Journal Article
. 2016 Jul; 5(6):e1169353.
doi: 10.1080/2162402X.2016.1169353.

SCIB2, an antibody DNA vaccine encoding NY-ESO-1 epitopes, induces potent antitumor immunity which is further enhanced by checkpoint blockade

Wei Xue 1 Rachael L Metheringham 1 Victoria A Brentville 1 Barbara Gunn 1 Peter Symonds 1 Hideo Yagita 2 Judith M Ramage 3 Lindy G Durrant 4 
  • PMID: 27471648
  •     63 References
  •     19 citations


Checkpoint blockade has demonstrated promising antitumor responses in approximately 10-40% of patients. However, the majority of patients do not make a productive immune response to their tumors and do not respond to checkpoint blockade. These patients may benefit from an effective vaccine that stimulates high-avidity T cell responses in combination with checkpoint blockade. We have previously shown that incorporating TRP-2 and gp100 epitopes into the CDR regions of a human IgG1 DNA (ImmunoBody®: IB) results in significant tumor regression both in animal models and patients. This vaccination strategy is superior to others as it targets antigen to antigen-presenting cells and stimulates high-avidity T cell responses. To broaden the application of this vaccination strategy, 16 NY-ESO-1 epitopes, covering over 80% of HLA phenotypes, were incorporated into the IB (SCIB2). They produced higher frequency and avidity T cell responses than peptide vaccination. These T cells were of sufficient avidity to kill NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells, and in vivo controlled the growth of established B16-NY-ESO-1 tumors, resulting in long-term survival (35%). When SCIB2 was given in combination with Treg depletion, CTLA-4 blockade or PD-1 blockade, long-term survival from established tumors was significantly enhanced to 56, 67 and 100%, respectively. Translating these responses into the clinic by using a combination of SCIB2 vaccination and checkpoint blockade can only further improve clinical responses.

Keywords: CD4+ T cells; CD8+ T cells; Cancer immunotherapy; NY-ESO-1; targeting antigen-presenting cells.

Predictive correlates of response to the anti-PD-L1 antibody MPDL3280A in cancer patients.
Roy S Herbst, Jean-Charles Soria, +19 authors, F Stephen Hodi.
Nature, 2014 Nov 28; 515(7528). PMID: 25428504    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
In vivo elimination of CD25+ regulatory T cells leads to tumor rejection of B16F10 melanoma, when combined with interleukin-12 gene transfer.
Hiroshi Nagai, Tatsuya Horikawa, +5 authors, Masamitsu Ichihashi.
Exp Dermatol, 2004 Sep 28; 13(10). PMID: 15447721
PD-1 and CTLA-4 combination blockade expands infiltrating T cells and reduces regulatory T and myeloid cells within B16 melanoma tumors.
Michael A Curran, Welby Montalvo, Hideo Yagita, James P Allison.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2010 Feb 18; 107(9). PMID: 20160101    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
LUD 00-009: phase 1 study of intensive course immunization with NY-ESO-1 peptides in HLA-A2 positive patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing cancer.
Armin Bender, Julia Karbach, +11 authors, Elke Jäger.
Cancer Immun, 2007 Oct 20; 7. PMID: 17944437    Free PMC article.
Modified tumour antigen-encoding mRNA facilitates the analysis of naturally occurring and vaccine-induced CD4 and CD8 T cells in cancer patients.
Ashley J Knights, Natko Nuber, +7 authors, Alfred Zippelius.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2008 Jul 30; 58(3). PMID: 18663444
Tumor B7-H1 is associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma patients with long-term follow-up.
R Houston Thompson, Susan M Kuntz, +11 authors, Eugene D Kwon.
Cancer Res, 2006 Apr 06; 66(7). PMID: 16585157
Highly Cited.
Electroporation of skeletal muscle induces danger signal release and antigen-presenting cell recruitment independently of DNA vaccine administration.
Pieranna Chiarella, Emanuela Massi, +4 authors, Emanuela Signori.
Expert Opin Biol Ther, 2008 Oct 14; 8(11). PMID: 18847301
Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer.
Suzanne L Topalian, F Stephen Hodi, +27 authors, Mario Sznol.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Jun 05; 366(26). PMID: 22658127    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4 blockade in tumor models: an overview of preclinical and translational research.
Joseph F Grosso, Maria N Jure-Kunkel.
Cancer Immun, 2013 Feb 08; 13. PMID: 23390376    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
PD1 blockade reverses the suppression of melanoma antigen-specific CTL by CD4+ CD25(Hi) regulatory T cells.
Wenshi Wang, Roy Lau, +3 authors, Jeffrey Weber.
Int Immunol, 2009 Aug 05; 21(9). PMID: 19651643    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Assessment of vaccine-induced CD4 T cell responses to the 119-143 immunodominant region of the tumor-specific antigen NY-ESO-1 using DRB1*0101 tetramers.
Maha Ayyoub, Pascale Pignon, +4 authors, Danila Valmori.
Clin Cancer Res, 2010 Jul 31; 16(18). PMID: 20670945
Directions in the immune targeting of cancer: lessons learned from the cancer-testis Ag NY-ESO-1.
Theo Nicholaou, Lisa Ebert, +5 authors, Jonathan Cebon.
Immunol Cell Biol, 2006 May 10; 84(3). PMID: 16681828
Regulation of MHC class II expression by interferon-gamma mediated by the transactivator gene CIITA.
V Steimle, C A Siegrist, +2 authors, B Mach.
Science, 1994 Jul 01; 265(5168). PMID: 8016643
Highly Cited.
Characterization of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte responses in skin and peripheral blood following intradermal peptide vaccination.
Qiyuan Chen, Heather Jackson, +12 authors, Jonathan Cebon.
Cancer Immun, 2005 Mar 10; 5. PMID: 15755075
Identification of HLA-A24-restricted CTL epitope from cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1, and induction of a specific antitumor immune response.
Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Fumiaki Tanaka, +2 authors, Masaki Mori.
Clin Cancer Res, 2004 Feb 12; 10(3). PMID: 14871964
Induction of primary NY-ESO-1 immunity: CD8+ T lymphocyte and antibody responses in peptide-vaccinated patients with NY-ESO-1+ cancers.
E Jäger, S Gnjatic, +11 authors, A Knuth.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2000 Oct 12; 97(22). PMID: 11027314    Free PMC article.
CD4 cells can be more efficient at tumor rejection than CD8 cells.
Ainhoa Perez-Diez, Nathalie T Joncker, +4 authors, Polly Matzinger.
Blood, 2007 Mar 01; 109(12). PMID: 17327412    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Heterogeneous expression of GAGE, NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A and SSX proteins in esophageal cancer: Implications for immunotherapy.
Argun Akcakanat, Tatsuo Kanda, +5 authors, Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama.
Int J Cancer, 2005 Jul 09; 118(1). PMID: 16003736
A novel HLA-B18 restricted CD8+ T cell epitope is efficiently cross-presented by dendritic cells from soluble tumor antigen.
Rona Y Zhao, Nicole A Mifsud, +15 authors, Weisan Chen.
PLoS One, 2012 Sep 13; 7(9). PMID: 22970293    Free PMC article.
Recognition of naturally processed and ovarian cancer reactive CD8+ T cell epitopes within a promiscuous HLA class II T-helper region of NY-ESO-1.
Junko Matsuzaki, Feng Qian, +6 authors, Kunle Odunsi.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2008 Feb 07; 57(8). PMID: 18253733
NY-ESO-1 119-143 is a promiscuous major histocompatibility complex class II T-helper epitope recognized by Th1- and Th2-type tumor-reactive CD4+ T cells.
Hassane M Zarour, Bernard Maillere, +8 authors, John M Kirkwood.
Cancer Res, 2002 Jan 10; 62(1). PMID: 11782380
Monitoring CD8 T cell responses to NY-ESO-1: correlation of humoral and cellular immune responses.
E Jäger, Y Nagata, +14 authors, A Knuth.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2000 Apr 26; 97(9). PMID: 10781081    Free PMC article.
Multipeptide immune response to cancer vaccine IMA901 after single-dose cyclophosphamide associates with longer patient survival.
Steffen Walter, Toni Weinschenk, +36 authors, Harpreet Singh-Jasuja.
Nat Med, 2012 Jul 31; 18(8). PMID: 22842478
Highly Cited.
Identification of NY-ESO-1 peptide analogues capable of improved stimulation of tumor-reactive CTL.
J L Chen, P R Dunbar, +9 authors, V Cerundolo.
J Immunol, 2000 Jul 06; 165(2). PMID: 10878370
Tumor regression in patients with metastatic synovial cell sarcoma and melanoma using genetically engineered lymphocytes reactive with NY-ESO-1.
Paul F Robbins, Richard A Morgan, +18 authors, Steven A Rosenberg.
J Clin Oncol, 2011 Feb 02; 29(7). PMID: 21282551    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Clinical use of anti-CD25 antibody daclizumab to enhance immune responses to tumor antigen vaccination by targeting regulatory T cells.
Andrew J Rech, Robert H Vonderheide.
Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2009 Sep 23; 1174. PMID: 19769742
Highly Cited. Review.
Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma.
F Stephen Hodi, Steven J O'Day, +26 authors, Walter J Urba.
N Engl J Med, 2010 Jun 08; 363(8). PMID: 20525992    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Naturally occurring human lymphocyte antigen-A2 restricted CD8+ T-cell response to the cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 in melanoma patients.
D Valmori, V Dutoit, +9 authors, P Romero.
Cancer Res, 2000 Sep 02; 60(16). PMID: 10969798
Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation.
Caroline Robert, Georgina V Long, +25 authors, Paolo A Ascierto.
N Engl J Med, 2014 Nov 18; 372(4). PMID: 25399552
Highly Cited.
IFN-γ from lymphocytes induces PD-L1 expression and promotes progression of ovarian cancer.
K Abiko, N Matsumura, +7 authors, M Mandai.
Br J Cancer, 2015 Apr 14; 112(9). PMID: 25867264    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-L1 regulates the development, maintenance, and function of induced regulatory T cells.
Loise M Francisco, Victor H Salinas, +4 authors, Arlene H Sharpe.
J Exp Med, 2009 Dec 17; 206(13). PMID: 20008522    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
NY-ESO-1 may be a potential target for lung cancer immunotherapy.
L Lee, R F Wang, +4 authors, D S Schrump.
Cancer J Sci Am, 1999 Apr 03; 5(1). PMID: 10188057
Identification of five new HLA-B*3501-restricted epitopes derived from common melanoma-associated antigens, spontaneously recognized by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Houssem Benlalam, Boris Linard, +6 authors, Nathalie Labarrière.
J Immunol, 2003 Nov 25; 171(11). PMID: 14634146
Three novel NY-ESO-1 epitopes bound to DRB1*0803, DQB1*0401 and DRB1*0901 recognized by CD4 T cells from CHP-NY-ESO-1-vaccinated patients.
Yu Mizote, Taku Taniguchi, +7 authors, Eiichi Nakayama.
Vaccine, 2010 Jul 29; 28(32). PMID: 20665979
NY-ESO-1 encodes DRB1*0401-restricted epitopes recognized by melanoma-reactive CD4+ T cells.
H M Zarour, W J Storkus, +2 authors, J M Kirkwood.
Cancer Res, 2000 Sep 15; 60(17). PMID: 10987311
High avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be selected into the memory pool but they are exquisitely sensitive to functional impairment.
Victoria A Brentville, Rachael L Metheringham, Barbara Gunn, Lindy G Durrant.
PLoS One, 2012 Jul 26; 7(7). PMID: 22829916    Free PMC article.
Strategy for monitoring T cell responses to NY-ESO-1 in patients with any HLA class I allele.
S Gnjatic, Y Nagata, +12 authors, L J Old.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2000 Sep 27; 97(20). PMID: 11005863    Free PMC article.
Regulation of MHC class II genes: lessons from a disease.
B Mach, V Steimle, E Martinez-Soria, W Reith.
Annu Rev Immunol, 1996 Jan 01; 14. PMID: 8717517
Highly Cited. Review.
Up-regulation of PD-L1, IDO, and T(regs) in the melanoma tumor microenvironment is driven by CD8(+) T cells.
Stefani Spranger, Robbert M Spaapen, +4 authors, Thomas F Gajewski.
Sci Transl Med, 2013 Aug 30; 5(200). PMID: 23986400    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Primary CD4+ T-cell responses provide both helper and cytotoxic functions during Epstein-Barr virus infection and transformation of fetal cord blood B cells.
Georgina J MacArthur, A Douglas Wilson, Martin A Birchall, Andrew J Morgan.
J Virol, 2007 Feb 23; 81(9). PMID: 17314172    Free PMC article.
DNA vaccination with T-cell epitopes encoded within Ab molecules induces high-avidity anti-tumor CD8+ T cells.
Victoria A Pudney, Rachael L Metheringham, +3 authors, Lindy G Durrant.
Eur J Immunol, 2009 Dec 30; 40(3). PMID: 20039301
Tumor cell expression of programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 is a prognostic factor for malignant melanoma.
Ryosuke Hino, Kenji Kabashima, +5 authors, Yoshiki Tokura.
Cancer, 2010 Feb 10; 116(7). PMID: 20143437
Highly Cited.
Synergism of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade and depletion of CD25(+) regulatory T cells in antitumor therapy reveals alternative pathways for suppression of autoreactive cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.
R P Sutmuller, L M van Duivenvoorde, +6 authors, C J Melief.
J Exp Med, 2001 Sep 19; 194(6). PMID: 11560997    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens.
Matthew M Gubin, Xiuli Zhang, +24 authors, Robert D Schreiber.
Nature, 2014 Nov 28; 515(7528). PMID: 25428507    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Tumor rejection by in vivo administration of anti-CD25 (interleukin-2 receptor alpha) monoclonal antibody.
S Onizuka, I Tawara, +3 authors, E Nakayama.
Cancer Res, 1999 Jul 09; 59(13). PMID: 10397255
Highly Cited.
Identification of a naturally processed NY-ESO-1 peptide recognized by CD8+ T cells in the context of HLA-B51.
Elke Jäger, Julia Karbach, +9 authors, Alexander Knuth.
Cancer Immun, 2003 May 16; 2. PMID: 12747757
Suppression of acute graft-versus-host response by TCDD is independent of the CTLA-4-IFN-γ-IDO pathway.
Diana Rohlman, Sumit Punj, +2 authors, Nancy I Kerkvliet.
Toxicol Sci, 2013 Jun 27; 135(1). PMID: 23798565    Free PMC article.
Constitutive expression of MHC class II genes in melanoma cell lines results from the transcription of class II transactivator abnormally initiated from its B cell-specific promoter.
V Deffrennes, J Vedrenne, +5 authors, C Alcaïde-Loridan.
J Immunol, 2001 Jun 22; 167(1). PMID: 11418637
Identification of NY-ESO-1 epitopes presented by human histocompatibility antigen (HLA)-DRB4*0101-0103 and recognized by CD4(+) T lymphocytes of patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing melanoma.
E Jäger, D Jäger, +8 authors, A Knuth.
J Exp Med, 2000 Feb 24; 191(4). PMID: 10684854    Free PMC article.
Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or Monotherapy in Untreated Melanoma.
James Larkin, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, +28 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Jun 02; 373(1). PMID: 26027431    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Vaccination with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein elicits immunodominant HLA-DR52b-restricted CD4+ T cell responses with a conserved T cell receptor repertoire.
Gilles Bioley, Christelle Dousset, +6 authors, Danila Valmori.
Clin Cancer Res, 2009 Jun 18; 15(13). PMID: 19531622
Antibodies designed as effective cancer vaccines.
R L Metheringham, V A Pudney, +3 authors, L G Durrant.
MAbs, 2010 Jan 05; 1(1). PMID: 20046577    Free PMC article.
Recombinant vaccinia/fowlpox NY-ESO-1 vaccines induce both humoral and cellular NY-ESO-1-specific immune responses in cancer patients.
Elke Jäger, Julia Karbach, +13 authors, Alexander Knuth.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006 Sep 21; 103(39). PMID: 16984998    Free PMC article.
Immunodominant CD4+ responses identified in a patient vaccinated with full-length NY-ESO-1 formulated with ISCOMATRIX adjuvant.
Qiyuan Chen, Heather Jackson, +17 authors, Weisan Chen.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2004 Jun 16; 101(25). PMID: 15197261    Free PMC article.
Genetic basis for clinical response to CTLA-4 blockade in melanoma.
Alexandra Snyder, Vladimir Makarov, +18 authors, Timothy A Chan.
N Engl J Med, 2014 Nov 20; 371(23). PMID: 25409260    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4 blockade reverses CD8+ T cell tolerance to tumor by a CD4+ T cell- and IL-2-dependent mechanism.
P Shrikant, A Khoruts, M F Mescher.
Immunity, 1999 Nov 05; 11(4). PMID: 10549630
Immunization with a lentivector that targets tumor antigen expression to dendritic cells induces potent CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses.
Luciene Lopes, Marie Dewannieux, +8 authors, Mary K Collins.
J Virol, 2007 Oct 26; 82(1). PMID: 17959670    Free PMC article.
High-avidity T cells are preferentially tolerized in the tumor microenvironment.
Ziqiang Zhu, Vinod Singh, +4 authors, Arthur A Hurwitz.
Cancer Res, 2012 Dec 04; 73(2). PMID: 23204239    Free PMC article.
Simultaneous humoral and cellular immune response against cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1: definition of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-binding peptide epitopes.
E Jäger, Y T Chen, +9 authors, A Knuth.
J Exp Med, 1998 Feb 07; 187(2). PMID: 9432985    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.
Tyler R Simpson, Fubin Li, +11 authors, Sergio A Quezada.
J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897981    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
One NY-ESO-1-derived epitope that promiscuously binds to multiple HLA-DR and HLA-DP4 molecules and stimulates autologous CD4+ T cells from patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing melanoma.
Maja Mandic, Florence Castelli, +7 authors, Hassane M Zarour.
J Immunol, 2005 Jan 22; 174(3). PMID: 15661941
Electroporation for DNA immunization: clinical application.
Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, D Hannaman.
Expert Rev Vaccines, 2010 May 11; 9(5). PMID: 20450325
PD-1 pathway inhibitors: changing the landscape of cancer immunotherapy.
Dawn E Dolan, Shilpa Gupta.
Cancer Control, 2014 Jun 24; 21(3). PMID: 24955707
SCIB1, a huIgG1 antibody DNA vaccination, combined with PD-1 blockade induced efficient therapy of poorly immunogenic tumors.
Wei Xue, Victoria A Brentville, +4 authors, Lindy G Durrant.
Oncotarget, 2016 Nov 09; 7(50). PMID: 27825115    Free PMC article.
Is There Still Room for Cancer Vaccines at the Era of Checkpoint Inhibitors.
Soumaya Karaki, Marie Anson, +4 authors, Eric Tartour.
Vaccines (Basel), 2016 Nov 10; 4(4). PMID: 27827885    Free PMC article.
Is immunity in cancer the key to improving clinical outcome?: Report on the International Symposium on Immunotherapy, The Royal Society, London, UK, 12-13 May 2017.
Peter L Stern.
Ther Adv Vaccines, 2017 Aug 11; 5(3). PMID: 28794878    Free PMC article.
Trial watch: DNA-based vaccines for oncological indications.
Stefano Pierini, Renzo Perales-Linares, +5 authors, Lorenzo Galluzzi.
Oncoimmunology, 2017 Dec 07; 6(12). PMID: 29209575    Free PMC article.
Current Strategies to Enhance Anti-Tumour Immunity.
Katherine W Cook, Lindy G Durrant, Victoria A Brentville.
Biomedicines, 2018 Mar 24; 6(2). PMID: 29570634    Free PMC article.
Targeting gp100 and TRP-2 with a DNA vaccine: Incorporating T cell epitopes with a human IgG1 antibody induces potent T cell responses that are associated with favourable clinical outcome in a phase I/II trial.
Poulam M Patel, Christian H Ottensmeier, +15 authors, Lindy G Durrant.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Jun 07; 7(6). PMID: 29872563    Free PMC article.
Novel tumour antigens and the development of optimal vaccine design.
Victoria A Brentville, Suha Atabani, Katherine Cook, Lindy G Durrant.
Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother, 2018 Jul 13; 6(2). PMID: 29998219    Free PMC article.
The Tumor Microenvironment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Its Influence on Response to Immunotherapy.
Galaxia M Rodriguez, Kristianne J C Galpin, Curtis W McCloskey, Barbara C Vanderhyden.
Cancers (Basel), 2018 Jul 26; 10(8). PMID: 30042343    Free PMC article.
Combination of immune checkpoint blockade with DNA cancer vaccine induces potent antitumor immunity against P815 mastocytoma.
Alessandra Lopes, Kevin Vanvarenberg, +5 authors, Gaëlle Vandermeulen.
Sci Rep, 2018 Oct 26; 8(1). PMID: 30356111    Free PMC article.
Unleashing the immune response to NY-ESO-1 cancer testis antigen as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.
Afsheen Raza, Maysaloun Merhi, +4 authors, Said Dermime.
J Transl Med, 2020 Mar 30; 18(1). PMID: 32220256    Free PMC article.
Combination vaccine based on citrullinated vimentin and enolase peptides induces potent CD4-mediated anti-tumor responses.
Victoria A Brentville, Rachael L Metheringham, +11 authors, Lindy G Durrant.
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 Jun 21; 8(1). PMID: 32561639    Free PMC article.
T cell repertoire to citrullinated self-peptides in healthy humans is not confined to the HLA-DR SE alleles; Targeting of citrullinated self-peptides presented by HLA-DP4 for tumour therapy.
Victoria A Brentville, Peter Symonds, +8 authors, Lindy G Durrant.
Oncoimmunology, 2019 May 10; 8(5). PMID: 31069134    Free PMC article.
TAS0314, a novel multi-epitope long peptide vaccine, showed synergistic antitumor immunity with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in HLA-A*2402 mice.
Yuki Tanaka, Hiroshi Wada, +9 authors, Teruhiro Utsugi.
Sci Rep, 2020 Oct 16; 10(1). PMID: 33057061    Free PMC article.
Cancer DNA vaccines: current preclinical and clinical developments and future perspectives.
Alessandra Lopes, Gaëlle Vandermeulen, Véronique Préat.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Apr 07; 38(1). PMID: 30953535    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapy Advances for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
Erin G Hartnett, Julia Knight, +3 authors, Anda M Vlad.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 17; 12(12). PMID: 33322601    Free PMC article.
Combining therapeutic vaccines with chemo- and immunotherapies in the treatment of cancer.
Matthew D Kerr, David A McBride, Arun K Chumber, Nisarg J Shah.
Expert Opin Drug Discov, 2020 Sep 02; 16(1). PMID: 32867561    Free PMC article.
Cancer Vaccines, Adjuvants, and Delivery Systems.
Samantha J Paston, Victoria A Brentville, Peter Symonds, Lindy G Durrant.
Front Immunol, 2021 Apr 17; 12. PMID: 33859638    Free PMC article.
A Novel HAGE/WT1-ImmunoBody® Vaccine Combination Enhances Anti-Tumour Responses When Compared to Either Vaccine Alone.
Rukaia Almshayakhchi, Divya Nagarajan, +7 authors, Stephanie McArdle.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jul 16; 11. PMID: 34262856    Free PMC article.
PAD-2-mediated citrullination of nucleophosmin provides an effective target for tumor immunotherapy.
Ruhul H Choudhury, Peter Symonds, +6 authors, Lindy G Durrant.
J Immunother Cancer, 2022 Feb 11; 10(2). PMID: 35140112    Free PMC article.