Review
. 2016 Apr; 22(8):1856-64.
doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1849.

Reversing T-cell Dysfunction and Exhaustion in Cancer

Hassane M Zarour 1 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 27084739
  •     102 References
  •     152 citations

Abstract

In the context of chronic antigen exposure in chronic viral infections and cancer, T cells become exhausted/dysfunctional. These exhausted T cells exhibit defective proliferative capacities and cytokine production, but are not totally inert and may exert lytic functions. Importantly, exhausted T cells upregulate multiple inhibitory receptors/immune checkpoints that bind to their ligands expressed by tumor cells and antigen-presenting cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Immune checkpoint blockades with anti-CTL antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and/or anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) mAbs successfully reinvigorate tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes and provide persistent clinical benefits to a large number of patients with advanced cancer. This great and long-awaited success for the immunotherapy of cancer has infused considerable enthusiasm in the field of oncology and fostered the development of combinatorial strategies to target the multiple mechanisms of tumor-induced T-cell dysfunction. Here, we review the critical immunoregulatory mechanisms driving T-cell exhaustion in the TME. We also discuss the development of promising combinatorial immunotherapies to counteract the mechanisms of tumor-induced T-cell dysfunction to improve the clinical efficacy of current immune checkpoint blockades. As our understanding of the mechanisms supporting tumor-induced T-cell dysfunction improves based upon preclinical and clinical studies, we expect that novel combinatorial immunotherapies will emerge to improve the clinical outcome of patients with advanced cancers.

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J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897981    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Identification of PVR (CD155) and Nectin-2 (CD112) as cell surface ligands for the human DNAM-1 (CD226) activating molecule.
Cristina Bottino, Roberta Castriconi, +11 authors, Alessandro Moretta.
J Exp Med, 2003 Aug 13; 198(4). PMID: 12913096    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Emerging Opportunities and Challenges in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Theresa L Whiteside, Sandra Demaria, +2 authors, Ignacio Melero.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Apr 17; 22(8). PMID: 27084738    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Making Better Chimeric Antigen Receptors for Adoptive T-cell Therapy.
Marcela V Maus, Carl H June.
Clin Cancer Res, 2016 Apr 17; 22(8). PMID: 27084741    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Interleukin-2 reverses CD8(+) T cell exhaustion in clinical malignant pleural effusion of lung cancer.
C Y Hu, Y H Zhang, +6 authors, B Zhu.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2016 Jul 23; 186(1). PMID: 27447482    Free PMC article.
Evolving Immunotherapy Approaches for Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Susanna A Curtis, Justine V Cohen, Harriet M Kluger.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2016 Aug 01; 18(9). PMID: 27475806
Review.
Intraperitoneal immunotherapy: historical perspectives and modern therapy.
W F Morano, A Aggarwal, +3 authors, W B Bowne.
Cancer Gene Ther, 2016 Nov 12; 23(11). PMID: 27834358
Review.
Future perspectives in melanoma research : Meeting report from the "Melanoma Bridge". Napoli, December 1st-4th 2015.
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv Agarwala, +33 authors, Magdalena Thurin.
J Transl Med, 2016 Nov 17; 14(1). PMID: 27846884    Free PMC article.
Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors.
Smitha Menon, Sarah Shin, Grace Dy.
Cancers (Basel), 2016 Nov 26; 8(12). PMID: 27886124    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Tumor Microenvironment Metabolism: A New Checkpoint for Anti-Tumor Immunity.
Nicole E Scharping, Greg M Delgoffe.
Vaccines (Basel), 2016 Dec 09; 4(4). PMID: 27929420    Free PMC article.
Review.
Expression of CD14, IL10, and Tolerogenic Signature in Dendritic Cells Inversely Correlate with Clinical and Immunologic Response to TARP Vaccination in Prostate Cancer Patients.
Luciano Castiello, Marianna Sabatino, +5 authors, David F Stroncek.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jan 12; 23(13). PMID: 28073842    Free PMC article.
LAG3 (CD223) as a cancer immunotherapy target.
Lawrence P Andrews, Ariel E Marciscano, Charles G Drake, Dario A A Vignali.
Immunol Rev, 2017 Mar 05; 276(1). PMID: 28258692    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The challenges of solid tumor for designer CAR-T therapies: a 25-year perspective.
Richard P Junghans.
Cancer Gene Ther, 2017 Apr 11; 24(3). PMID: 28392558
Blimp-1 impairs T cell function via upregulation of TIGIT and PD-1 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Liuluan Zhu, Yaxian Kong, +11 authors, Hong Zheng.
J Hematol Oncol, 2017 Jun 21; 10(1). PMID: 28629373    Free PMC article.
Hurdles to the Development of Effective HBV Immunotherapies and HCV Vaccines.
Almudena Torres-Cornejo, Georg M Lauer.
Pathog Immun, 2017 Jul 01; 2(1). PMID: 28664194    Free PMC article.
Markers of T Cell Senescence in Humans.
Weili Xu, Anis Larbi.
Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Aug 11; 18(8). PMID: 28796199    Free PMC article.
Review.
Role of Type I and II Interferons in Colorectal Cancer and Melanoma.
Simone Di Franco, Alice Turdo, Matilde Todaro, Giorgio Stassi.
Front Immunol, 2017 Aug 12; 8. PMID: 28798748    Free PMC article.
Review.
Immune biomarkers for prognosis and prediction of responses to immune checkpoint blockade in cutaneous melanoma.
Nicolas Jacquelot, Jonathan M Pitt, +5 authors, Laurence Zitvogel.
Oncoimmunology, 2017 Sep 19; 6(8). PMID: 28919986    Free PMC article.
Review.
Is Graves' disease a primary immunodeficiency? New immunological perspectives on an endocrine disease.
Tristan Struja, Alexander Kutz, +4 authors, Philipp Schuetz.
BMC Med, 2017 Sep 26; 15(1). PMID: 28942732    Free PMC article.
Review.
The Potential and Challenges of Exploiting the Vast But Dynamic Neoepitope Landscape for Immunotherapy.
Els M E Verdegaal, Sjoerd H van der Burg.
Front Immunol, 2017 Sep 30; 8. PMID: 28959257    Free PMC article.
IL-27 mediates HLA class I up-regulation, which can be inhibited by the IL-6 pathway, in HLA-deficient Small Cell Lung Cancer cells.
Grazia Carbotti, Amin Reza Nikpoor, +5 authors, Marina Fabbi.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Oct 13; 36(1). PMID: 29020964    Free PMC article.
Canonical and non-canonical WNT signaling in cancer stem cells and their niches: Cellular heterogeneity, omics reprogramming, targeted therapy and tumor plasticity (Review).
Masaru Katoh.
Int J Oncol, 2017 Oct 20; 51(5). PMID: 29048660    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Future perspectives in melanoma research "Melanoma Bridge", Napoli, November 30th-3rd December 2016.
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv S Agarwala, +20 authors, Magdalena Thurin.
J Transl Med, 2017 Nov 18; 15(1). PMID: 29145885    Free PMC article.
Ablation of Transcription Factor IRF4 Promotes Transplant Acceptance by Driving Allogenic CD4+ T Cell Dysfunction.
Jie Wu, Hedong Zhang, +9 authors, Wenhao Chen.
Immunity, 2017 Dec 10; 47(6). PMID: 29221730    Free PMC article.
Liposome-induced immunosuppression and tumor growth is mediated by macrophages and mitigated by liposome-encapsulated alendronate.
Robin Rajan, Manoj K Sabnani, +7 authors, Ninh M La-Beck.
J Control Release, 2017 Dec 27; 271. PMID: 29277680    Free PMC article.
Modulating Tumor Immunology by Inhibiting Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO): Recent Developments and First Clinical Experiences.
Diwakar Davar, Nathan Bahary.
Target Oncol, 2018 Jan 06; 13(2). PMID: 29302770
Review.
Immunosenescence and Inflamm-Aging As Two Sides of the Same Coin: Friends or Foes?
Tamas Fulop, Anis Larbi, +5 authors, Claudio Franceschi.
Front Immunol, 2018 Jan 30; 8. PMID: 29375577    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
A potential biomarker for anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.
Sangeeta Goswami, Sreyashi Basu, Padmanee Sharma.
Nat Med, 2018 Feb 08; 24(2). PMID: 29414936
Interferon-γ converts human microvascular pericytes into negative regulators of alloimmunity through induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1.
Rebecca Liu, Jonathan Merola, +10 authors, Jordan S Pober.
JCI Insight, 2018 Mar 09; 3(5). PMID: 29515027    Free PMC article.
Development of a vaccine based on bacteria-mimicking tumor cells coated with novel engineered toll-like receptor 2 ligands.
Takashi Akazawa, Toshimitsu Ohashi, +2 authors, Norimitsu Inoue.
Cancer Sci, 2018 Mar 27; 109(5). PMID: 29575556    Free PMC article.
Tumor Necrosis Factor α and Regulatory T Cells in Oncoimmunology.
Benoît L Salomon, Mathieu Leclerc, +3 authors, José L Cohen.
Front Immunol, 2018 Mar 30; 9. PMID: 29593717    Free PMC article.
Review.
Sexual Dimorphism of Immune Responses: A New Perspective in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Imerio Capone, Paolo Marchetti, +2 authors, Lucia Gabriele.
Front Immunol, 2018 Apr 06; 9. PMID: 29619026    Free PMC article.
Vinorelbine, cyclophosphamide and 5-FU effects on the circulating and intratumoural landscape of immune cells improve anti-PD-L1 efficacy in preclinical models of breast cancer and lymphoma.
Stefania Orecchioni, Giovanna Talarico, +3 authors, Francesco Bertolini.
Br J Cancer, 2018 Apr 27; 118(10). PMID: 29695766    Free PMC article.
Emergence of immunotherapy as a novel way to treat hepatocellular carcinoma.
Naofumi Mukaida, Yasunari Nakamoto.
World J Gastroenterol, 2018 May 10; 24(17). PMID: 29740200    Free PMC article.
Review.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Clone 13 infection causes either persistence or acute death dependent on IFN-1, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and host genetics.
Michael B A Oldstone, Brian C Ware, +5 authors, Brian M Sullivan.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Aug 01; 115(33). PMID: 30061383    Free PMC article.
PD-1+ TIM-3+ T cells in malignant ascites predict prognosis of gastrointestinal cancer.
Michitaka Nakano, Mamoru Ito, +15 authors, Eishi Baba.
Cancer Sci, 2018 Sep 07; 109(9). PMID: 30187676    Free PMC article.
Vaccine therapy + dasatinib for the treatment of patients with stage IIIB-IV melanoma.
Ahmad A Tarhini, Hussein Tawbi, Walter J Storkus.
Melanoma Manag, 2016 Dec 01; 3(4). PMID: 30190895    Free PMC article.
Phase Ib/II Study of Pembrolizumab and Pegylated-Interferon Alfa-2b in Advanced Melanoma.
Diwakar Davar, Hong Wang, +16 authors, Hassane M Zarour.
J Clin Oncol, 2018 Oct 26;. PMID: 30359157    Free PMC article.
Cardiac morbidity in HIV infection is associated with checkpoint inhibitor LAG-3 on CD4 T cells.
Suresh Pallikkuth, Rajendra Pahwa, +9 authors, Savita Pahwa.
PLoS One, 2018 Nov 01; 13(10). PMID: 30379878    Free PMC article.
Signatures of CD8+ T cell dysfunction in AML patients and their reversibility with response to chemotherapy.
Hanna A Knaus, Sofia Berglund, +9 authors, Ivana Gojo.
JCI Insight, 2018 Nov 06; 3(21). PMID: 30385732    Free PMC article.
Radiation combined with macrophage depletion promotes adaptive immunity and potentiates checkpoint blockade.
Keaton I Jones, Jiske Tiersma, +4 authors, Ruth J Muschel.
EMBO Mol Med, 2018 Nov 18; 10(12). PMID: 30442705    Free PMC article.
BRAF and MEK inhibitors differentially affect nivolumab-induced T cell activation by modulating the TCR and AKT signaling pathways.
Peng Yue, Taylor Harper, +6 authors, Gerald M Feldman.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Dec 14; 8(1). PMID: 30546949    Free PMC article.
Rheumatic complications in cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Kyung-Ann Lee, Hae-Rim Kim, So Young Yoon.
Korean J Intern Med, 2019 Apr 25; 34(6). PMID: 31014065    Free PMC article.
Review.
Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced Type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
H K Akturk, D Kahramangil, +3 authors, A W Michels.
Diabet Med, 2019 Jun 15; 36(9). PMID: 31199005    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Systematic Review.
Role of Zinc in Immune System and Anti-Cancer Defense Mechanisms.
Dorota Skrajnowska, Barbara Bobrowska-Korczak.
Nutrients, 2019 Sep 25; 11(10). PMID: 31546724    Free PMC article.
Review.
A Gallbladder Carcinoma Patient With Pseudo-Progressive Remission After Hydrogen Inhalation.
Jibing Chen, Feng Mu, +3 authors, Kecheng Xu.
Onco Targets Ther, 2019 Nov 07; 12. PMID: 31695424    Free PMC article.
PD1Hi CD8+ T cells correlate with exhausted signature and poor clinical outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Jiaqiang Ma, Bohao Zheng, +12 authors, Xiaoming Zhang.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Dec 01; 7(1). PMID: 31783783    Free PMC article.
Targeting Negative and Positive Immune Checkpoints with Monoclonal Antibodies in Therapy of Cancer.
Katsiaryna Marhelava, Zofia Pilch, +2 authors, Radoslaw Zagozdzon.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Nov 14; 11(11). PMID: 31717326    Free PMC article.
Review.
Overexpression of CD6 and PD-1 Identifies Dysfunctional CD8+ T-Cells During Chronic SIV Infection of Rhesus Macaques.
Gospel Enyindah-Asonye, Anthony Nwankwo, +6 authors, Marjorie Robert-Guroff.
Front Immunol, 2020 Jan 31; 10. PMID: 31998302    Free PMC article.
Predictive biomarkers and mechanisms underlying resistance to PD1/PD-L1 blockade cancer immunotherapy.
Daixi Ren, Yuze Hua, +17 authors, Wei Xiong.
Mol Cancer, 2020 Feb 01; 19(1). PMID: 32000802    Free PMC article.
Review.
PVRIG and PVRL2 Are Induced in Cancer and Inhibit CD8+ T-cell Function.
Sarah Whelan, Eran Ophir, +17 authors, Spencer C Liang.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2019 Jan 20; 7(2). PMID: 30659054    Free PMC article.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway, the Unfolded Protein Response, Modulates Immune Function in the Tumor Microenvironment to Impact Tumor Progression and Therapeutic Response.
Manuel U Ramirez, Salvador R Hernandez, David R Soto-Pantoja, Katherine L Cook.
Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Dec 29; 21(1). PMID: 31881743    Free PMC article.
Review.
Engineering for Success: Approaches to Improve Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy for Solid Tumors.
Melinda Mata, Stephen Gottschalk.
Drugs, 2019 Feb 24; 79(4). PMID: 30796733    Free PMC article.
Review.
Immune Checkpoint Blockade Enhances Shared Neoantigen-Induced T-cell Immunity Directed against Mutated Calreticulin in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.
Cansu Cimen Bozkus, Vladimir Roudko, +4 authors, Nina Bhardwaj.
Cancer Discov, 2019 Jul 04; 9(9). PMID: 31266769    Free PMC article.
T Cell Dysfunction and Exhaustion in Cancer.
Zhen Zhang, Shasha Liu, +3 authors, Yi Zhang.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2020 Mar 03; 8. PMID: 32117960    Free PMC article.
Review.
Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Colorectal Cancer Survival in African American and Caucasian Patients.
Kristin Wallace, David N Lewin, +7 authors, Elizabeth G Hill.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2018 May 18; 27(7). PMID: 29769214    Free PMC article.
Clinically Relevant Cytotoxic Immune Cell Signatures and Clonal Expansion of T-Cell Receptors in High-Risk MYCN-Not-Amplified Human Neuroblastoma.
Jun S Wei, Igor B Kuznetsov, +16 authors, Javed Khan.
Clin Cancer Res, 2018 May 23; 24(22). PMID: 29784674    Free PMC article.
Combination Strategies to Optimize Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy.
Mandy van Gulijk, Floris Dammeijer, Joachim G J V Aerts, Heleen Vroman.
Front Immunol, 2018 Dec 21; 9. PMID: 30568653    Free PMC article.
Review.
Prognostic value of CD8 + PD-1+ immune infiltrates and PDCD1 gene expression in triple negative breast cancer.
Joe Yeong, Jeffrey Chun Tatt Lim, +15 authors, Puay Hoon Tan.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Feb 08; 7(1). PMID: 30728081    Free PMC article.
Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines-T Cell Responses and Epigenetic Modulation.
Apriliana E R Kartikasari, Monica D Prakash, +4 authors, Magdalena Plebanski.
Front Immunol, 2019 Feb 12; 9. PMID: 30740111    Free PMC article.
Review.
Efficacy of PD-1 blockade in cervical cancer is related to a CD8+FoxP3+CD25+ T-cell subset with operational effector functions despite high immune checkpoint levels.
A M Heeren, J Rotman, +9 authors, T D de Gruijl.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Feb 14; 7(1). PMID: 30755279    Free PMC article.
Expression of Lymphocyte-Activation Gene 3 (LAG-3) Immune Checkpoint Receptor Identifies a Tumor-Reactive T Cell Population in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Colorectal Cancer.
Lefu Huang, Guoliang Qiao, Jingping Wu, Jun Ren.
Med Sci Monit, 2019 May 12; 25. PMID: 31077581    Free PMC article.
Syngeneic animal models of tobacco-associated oral cancer reveal the activity of in situ anti-CTLA-4.
Zhiyong Wang, Victoria H Wu, +16 authors, J Silvio Gutkind.
Nat Commun, 2019 Dec 06; 10(1). PMID: 31804466    Free PMC article.
T Cell Reprogramming Against Cancer.
Samuel G Katz, Peter M Rabinovich.
Methods Mol Biol, 2019 Nov 30; 2097. PMID: 31776916    Free PMC article.
Review.
Chemotherapy-Induced Metastasis: Molecular Mechanisms, Clinical Manifestations, Therapeutic Interventions.
George S Karagiannis, John S Condeelis, Maja H Oktay.
Cancer Res, 2019 Aug 23; 79(18). PMID: 31431464    Free PMC article.
Review.
Epitherapy and immune checkpoint blockade: using epigenetic reinvigoration of exhausted and dysfunctional T cells to reimburse immunotherapy response.
Isabella McGoverne, Jenny Dunn, +3 authors, Sudha Rao.
BMC Immunol, 2020 Apr 23; 21(1). PMID: 32316916    Free PMC article.
Review.
FOLFOX Chemotherapy Ameliorates CD8 T Lymphocyte Exhaustion and Enhances Checkpoint Blockade Efficacy in Colorectal Cancer.
Yue Guan, Sean G Kraus, +3 authors, Emma Teixeiro.
Front Oncol, 2020 May 12; 10. PMID: 32391270    Free PMC article.
Effect of COPD on Inflammation, Lymphoid Functions and Progression-Free Survival during First-Line Chemotherapy in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Márton Szentkereszty, Zsolt István Komlósi, +4 authors, Gabriella Gálffy.
Pathol Oncol Res, 2019 May 16; 26(2). PMID: 31090020    Free PMC article.
Engineering bionic T cells: signal 1, signal 2, signal 3, reprogramming and the removal of inhibitory mechanisms.
Iñaki Etxeberria, Irene Olivera, +4 authors, Ignacio Melero.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2020 May 21; 17(6). PMID: 32433539    Free PMC article.
Review.
Soluble PD-L1: a potential immune marker for HIV-1 infection and virological failure.
José Avendaño-Ortiz, Marina Rubio-Garrido, +6 authors, Eduardo López-Collazo.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2020 May 24; 99(20). PMID: 32443313    Free PMC article.
Photodepletion with 2-Se-Cl prevents lethal graft-versus-host disease while preserving antitumor immunity.
Jason M Grayson, Mildred D Perez, +3 authors, Zachariah A McIver.
PLoS One, 2020 Jun 23; 15(6). PMID: 32569289    Free PMC article.
A phase I study of multi-HLA-binding peptides derived from heat shock protein 70/glypican-3 and a novel combination adjuvant of hLAG-3Ig and Poly-ICLC for patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers: YNP01 trial.
Masao Nakajima, Shoichi Hazama, +21 authors, Hiroaki Nagano.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Mar 29; 69(8). PMID: 32219501    Free PMC article.
Immunological Targets for Immunotherapy: Inhibitory T Cell Receptors.
Diwakar Davar, Hassane M Zarour.
Methods Mol Biol, 2019 Sep 11; 2055. PMID: 31502146    Free PMC article.
Review.
Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes and CD8+ T Cell Subsets as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Surgically Treated Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Kyriakos Chatzopoulos, Vassiliki Kotoula, +7 authors, Georgios Fountzilas.
Head Neck Pathol, 2019 Nov 22; 14(3). PMID: 31749124    Free PMC article.
HBV-specific CD8 T cells present higher TNF-α expression but lower cytotoxicity in hepatocellular carcinoma.
L Zhao, Y Jin, C Yang, C Li.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2020 Jun 01; 201(3). PMID: 32474905    Free PMC article.
Combination of PD-L1 and PVR determines sensitivity to PD-1 blockade.
Bo Ryeong Lee, Sehyun Chae, +8 authors, Sang-Jun Ha.
JCI Insight, 2020 Jun 20; 5(14). PMID: 32554931    Free PMC article.
Molecular, clinicopathological, and immune correlates of LAG3 promoter DNA methylation in melanoma.
Anne Fröhlich, Judith Sirokay, +19 authors, Dimo Dietrich.
EBioMedicine, 2020 Aug 30; 59. PMID: 32861198    Free PMC article.
Response of breast cancer cells to IFNα-2b in 2D and 3D cell cultures.
Tetiana Herheliuk, Olena Perepelytsina, +2 authors, Mikhailo Sydorenko.
Turk J Biol, 2019 Apr 02; 43(1). PMID: 30930631    Free PMC article.
Single-cell technologies for profiling T cells to enable monitoring of immunotherapies.
Xingyue An, Navin Varadarajan.
Curr Opin Chem Eng, 2018 Mar 01; 19. PMID: 31131208    Free PMC article.
CD8+ PD-1+ T-cells and PD-L1+ circulating tumor cells in chemotherapy-naïve non-small cell lung cancer: towards their clinical relevance?
Athanasios Kotsakis, Galatea Kallergi, +6 authors, Eleni-Kyriaki Vetsika.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2019 Jun 21; 11. PMID: 31217824    Free PMC article.
B Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy.
Kerstin Wennhold, Alexander Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Michael von Bergwelt-Baildon.
Transfus Med Hemother, 2019 Jun 28; 46(1). PMID: 31244580    Free PMC article.
TOX correlates with prognosis, immune infiltration, and T cells exhaustion in lung adenocarcinoma.
Longbin Guo, Xuanzi Li, +3 authors, Shasha Du.
Cancer Med, 2020 Jul 24; 9(18). PMID: 32700817    Free PMC article.
TIGIT in cancer immunotherapy.
Joe-Marc Chauvin, Hassane M Zarour.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Sep 10; 8(2). PMID: 32900861    Free PMC article.
Review.
Safety and Efficacy of an Immune Cell-Specific Chimeric Promoter in Regulating Anti-PD-1 Antibody Expression in CAR T Cells.
Yuan Fang, Yajun Zhang, +5 authors, Qijun Qian.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev, 2020 Oct 01; 19. PMID: 32995356    Free PMC article.
TCR Redirected T Cells for Cancer Treatment: Achievements, Hurdles, and Goals.
Francesco Manfredi, Beatrice Claudia Cianciotti, +6 authors, Eliana Ruggiero.
Front Immunol, 2020 Oct 06; 11. PMID: 33013822    Free PMC article.
Review.
Platelet Induced Functional Alteration of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in HNSCC.
Christina Polasky, Franziska Wendt, Ralph Pries, Barbara Wollenberg.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Oct 16; 21(20). PMID: 33053760    Free PMC article.
Converging focal radiation and immunotherapy in a preclinical model of triple negative breast cancer: contribution of VISTA blockade.
Karsten A Pilones, Michal Hensler, +5 authors, Silvia C Formenti.
Oncoimmunology, 2020 Nov 06; 9(1). PMID: 33150045    Free PMC article.
Clinical development of targeted and immune based anti-cancer therapies.
N A Seebacher, A E Stacy, G M Porter, A M Merlot.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Apr 13; 38(1). PMID: 30975211    Free PMC article.
Review.
New emerging targets in cancer immunotherapy: the role of LAG3.
Hannah Christina Puhr, Aysegül Ilhan-Mutlu.
ESMO Open, 2019 Jun 25; 4(2). PMID: 31231559    Free PMC article.
Review.
Exhausted and Senescent T Cells at the Maternal-Fetal Interface in Preterm and Term Labor.
Rebecca Slutsky, Roberto Romero, +8 authors, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez.
J Immunol Res, 2019 Jul 03; 2019. PMID: 31263712    Free PMC article.
The Interplay between Immunosenescence and Microbiota in the Efficacy of Vaccines.
Rossella Cianci, Laura Franza, +3 authors, Giovanni Gambassi.
Vaccines (Basel), 2020 Nov 06; 8(4). PMID: 33147686    Free PMC article.
Review.
Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a prognostic biomarker and correlated with immune cell infiltration in gastric cancer.
Li Li, Shanshan Huang, +5 authors, Jianping Xiong.
World J Surg Oncol, 2020 Dec 10; 18(1). PMID: 33292276    Free PMC article.
T Cell Dysfunction in Cancer.
Daniela S Thommen, Ton N Schumacher.
Cancer Cell, 2018 Apr 11; 33(4). PMID: 29634943    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Modeling of tumor response to macrophage and T lymphocyte interactions in the liver metastatic microenvironment.
Louis T Curtis, Susanne Sebens, Hermann B Frieboes.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Nov 13; 70(5). PMID: 33180183
Overcoming the challenges associated with CD3+ T-cell redirection in cancer.
Ajit Singh, Sundee Dees, Iqbal S Grewal.
Br J Cancer, 2021 Jan 21; 124(6). PMID: 33469153    Free PMC article.
Review.
Manipulating the Metabolism to Improve the Efficacy of CAR T-Cell Immunotherapy.
Marsha Pellegrino, Francesca Del Bufalo, +3 authors, Emmanuel de Billy.
Cells, 2020 Dec 31; 10(1). PMID: 33374128    Free PMC article.
Review.
Safety and feasibility of CRISPR-edited T cells in patients with refractory non-small-cell lung cancer.
You Lu, Jianxin Xue, +35 authors, Tony Mok.
Nat Med, 2020 Apr 29; 26(5). PMID: 32341578
Systems biology analysis identifies TNFRSF9 as a functional marker of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T-cell enabling clinical outcome prediction in lung cancer.
Jae-Won Cho, Jimin Son, Sang-Jun Ha, Insuk Lee.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J, 2021 Feb 19; 19. PMID: 33598101    Free PMC article.
Ex vivo modelling of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade under acute, chronic, and exhaustion-like conditions of T-cell stimulation.
Alexander Roberts, Lindsay Bentley, +24 authors, Nicholas M Barnes.
Sci Rep, 2021 Feb 19; 11(1). PMID: 33597595    Free PMC article.
Ovarian cancer: new strategies and emerging targets for the treatment of patients with advanced disease.
Rebecca C Arend, Amy Jackson-Fisher, +2 authors, Bradley J Monk.
Cancer Biol Ther, 2021 Jan 12; 22(2). PMID: 33427569    Free PMC article.
Review.
Immune checkpoint expression on peripheral cytotoxic lymphocytes in cervical cancer patients: moving beyond the PD-1/PD-L1 axis.
F Solorzano-Ibarra, A G Alejandre-Gonzalez, +9 authors, J Haramati.
Clin Exp Immunol, 2020 Dec 12; 204(1). PMID: 33306195    Free PMC article.
Targeting novel inhibitory receptors in cancer immunotherapy.
Quan-Quan Ding, Joe-Marc Chauvin, Hassane M Zarour.
Semin Immunol, 2020 Dec 09; 49. PMID: 33288379    Free PMC article.
Review.
Chimeric CTLA4-CD28-CD3z T Cells Potentiate Antitumor Activity Against CD80/CD86-Positive B Cell Malignancies.
Shouheng Lin, Lin Cheng, +11 authors, Xiaofang Sun.
Front Immunol, 2021 Apr 20; 12. PMID: 33868277    Free PMC article.
Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Based Combination Immunotherapy to Boost Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cell Response in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Julia Peña-Asensio, Henar Calvo, +3 authors, Juan-Ramón Larrubia.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 May 01; 13(8). PMID: 33923463    Free PMC article.
Review.
Leukemia vaccine overcomes limitations of checkpoint blockade by evoking clonal T cell responses in a murine acute myeloid leukemia model.
Dina Stroopinsky, Jessica Liegel, +21 authors, David Avigan.
Haematologica, 2021 Feb 05; 106(5). PMID: 33538148    Free PMC article.
Fecal microbiota transplant overcomes resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy in melanoma patients.
Diwakar Davar, Amiran K Dzutsev, +29 authors, Hassane M Zarour.
Science, 2021 Feb 06; 371(6529). PMID: 33542131    Free PMC article.
CD36-mediated ferroptosis dampens intratumoral CD8+ T cell effector function and impairs their antitumor ability.
Xingzhe Ma, Liuling Xiao, +7 authors, Qing Yi.
Cell Metab, 2021 Mar 11; 33(5). PMID: 33691090    Free PMC article.
Exploiting Tumor Neoantigens to Target Cancer Evolution: Current Challenges and Promising Therapeutic Approaches.
Ravi G Gupta, Fenge Li, Jason Roszik, Gregory Lizée.
Cancer Discov, 2021 Mar 17; 11(5). PMID: 33722796    Free PMC article.
Review.
State-of-Art of Cellular Therapy for Acute Leukemia.
Jong-Bok Lee, Daniel Vasic, +2 authors, Li Zhang.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 May 01; 22(9). PMID: 33925571    Free PMC article.
Review.
NEFM DNA methylation correlates with immune infiltration and survival in breast cancer.
Dandan Li, Wenhao Zhao, +3 authors, Lichun Sun.
Clin Epigenetics, 2021 May 19; 13(1). PMID: 34001208    Free PMC article.
TIGIT and PD-1 Immune Checkpoint Pathways Are Associated With Patient Outcome and Anti-Tumor Immunity in Glioblastoma.
Itay Raphael, Rajeev Kumar, +19 authors, Gary Kohanbash.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 25; 12. PMID: 34025646    Free PMC article.
CRISPR/Cas9 Gene-Editing in Cancer Immunotherapy: Promoting the Present Revolution in Cancer Therapy and Exploring More.
Xuejin Ou, Qizhi Ma, +2 authors, Zhiyao He.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Jun 08; 9. PMID: 34095145    Free PMC article.
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Relationship between microsatellite status and immune microenvironment of colorectal cancer and its application to diagnosis and treatment.
Junge Bai, Hongsheng Chen, Xuefeng Bai.
J Clin Lab Anal, 2021 May 04; 35(6). PMID: 33938589    Free PMC article.
Review.
Adjuvant therapy using ex vivo-expanded allogenic natural killer cells in hepatectomy patients with hepatitis B virus related solitary hepatocellular carcinoma: MG4101 study.
Jong Man Kim, Sung Yoo Cho, +7 authors, Jae-Won Joh.
Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg, 2021 Jun 01; 25(2). PMID: 34053923    Free PMC article.
Hepatocellular cancer therapy in patients with HIV infection: Disparities in cancer care, trials enrolment, and cancer-related research.
Francesca Negri, Gabriele Missale, Anna Degli Antoni, Camillo Porta.
Transl Oncol, 2021 Jun 19; 14(9). PMID: 34144349    Free PMC article.
Review.
A Novel Mice Model for Studying the Efficacy and IRAEs of Anti-CTLA4 Targeted Immunotherapy.
Shengchao Xu, Xi Yan, Gan Dai, Chengke Luo.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jun 29; 11. PMID: 34178691    Free PMC article.
Chemotherapy Shifts the Balance in Favor of CD8+ TNFR2+ TILs in Triple-Negative Breast Tumors.
Tamir Baram, Nofar Erlichman, +7 authors, Adit Ben-Baruch.
Cells, 2021 Jul 03; 10(6). PMID: 34201054    Free PMC article.
Molecular and Clinical Characterization of LAG3 in Breast Cancer Through 2994 Samples.
Qiang Liu, Yihang Qi, +5 authors, Jing Wang.
Front Immunol, 2021 Jul 17; 12. PMID: 34267742    Free PMC article.
The Tumor Microenvironment Factors That Promote Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy.
Bonnie L Russell, Selisha A Sooklal, +2 authors, Monde Ntwasa.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jul 17; 11. PMID: 34268109    Free PMC article.
Review.
Prospects and Challenges for T Cell-Based Therapies of HCC.
Norman Woller, Sophie Anna Engelskircher, Thomas Wirth, Heiner Wedemeyer.
Cells, 2021 Jul 03; 10(7). PMID: 34209393    Free PMC article.
Review.
Metabolic Pathways Involved in Formation of Spontaneous and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) Differ in Obesity and Systemic Inflammation.
Iwona Cichon, Weronika Ortmann, Elzbieta Kolaczkowska.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jul 25; 22(14). PMID: 34299338    Free PMC article.
A phase I/II clinical trial on the efficacy and safety of NKT cells combined with gefitinib for advanced EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer.
Wanjun Yu, Fei Ye, +15 authors, Sheng Xia.
BMC Cancer, 2021 Aug 02; 21(1). PMID: 34332557    Free PMC article.
MAPK10 Expression as a Prognostic Marker of the Immunosuppressive Tumor Microenvironment in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Huahui Li, Yuting Li, +6 authors, Li Fu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Aug 20; 11. PMID: 34408980    Free PMC article.
Exploring Markers of Exhausted CD8 T Cells to Predict Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Chia-Lang Hsu, Da-Liang Ou, +6 authors, Chiun Hsu.
Liver Cancer, 2021 Aug 21; 10(4). PMID: 34414122    Free PMC article.
The CD112R/CD112 axis: a breakthrough in cancer immunotherapy.
Taofei Zeng, Yuqing Cao, +3 authors, Feng Xu.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2021 Sep 12; 40(1). PMID: 34507594    Free PMC article.
Review.
Gut-Liver Immune Traffic: Deciphering Immune-Pathogenesis to Underpin Translational Therapy.
Amber G Bozward, Vincenzo Ronca, Daniel Osei-Bordom, Ye Htun Oo.
Front Immunol, 2021 Sep 14; 12. PMID: 34512631    Free PMC article.
Review.
Immune normalization strategy against suboptimal health status: safe and efficacious therapy using mixed-natural killer cells.
Ying Li, Oda Harunori, +9 authors, Hongjin Wu.
Aging (Albany NY), 2021 Aug 31; 13(16). PMID: 34461606    Free PMC article.
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Colorectal Cancer: Challenges and Future Prospects.
Shima Makaremi, Zahra Asadzadeh, +9 authors, Behzad Baradaran.
Biomedicines, 2021 Sep 29; 9(9). PMID: 34572263    Free PMC article.
Review.
Atovaquone-HSA nano-drugs enhance the efficacy of PD-1 blockade immunotherapy by alleviating hypoxic tumor microenvironment.
Simeng Wang, Xinrui Zhou, +7 authors, Peng Hou.
J Nanobiotechnology, 2021 Oct 04; 19(1). PMID: 34600560    Free PMC article.
Correlation of MKI67 with prognosis, immune infiltration, and T cell exhaustion in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Shi-Yi Wu, Pan Liao, +4 authors, Hong-Tao Sun.
BMC Gastroenterol, 2021 Nov 03; 21(1). PMID: 34724892    Free PMC article.
Metabolism in tumor microenvironment: Implications for cancer immunotherapy.
Rongchen Shi, Yi-Quan Tang, Hongming Miao.
MedComm (2020), 2020 Jun 03; 1(1). PMID: 34766109    Free PMC article.
Review.
Prognosis and Immunotherapy Significances of a Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts-Related Gene Signature in Gliomas.
Zhimin Chen, Shenghua Zhuo, +5 authors, Huiming Xu.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Nov 16; 9. PMID: 34778248    Free PMC article.
Single-Cell Proteomic Analysis Dissects the Complexity of Tumor Microenvironment in Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.
Chao Feng, Xi Wang, +10 authors, Zengnan Mo.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Nov 14; 13(21). PMID: 34771607    Free PMC article.
A pan-cancer analysis revealing the role of TIGIT in tumor microenvironment.
Jie Wen, Xueyi Mao, +2 authors, Fangkun Liu.
Sci Rep, 2021 Nov 20; 11(1). PMID: 34795387    Free PMC article.
Modulation of the immune response by heterogeneous monocytes and dendritic cells in lung cancer.
Iwona Kwiecień, Elżbieta Rutkowska, +2 authors, Joanna Domagała-Kulawik.
World J Clin Oncol, 2021 Dec 16; 12(11). PMID: 34909393    Free PMC article.
Review.
Lymphocyte-activating gene-3 expression is associated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte levels in HER2-positive breast cancers.
Seokwon Lee, Jee Yeon Kim, +8 authors, Ahrong Kim.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2021 Dec 18; 100(50). PMID: 34918659    Free PMC article.
Immune Regulatory Processes of the Tumor Microenvironment under Malignant Conditions.
Katrin Pansy, Barbara Uhl, +9 authors, Alexander Ja Deutsch.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Dec 25; 22(24). PMID: 34948104    Free PMC article.
Review.
Role of the tumor immune microenvironment in tumor immunotherapy.
Changsheng Zhou, Qianqian Liu, +2 authors, Wengang Li.
Oncol Lett, 2022 Jan 08; 23(2). PMID: 34992685    Free PMC article.
Review.
Clinical and prognostic implications of an immune-related risk model based on TP53 status in lung adenocarcinoma.
Xuming Song, Qiang Chen, +5 authors, Gaochao Dong.
J Cell Mol Med, 2021 Dec 09; 26(2). PMID: 34877770    Free PMC article.
Targeting the ERβ/HER Oncogenic Network in KRAS Mutant Lung Cancer Modulates the Tumor Microenvironment and Is Synergistic with Sequential Immunotherapy.
Abdulaziz A Almotlak, Mariya Farooqui, +2 authors, Laura P Stabile.
Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Jan 12; 23(1). PMID: 35008514    Free PMC article.
Thymic Polypeptide Fraction Biomodulina T Decreases Exhausted and Terminally Differentiated EMRA T Cells in Advanced Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Platinum-Based Chemotherapy.
Gisela María Suárez, Mauricio Catalá, +15 authors, Danay Saavedra.
Front Oncol, 2022 Feb 15; 12. PMID: 35155258    Free PMC article.
Knowns and Unknowns about CAR-T Cell Dysfunction.
Aleksei Titov, Yaroslav Kaminskiy, +7 authors, Emil Bulatov.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Feb 26; 14(4). PMID: 35205827    Free PMC article.
Review.
Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Standard-Dose and Low-Dose Pembrolizumab in Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Cohort Study in Taiwan.
Kai-Cheng Chang, Shih-Chieh Shao, +2 authors, Yueh-Fu Fang.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Mar 11; 14(5). PMID: 35267465    Free PMC article.
TIGIT marks exhausted T cells and serves as a target for immune restoration in patients with chronic HBV infection.
Yan-Yan Wei, Jing Fan, +4 authors, Wei Zhao.
Am J Transl Res, 2022 Mar 12; 14(2). PMID: 35273697    Free PMC article.
System analysis based on the cancer-immunity cycle identifies ZNF207 as a novel immunotherapy target for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Xu Wang, Tao Zhou, +7 authors, Yong Yang.
J Immunother Cancer, 2022 Mar 06; 10(3). PMID: 35246476    Free PMC article.
TIGIT Blockade Exerts Synergistic Effects on Microwave Ablation Against Cancer.
Yaping Chen, Hao Huang, +7 authors, Lujun Chen.
Front Immunol, 2022 Mar 25; 13. PMID: 35320940    Free PMC article.
Assessing the Future of Solid Tumor Immunotherapy.
Prajna Guha, Kara R Heatherton, +2 authors, Steven C Katz.
Biomedicines, 2022 Mar 26; 10(3). PMID: 35327456    Free PMC article.
Review.
BCMA-Targeted Biologic Therapies: The Next Standard of Care in Multiple Myeloma Therapy.
Barry Paul, Cesar Rodriguez, Saad Z Usmani.
Drugs, 2022 Apr 13; 82(6). PMID: 35412114
Review.
Inhibitory receptors and ligands beyond PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4: breakthroughs or backups.
Lawrence P Andrews, Hiroshi Yano, Dario A A Vignali.
Nat Immunol, 2019 Oct 16; 20(11). PMID: 31611702
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Exploring and Targeting the Tumor Immune Microenvironment of Neuroblastoma.
Katherine E Masih, Jun S Wei, David Milewski, Javed Khan.
J Cell Immunol, 2021 Jan 01; 3(5). PMID: 35464627    Free PMC article.
Combination of Photodynamic Therapy and Immune Checkpoint Blockade.
Jan Willem Kleinovink, Ferry Ossendorp.
Methods Mol Biol, 2022 May 04; 2451. PMID: 35505035
Tim-3 mediates T cell trogocytosis to limit antitumor immunity.
Ornella Pagliano, Robert M Morrison, +30 authors, Hassane M Zarour.
J Clin Invest, 2022 Mar 23; 132(9). PMID: 35316223    Free PMC article.
Heterogeneity and clonality of kidney-infiltrating T cells in murine lupus nephritis.
Shuchi Smita, Maria Chikina, Mark J Shlomchik, Jeremy S Tilstra.
JCI Insight, 2022 Mar 11; 7(8). PMID: 35271505    Free PMC article.
The correlation of EZH2 expression with the progression and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Shi-Yi Wu, Zhao-Yu Xie, +5 authors, Hong-Tao Sun.
BMC Immunol, 2022 Jun 07; 23(1). PMID: 35659256