8+ T cells that are metabolically distinct from those of peptide vaccine and is well-combined with PD-1 checkpoint blockade.
Koji Nagaoka, Akihiro Hosoi, +3 authors, Kazuhiro Kakimi.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Feb 06; 7(3). PMID: 29399391    Free PMC article.
Separation of plasma-derived exosomes into CD3(+) and CD3(-) fractions allows for association of immune cell and tumour cell markers with disease activity in HNSCC patients.
M-N Theodoraki, T K Hoffmann, T L Whiteside.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2018 Feb 13; 192(3). PMID: 29431869    Free PMC article.
A cancer vaccine-mediated postoperative immunotherapy for recurrent and metastatic tumors.
Tingting Wang, Dangge Wang, +6 authors, Yaping Li.
Nat Commun, 2018 Apr 20; 9(1). PMID: 29670088    Free PMC article.
Contribution to Tumor Angiogenesis From Innate Immune Cells Within the Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for Immunotherapy.
Adriana Albini, Antonino Bruno, Douglas M Noonan, Lorenzo Mortara.
Front Immunol, 2018 Apr 21; 9. PMID: 29675018    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The perfect personalized cancer therapy: cancer vaccines against neoantigens.
Luigi Aurisicchio, Matteo Pallocca, Gennaro Ciliberto, Fabio Palombo.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2018 Apr 22; 37(1). PMID: 29678194    Free PMC article.
Systemic immune response induced by oxaliplatin-based neoadjuvant therapy favours survival without metastatic progression in high-risk rectal cancer.
Erta Kalanxhi, Sebastian Meltzer, +9 authors, Anne Hansen Ree.
Br J Cancer, 2018 Apr 27; 118(10). PMID: 29695770    Free PMC article.
Radiation-Induced Chromosomal Aberrations and Immunotherapy: Micronuclei, Cytosolic DNA, and Interferon-Production Pathway.
Marco Durante, Silvia C Formenti.
Front Oncol, 2018 Jun 19; 8. PMID: 29911071    Free PMC article.
Adenovirus Coding for Interleukin-2 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Replaces Lymphodepleting Chemotherapy in Adoptive T Cell Therapy.
João Manuel Santos, Víctor Cervera-Carrascon, +6 authors, Akseli Hemminki.
Mol Ther, 2018 Jul 19; 26(9). PMID: 30017877    Free PMC article.
Inhibiting the CD8+ T cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment after radiotherapy is an important mechanism of radioresistance.
Hai-Yan Chen, Lei Xu, +3 authors, Yong-Rui Bai.
Sci Rep, 2018 Aug 11; 8(1). PMID: 30093664    Free PMC article.
Present and future of cancer immunotherapy: A tumor microenvironmental perspective.
Yu Yu, Jiuwei Cui.
Oncol Lett, 2018 Sep 15; 16(4). PMID: 30214551    Free PMC article.
RNAi-Mediated β-Catenin Inhibition Promotes T Cell Infiltration and Antitumor Activity in Combination with Immune Checkpoint Blockade.
Shanthi Ganesh, Xue Shui, +4 authors, Marc T Abrams.
Mol Ther, 2018 Oct 03; 26(11). PMID: 30274786    Free PMC article.
Current frontline approaches in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma: the evolving role of immunotherapy.
Gagandeep Brar, Tim F Greten, Zachary J Brown.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol, 2018 Nov 01; 11. PMID: 30377451    Free PMC article.
Why should radiation oncology do translational research? [corrected].
Rut Cañas, Isabel Linares, Ferran Guedea, Miguel Ángel Berenguer.
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother, 2018 Nov 21; 24(1). PMID: 30455615    Free PMC article.
Responsiveness to anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 immune checkpoint blockade in SB28 and GL261 mouse glioma models.
Vassilis Genoud, Eliana Marinari, +5 authors, Paul R Walker.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Dec 14; 7(12). PMID: 30524896    Free PMC article.
Orthogonal regulation of DNA nanostructure self-assembly and disassembly using antibodies.
Simona Ranallo, Daniela Sorrentino, Francesco Ricci.
Nat Commun, 2019 Dec 05; 10(1). PMID: 31796740    Free PMC article.
Tuning the size, shape and structure of RNA nanoparticles for favorable cancer targeting and immunostimulation.
Sijin Guo, Congcong Xu, +3 authors, Peixuan Guo.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol, 2019 Aug 29; 12(1). PMID: 31456362    Free PMC article.
Tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs): How to avoid the sting in the tail.
MeiHua Wan, Bo Ning, +2 authors, Tony Y Hu.
Med Res Rev, 2019 Jul 19; 40(1). PMID: 31318078    Free PMC article.
A treatise on endothelial biology and exosomes: homage to Theresa Maria Listowska Whiteside.
N Ludwig, M T Lotze.
HNO, 2020 Jan 23; 68(2). PMID: 31965194
Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors in colorectal cancer: what is the future beyond deficient mismatch-repair tumours?
Nicolas Huyghe, Paméla Baldin, Marc Van den Eynde.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf), 2020 Feb 28; 8(1). PMID: 32104582    Free PMC article.
Genetic and Epigenetic Biomarkers of Immune Checkpoint Blockade Response.
Qingyang Xiao, André Nobre, +5 authors, Isabel Barragán.
J Clin Med, 2020 Jan 24; 9(1). PMID: 31968651    Free PMC article.
Association Between Response to Nivolumab Treatment and Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets in Patients With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Selene Ottonello, Carlo Genova, +16 authors, Gabriella Pietra.
Front Immunol, 2020 Mar 03; 11. PMID: 32117275    Free PMC article.
Biomimetic Glyconanoparticle Vaccine for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Eliran Moshe Reuven, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, +8 authors, Vered Padler-Karavani.
ACS Nano, 2019 Mar 07; 13(3). PMID: 30840433    Free PMC article.
The potential of tumor-derived exosomes for noninvasive cancer monitoring: an update.
Theresa L Whiteside.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn, 2018 Nov 09; 18(12). PMID: 30406709    Free PMC article.
Delivery technologies for cancer immunotherapy.
Rachel S Riley, Carl H June, Robert Langer, Michael J Mitchell.
Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2019 Jan 10; 18(3). PMID: 30622344    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Effective cancer immunotherapy by natural mouse conventional type-1 dendritic cells bearing dead tumor antigen.
Stefanie K Wculek, Joaquín Amores-Iniesta, +3 authors, David Sancho.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Apr 10; 7(1). PMID: 30961656    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immunogenic cell death by neoadjuvant oxaliplatin and radiation protects against metastatic failure in high-risk rectal cancer.
Simer J Bains, Hanna Abrahamsson, +6 authors, Anne Hansen Ree.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Jan 02; 69(3). PMID: 31893287    Free PMC article.
Harnessing radiation to improve immunotherapy: better with particles?
Marco Durante, Silvia Formenti.
Br J Radiol, 2019 Jul 19; 93(1107). PMID: 31317768    Free PMC article.
Pre-existing inflammatory immune microenvironment predicts the clinical response of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to therapeutic HPV16 vaccination.
Ziena Abdulrahman, Noel de Miranda, +5 authors, Sjoerd H van der Burg.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Mar 15; 8(1). PMID: 32169871    Free PMC article.
Checkpoint inhibitor blockade and epigenetic reprogrammability in CD8+ T-cell activation and exhaustion.
José Belizário, Maria Fernanda Destro Rodrigues.
Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother, 2020 Mar 25; 8. PMID: 32206744    Free PMC article.
Cancer immunophenotyping by seven-colour multispectral imaging without tyramide signal amplification.
Marieke E Ijsselsteijn, Thomas P Brouwer, +6 authors, Noel Fcc de Miranda.
J Pathol Clin Res, 2018 Sep 08; 5(1). PMID: 30191683    Free PMC article.
Adrenergic stress constrains the development of anti-tumor immunity and abscopal responses following local radiation.
Minhui Chen, Guanxi Qiao, +5 authors, Elizabeth A Repasky.
Nat Commun, 2020 Apr 15; 11(1). PMID: 32286326    Free PMC article.
STING Pathway Expression Identifies NSCLC With an Immune-Responsive Phenotype.
Carminia M Della Corte, Triparna Sen, +21 authors, Lauren A Byers.
J Thorac Oncol, 2020 Feb 19; 15(5). PMID: 32068166    Free PMC article.
An Efficient Combination Immunotherapy for Primary Liver Cancer by Harmonized Activation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Mice.
Liang Wen, Bing Xin, +6 authors, Gen-Sheng Feng.
Hepatology, 2019 Jan 30; 69(6). PMID: 30693544    Free PMC article.
Recent Insight into the Role of Fibrosis in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Antonio Sircana, Elena Paschetta, +2 authors, Giovanni Musso.
Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Apr 12; 20(7). PMID: 30970564    Free PMC article.
Beta-Adrenergic Signaling in Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy.
Wei Wang, Xuefang Cao.
Crit Rev Immunol, 2019 Nov 05; 39(2). PMID: 31679250    Free PMC article.
Converting Immune Cold into Hot by Biosynthetic Functional Vesicles to Boost Systematic Antitumor Immunity.
Ming Wu, Dongye Zheng, +10 authors, Xiaolong Liu.
iScience, 2020 Jul 20; 23(7). PMID: 32683314    Free PMC article.
CSC Radioresistance: A Therapeutic Challenge to Improve Radiotherapy Effectiveness in Cancer.
María Auxiliadora Olivares-Urbano, Carmen Griñán-Lisón, Juan Antonio Marchal, María Isabel Núñez.
Cells, 2020 Jul 15; 9(7). PMID: 32660072    Free PMC article.
Antigen Experienced T Cells from Peripheral Blood Recognize p53 Neoantigens.
Parisa Malekzadeh, Rami Yossef, +18 authors, Drew C Deniger.
Clin Cancer Res, 2020 Jan 31; 26(6). PMID: 31996390    Free PMC article.
Advanced biomaterials for cancer immunotherapy.
Fan Yang, Kun Shi, +3 authors, Zhi-Yong Qian.
Acta Pharmacol Sin, 2020 Mar 04; 41(7). PMID: 32123302    Free PMC article.
Prognostic values of GPNMB identified by mining TCGA database and STAD microenvironment.
Kunhou Yao, Lunshou Wei, +4 authors, Song Li.
Aging (Albany NY), 2020 Aug 25; 12(16). PMID: 32833670    Free PMC article.
Coupled immune stratification and identification of therapeutic candidates in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Weilei Hu, Guosheng Wang, +3 authors, Yuan Wan.
Aging (Albany NY), 2020 Aug 29; 12(16). PMID: 32855362    Free PMC article.
Combination therapy with B7H3-redirected bispecific antibody and Sorafenib elicits enhanced synergistic antitumor efficacy.
Cheng Huang, Hongjian Li, +18 authors, Gang Guo.
Theranostics, 2020 Sep 16; 10(23). PMID: 32929362    Free PMC article.
Stimulatory role of exosomes in the context of therapeutic anti-cancer vaccines.
Theresa L Whiteside.
Biotarget, 2017 May 01; 1. PMID: 30957074    Free PMC article.
Endpoint surrogacy in oncological randomized controlled trials with immunotherapies: a systematic review of trial-level and arm-level meta-analyses.
Jianrong Zhang, Wenhua Liang, +2 authors, Jianxing He.
Ann Transl Med, 2019 Jul 19; 7(11). PMID: 31317014    Free PMC article.
Nivolumab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (CheckMate 040): an open-label, non-comparative, phase 1/2 dose escalation and expansion trial.
Anthony B El-Khoueiry, Bruno Sangro, +18 authors, Ignacio Melero.
Lancet, 2017 Apr 25; 389(10088). PMID: 28434648    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Bromo- and extraterminal domain protein inhibition improves immunotherapy efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Chen Liu, Xiaolong Miao, +11 authors, Weihua Gong.
Cancer Sci, 2020 Jul 30; 111(10). PMID: 32726482    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy and NSCLC: The Long and Winding Road.
Antonio Rossi.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Sep 10; 12(9). PMID: 32899647    Free PMC article.
Induction of Micronuclei in Cervical Cancer Treated with Radiotherapy.
Daijiro Kobayashi, Takahiro Oike, +5 authors, Tatsuya Ohno.
J Pers Med, 2020 Sep 10; 10(3). PMID: 32899112    Free PMC article.
Combined Methylome and Transcriptome Analyses Reveals Potential Therapeutic Targets for EGFR Wild Type Lung Cancers with Low PD-L1 Expression.
Weilei Hu, Guosheng Wang, Lonny B Yarmus, Yuan Wan.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Sep 10; 12(9). PMID: 32899191    Free PMC article.
Targeting Metabolism in Cancer Cells and the Tumour Microenvironment for Cancer Therapy.
Jiaqi Li, Jie Qing Eu, +4 authors, Andrea L A Wong.
Molecules, 2020 Oct 24; 25(20). PMID: 33092283    Free PMC article.
The Tumor Microenvironment of Pancreatic Cancer.
Eva Karamitopoulou.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Oct 25; 12(10). PMID: 33096881    Free PMC article.
Carbon Ion Radiobiology.
Walter Tinganelli, Marco Durante.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Oct 22; 12(10). PMID: 33080914    Free PMC article.
Novel Prognostic Model Based on Immune Signature for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Yingying Wang, Yu Xu, +4 authors, Rong Xiang.
Biomed Res Int, 2020 Nov 03; 2020. PMID: 33134377    Free PMC article.
Proteome Analysis of Human Natural Killer Cell Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Identification of Anticancer Effectors.
Jung-Won Choi, Soyeon Lim, +4 authors, Seahyoung Lee.
Molecules, 2020 Nov 14; 25(21). PMID: 33182448    Free PMC article.
Clinical value of CTLA4 combined with clinicopathological factors in evaluating the prognosis of breast cancer.
Junyi Wu, Lei Li, +3 authors, Zhihai Peng.
Gland Surg, 2020 Nov 24; 9(5). PMID: 33224807    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic challenges and current immunomodulatory strategies in targeting the immunosuppressive pancreatic tumor microenvironment.
Chin-King Looi, Felicia Fei-Lei Chung, +3 authors, Chun-Wai Mai.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Apr 17; 38(1). PMID: 30987642    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Immunotherapy with Checkpoint Inhibitors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Where Are We Now?
Francesco Tovoli, Stefania De Lorenzo, Franco Trevisani.
Vaccines (Basel), 2020 Oct 08; 8(4). PMID: 33023131    Free PMC article.
IFN-Alpha-Mediated Differentiation of Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy: Advances and Perspectives.
Caterina Lapenta, Lucia Gabriele, Stefano Maria Santini.
Vaccines (Basel), 2020 Oct 23; 8(4). PMID: 33086492    Free PMC article.
Combination of T-Cell Bispecific Antibodies With PD-L1 Checkpoint Inhibition Elicits Superior Anti-Tumor Activity.
Johannes Sam, Sara Colombetti, +14 authors, Marina Bacac.
Front Oncol, 2020 Dec 18; 10. PMID: 33330050    Free PMC article.
Precision Tools in Immuno-Oncology: Synthetic Gene Circuits for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Giuliano Bonfá, Juan Blazquez-Roman, Rita Tarnai, Velia Siciliano.
Vaccines (Basel), 2020 Dec 09; 8(4). PMID: 33287392    Free PMC article.
Immunobiology and immunotherapy of HCC: spotlight on innate and innate-like immune cells.
Benjamin Ruf, Bernd Heinrich, Tim F Greten.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2020 Nov 26; 18(1). PMID: 33235387    Free PMC article.
Pivotal role of long non-coding ribonucleic acid-X-inactive specific transcript in regulating immune checkpoint programmed death ligand 1 through a shared pathway between miR-194-5p and miR-155-5p in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Sara M Atwa, Heba Handoussa, +2 authors, Hend M El Tayebi.
World J Hepatol, 2021 Jan 15; 12(12). PMID: 33442449    Free PMC article.
Proteomic profile of melanoma cell-derived small extracellular vesicles in patients' plasma: a potential correlate of melanoma progression.
Monika Pietrowska, Aneta Zebrowska, +9 authors, Theresa L Whiteside.
J Extracell Vesicles, 2021 Feb 23; 10(4). PMID: 33613873    Free PMC article.
Integrated Analysis of Immune Infiltration Features for Cervical Carcinoma and Their Associated Immunotherapeutic Responses.
Yanan Kang, Jin Huang, +3 authors, Yi Zhang.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Apr 27; 9. PMID: 33898414    Free PMC article.
HLA-A2.1-restricted ECM1-derived epitope LA through DC cross-activation priming CD8+ T and NK cells: a novel therapeutic tumour vaccine.
Zhaojin Yu, Wensi Liu, +15 authors, Minjie Wei.
J Hematol Oncol, 2021 Apr 30; 14(1). PMID: 33910591    Free PMC article.
Robust Prediction of Immune Checkpoint Inhibition Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Jiehan Jiang, Zheng Jin, +9 authors, Kui Xiao.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 01; 12. PMID: 33927719    Free PMC article.
Immune Response: A Missed Opportunity Between Vitamin D and Radiotherapy.
Xinyue Yu, Baocai Liu, +2 authors, Guanghui Cheng.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 May 01; 9. PMID: 33928081    Free PMC article.
Neoantigen: A New Breakthrough in Tumor Immunotherapy.
Zheying Zhang, Manman Lu, +4 authors, Jiateng Zhong.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 04; 12. PMID: 33936118    Free PMC article.
A Signature-Based Classification of Gastric Cancer That Stratifies Tumor Immunity and Predicts Responses to PD-1 Inhibitors.
Song Li, Jing Gao, +5 authors, Lian Liu.
Front Immunol, 2021 Jun 29; 12. PMID: 34177954    Free PMC article.
The Tumor Microenvironment Factors That Promote Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy.
Bonnie L Russell, Selisha A Sooklal, +2 authors, Monde Ntwasa.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jul 17; 11. PMID: 34268109    Free PMC article.
The Biological Basis for Enhanced Effects of Proton Radiation Therapy Relative to Photon Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Li Wang, Piero Fossati, +5 authors, Steven J Frank.
Int J Part Ther, 2021 Jul 22; 8(1). PMID: 34285931    Free PMC article.
ABO blood group antigen therapy: a potential new strategy against solid tumors.
Qiong Luo, Mingxin Pan, Hao Feng, Lei Wang.
Sci Rep, 2021 Aug 12; 11(1). PMID: 34376742    Free PMC article.
PD-1 inhibition in patient derived tissue cultures of human gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Marlon Hußtegge, Ngoc Anh Hoang, +8 authors, Justus Körfer.
Oncoimmunology, 2021 Aug 27; 10(1). PMID: 34434611    Free PMC article.
Linking Immunity with Genomics in Sarcomas: Is Genomic Complexity an Immunogenic Trigger?
Siddh van Oost, Debora M Meijer, +2 authors, Noel F C C de Miranda.
Biomedicines, 2021 Aug 28; 9(8). PMID: 34440251    Free PMC article.
Anti-PD-1 in Combination With Trametinib Suppresses Tumor Growth and Improves Survival of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma in Mice.
Simon Wabitsch, Mayank Tandon, +8 authors, Tim F Greten.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2021 May 26; 12(3). PMID: 34033968    Free PMC article.
Single-Cell Analysis Reveals Spatial Heterogeneity of Immune Cells in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Youyu Wang, Xiaohua Li, +6 authors, Yifeng Bai.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Sep 14; 9. PMID: 34513820    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapeutic Strategies for Canine Lymphoma: Changing the Odds Against Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Joana N R Dias, Ana S André, +3 authors, Frederico Aires-da-Silva.
Front Vet Sci, 2021 Sep 14; 8. PMID: 34513964    Free PMC article.
Structure-Based Discovery of Proline-Derived Arginase Inhibitors with Improved Oral Bioavailability for Immuno-Oncology.
Min Lu, Hongjun Zhang, +22 authors, Christian Fischer.
ACS Med Chem Lett, 2021 Sep 17; 12(9). PMID: 34527178    Free PMC article.
Current research developments of patient-derived tumour xenograft models (Review).
Zhenyu Yin, Ewetse Paul Maswikiti, +6 authors, Hao Chen.
Exp Ther Med, 2021 Sep 30; 22(5). PMID: 34584551    Free PMC article.
Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 controls M2 macrophages polarization to promote esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression via AKT/GSK3β/IL-8 signaling pathway.
Yumiao Zhao, Jiaxin Sun, +13 authors, Yanfeng Gao.
Acta Pharm Sin B, 2021 Oct 01; 11(9). PMID: 34589400    Free PMC article.
Transcriptome Analyses Identify a Metabolic Gene Signature Indicative of Antitumor Immunosuppression of EGFR Wild Type Lung Cancers With Low PD-L1 Expression.
Min Wang, Jie Zhu, Fang Zhao, Jiani Xiao.
Front Oncol, 2021 Oct 02; 11. PMID: 34595103    Free PMC article.
Engineered biomaterials for cancer immunotherapy.
Lulu Cai, Jialu Xu, +4 authors, Kam W Leong.
MedComm (2020), 2020 May 27; 1(1). PMID: 34766108    Free PMC article.
Neoantigen Dendritic Cell Vaccination Combined with Anti-CD38 and CpG Elicits Anti-Tumor Immunity against the Immune Checkpoint Therapy-Resistant Murine Lung Cancer Cell Line LLC1.
Changbo Sun, Koji Nagaoka, +3 authors, Jun Nakajima.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Nov 14; 13(21). PMID: 34771674    Free PMC article.
Combination therapy for pancreatic cancer: anti-PD-(L)1-based strategy.
Lingyue Liu, Xing Huang, +5 authors, Xueli Bai.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2022 Feb 11; 41(1). PMID: 35139879    Free PMC article.
Immunogenic camptothesome nanovesicles comprising sphingomyelin-derived camptothecin bilayers for safe and synergistic cancer immunochemotherapy.
Zhiren Wang, Nicholas Little, +5 authors, Jianqin Lu.
Nat Nanotechnol, 2021 Aug 14; 16(10). PMID: 34385682    Free PMC article.
Site-specific therapy in cancers of unknown primary site: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Y Ding, J Jiang, +10 authors, N Xu.
ESMO Open, 2022 Mar 07; 7(2). PMID: 35248824    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Nonviral Delivery Systems of mRNA Vaccines for Cancer Gene Therapy.
Yusi Wang, Rui Zhang, Lin Tang, Li Yang.
Pharmaceutics, 2022 Mar 27; 14(3). PMID: 35335891    Free PMC article.
An overview of the crosstalk between YAP and cGAS-STING signaling in non-small cell lung cancer: it takes two to tango.
Fang Hao.
Clin Transl Oncol, 2022 Apr 05;. PMID: 35377059
Exploration of Novel Pathways Underlying Irreversible Electroporation Induced Anti-Tumor Immunity in Pancreatic Cancer.
Khan Mohammad Imran, Margaret A Nagai-Singer, +3 authors, Irving Coy Allen.
Front Oncol, 2022 Apr 05; 12. PMID: 35372046    Free PMC article.