Systematic Review
. 2016 Sep; 9:CD005001.
doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005001.pub3.

Exercise for women receiving adjuvant therapy for breast cancer

Anna C Furmaniak 1 Matthias Menig  Martina H Markes  
Affiliations
  • PMID: 27650122
  •     174 References
  •     68 citations

Abstract

Background: A huge clinical research database on adjuvant cancer treatment has verified improvements in breast cancer outcomes such as recurrence and mortality rates. On the other hand, adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy impacts on quality of life due to substantial short- and long-term side effects. A number of studies have evaluated the effect of exercise interventions on those side effects. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2006. The original review identified some benefits of physical activity on physical fitness and the resulting capacity for performing activities of daily life. It also identified a lack of evidence for other outcomes, providing clear justification for an updated review.

Objectives: To assess the effect of aerobic or resistance exercise interventions during adjuvant treatment for breast cancer on treatment-related side effects such as physical deterioration, fatigue, diminished quality of life, depression, and cognitive dysfunction.

Search Methods: We carried out an updated search in the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register (30 March 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2015), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 March 2015), and EMBASE (1966 to 30 March 2015). We did not update the original searches in CINAHL (1982 to 2004), SPORTDiscus (1975 to 2004), PsycINFO (1872 to 2003), SIGLE (1880 to 2004), and ProQuest Digital Dissertations (1861 to 2004). We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials on 30 March 2015. We screened references in relevant reviews and published clinical trials.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials that examined aerobic or resistance exercise or both in women undergoing adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Published and unpublished trials were eligible.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors independently performed data extraction, assessed trials, and graded the methodological quality using Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' tool. Any disagreements were resolved through discussion or by consulting the third review author. We entered data into Review Manager for analysis. For outcomes assessed with a variety of instruments, we used the standardised mean difference (SMD) as a summary statistic for meta-analysis; for those assessed with the same instrument, we used the mean difference (MD).

Main Results: For this 2015 update we included a total of 32 studies with 2626 randomised women, 8 studies from the original search and 24 studies from the updated search. We found evidence that physical exercise during adjuvant treatment for breast cancer probably improves physical fitness (SMD 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 to 0.59; 15 studies; 1310 women; moderate-quality evidence) and slightly reduces fatigue (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.16; 19 studies; 1698 women; moderate-quality evidence). Exercise may lead to little or no improvement in health-related quality of life (MD 1.10, 95% CI -5.28 to 7.48; 1 study; 68 women; low-quality evidence), a slight improvement in cancer site-specific quality of life (MD 4.24, 95% CI -1.81 to 10.29; 4 studies; 262 women; low-quality evidence), and an improvement in cognitive function (MD -11.55, 95% CI -22.06 to -1.05; 2 studies; 213 women; low-quality evidence). Exercise probably leads to little or no difference in cancer-specific quality of life (SMD 0.12, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.25; 12 studies; 1012 women; moderate-quality evidence) and little or no difference in depression (SMD -0.15, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.01; 5 studies; 674 women; moderate-quality evidence). Evidence for other outcomes ranged from low to moderate quality. Seven trials reported a very small number of adverse events.

Authors' Conclusions: Exercise during adjuvant treatment for breast cancer can be regarded as a supportive self care intervention that probably results in less fatigue, improved physical fitness, and little or no difference in cancer-specific quality of life and depression. Exercise may also slightly improve cancer site-specific quality of life and cognitive function, while it may result in little or no difference in health-related quality of life. This review is based on trials with a considerable degree of clinical heterogeneity regarding adjuvant cancer treatments and exercise interventions. Due to the difficulty of blinding exercise trials, all included trials were at high risk for performance bias. Furthermore, the majority of trials were at high risk for detection bias, largely due to most outcomes being self reported.The findings of the updated review have enabled us to make a more precise conclusion that both aerobic and resistance exercise can be regarded as beneficial for individuals with adjuvant therapy-related side effects. Further research is required to determine the optimal type, intensity, and timing of an exercise intervention. Furthermore, long-term evaluation is required due to possible long-term side effects of adjuvant treatment.

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Aerobic Exercise-Induced Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Guilherme Maginador, Manoel E Lixandrão, +7 authors, Miguel S Conceição.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Aug 17; 12(8). PMID: 32796499    Free PMC article.
Review.
Breast Cancer: A Lifestyle Medicine Approach.
Amber Orman, Dianne L Johnson, Amy Comander, Nigel Brockton.
Am J Lifestyle Med, 2020 Sep 15; 14(5). PMID: 32922233    Free PMC article.
Review.
Exercise Adherence and Effect of Self-Regulatory Behavior Change Techniques in Patients Undergoing Curative Cancer Treatment: Secondary Analysis from the Phys-Can Randomized Controlled Trial.
Anne-Sophie Mazzoni, Hannah L Brooke, +2 authors, Ingrid Demmelmaier.
Integr Cancer Ther, 2020 Sep 11; 19. PMID: 32909467    Free PMC article.
Depression in Somatic Disorders: Is There a Beneficial Effect of Exercise?
Astrid Roeh, Sophie K Kirchner, +4 authors, Alkomiet Hasan.
Front Psychiatry, 2019 Apr 06; 10. PMID: 30949079    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Best-Evidence Rehabilitation for Chronic Pain Part 2: Pain during and after Cancer Treatment.
An De Groef, Frauke Penen, +3 authors, Mira Meeus.
J Clin Med, 2019 Jul 10; 8(7). PMID: 31284377    Free PMC article.
Review.
Continuous, objective measurement of physical activity during chemotherapy for breast cancer: the Activity in Treatment pilot study.
Sandahl H Nelson, Lauren S Weiner, +3 authors, Sheri J Hartman.
Transl Behav Med, 2019 May 30; 10(4). PMID: 31141593    Free PMC article.
Sense of coherence and its relationship to participation, cancer-related fatigue, symptom burden, and quality of life in women with breast cancer participating in the OptiTrain exercise trial.
Anouk E Hiensch, Kate A Bolam, +2 authors, Yvonne Wengström.
Support Care Cancer, 2020 Mar 07; 28(11). PMID: 32140973    Free PMC article.
Patient and Medical Oncologists' Perspectives on Prescribed Lifestyle Intervention-Experiences of Women with Breast Cancer and Providers.
Lynda G Balneaves, Tracy L O Truant, +3 authors, Kristin L Campbell.
J Clin Med, 2020 Sep 04; 9(9). PMID: 32878120    Free PMC article.
Brief Hospital Supervision of Exercise and Diet During Adjuvant Breast Cancer Therapy Is Not Enough to Relieve Fatigue: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.
William Jacot, Antoine Arnaud, +18 authors, Laurence Vanlemmens.
Nutrients, 2020 Oct 15; 12(10). PMID: 33050321    Free PMC article.
Prevalence and severity of long-term physical, emotional, and cognitive fatigue across 15 different cancer entities.
Martina E Schmidt, Silke Hermann, Volker Arndt, Karen Steindorf.
Cancer Med, 2020 Sep 08; 9(21). PMID: 32893501    Free PMC article.
Exercise/physical activity and health outcomes: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.
Pawel Posadzki, Dawid Pieper, +4 authors, Monika Semwal.
BMC Public Health, 2020 Nov 18; 20(1). PMID: 33198717    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Interdisciplinary Screening, Diagnosis, Therapy and Follow-up of Breast Cancer. Guideline of the DGGG and the DKG (S3-Level, AWMF Registry Number 032/045OL, December 2017) - Part 2 with Recommendations for the Therapy of Primary, Recurrent and Advanced Breast Cancer.
Achim Wöckel, Jasmin Festl, +94 authors, Stephanie Stangl.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd, 2018 Dec 26; 78(11). PMID: 30581198    Free PMC article.
Feasibility of an exercise and nutritional intervention for weight management during adjuvant treatment for localized breast cancer: the PASAPAS randomized controlled trial.
Aude-Marie Foucaut, Magali Morelle, +19 authors, Marina Touillaud.
Support Care Cancer, 2019 Jan 27; 27(9). PMID: 30680617
Impact of exercise training on cardiotoxicity and cardiac health outcomes in women with breast cancer anthracycline chemotherapy: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Pedro Antunes, Dulce Esteves, +6 authors, Ana Joaquim.
Trials, 2019 Jul 17; 20(1). PMID: 31307527    Free PMC article.
Short- and long-term impact of adapted physical activity and diet counseling during adjuvant breast cancer therapy: the "APAD1" randomized controlled trial.
Marion Carayol, Gregory Ninot, +7 authors, William Jacot.
BMC Cancer, 2019 Jul 28; 19(1). PMID: 31345179    Free PMC article.
Daily Physical Activity and Symptom Reporting in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy: An Intensive Longitudinal Examination.
Siobhan M Phillips, Whitney A Welch, +10 authors, Juned Siddique.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2020 Oct 01; 29(12). PMID: 32994340    Free PMC article.
Home-Based Physical Activity in Patients With Breast Cancer: During and/or After Chemotherapy? Impact on Cardiorespiratory Fitness. A 3-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial (APAC).
François Vincent, Elise Deluche, +10 authors, Nicole Tubiana-Mathieu.
Integr Cancer Ther, 2020 Nov 25; 19. PMID: 33228382    Free PMC article.
Input from multiple stakeholder levels prioritizes targets for improving implementation of an exercise intervention for rural women cancer survivors.
Haiyan Qu, Richard Shewchuk, +5 authors, Laura Q Rogers.
Implement Sci Commun, 2020 Dec 10; 1(1). PMID: 33292813    Free PMC article.
Physical Activity as an Imperative Support in Breast Cancer Management.
Miguel A Ortega, Oscar Fraile-Martínez, +10 authors, Miguel A Álvarez-Mon.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jan 01; 13(1). PMID: 33379177    Free PMC article.
Review.
High intensity exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy - effects on long-term myocardial damage and physical capacity - data from the OptiTrain RCT.
Josefin Ansund, Sara Mijwel, +4 authors, Helene Rundqvist.
Cardiooncology, 2021 Feb 17; 7(1). PMID: 33588948    Free PMC article.
Interventions for Reducing Suicide Risk in Cancer Patients: A Literature Review.
Giedre Bulotiene, Kamile Pociute.
Eur J Psychol, 2019 Sep 27; 15(3). PMID: 33680150    Free PMC article.
Effects of an Exercise and Nutritional Intervention on Circulating Biomarkers and Metabolomic Profiling During Adjuvant Treatment for Localized Breast Cancer: Results From the PASAPAS Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial.
Olivia Febvey-Combes, Elodie Jobard, +14 authors, Béatrice Fervers.
Integr Cancer Ther, 2021 Mar 04; 20. PMID: 33655799    Free PMC article.
Effects of heavy-load resistance training during (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy on muscle cellular outcomes in women with breast cancer.
Emelie Strandberg, Karianne Vassbakk-Svindland, +10 authors, Truls Raastad.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2021 Mar 18; 100(10). PMID: 33725859    Free PMC article.
Increased Duration of Exercise Decreases Rate of Nonresponse to Exercise but May Not Decrease Risk for Cancer Mortality.
Dan Lin, Melanie Potiaumpai, Kathryn Schmitz, Kathleen Sturgeon.
Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2020 Oct 13; 53(5). PMID: 33044435    Free PMC article.
Different Methods of Physical Training Applied to Women Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.
Silvia Schutz, Felipe J Aidar, +5 authors, Anderson Carlos Marçal.
Front Physiol, 2021 May 04; 12. PMID: 33935799    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Physical Exercise: A Novel Tool to Protect Mitochondrial Health.
Daniela Sorriento, Eugenio Di Vaia, Guido Iaccarino.
Front Physiol, 2021 May 15; 12. PMID: 33986694    Free PMC article.
Review.
Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive function in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.
Catherine M Bender, Susan M Sereika, +11 authors, Kirk I Erickson.
Support Care Cancer, 2020 Nov 20; 29(7). PMID: 33210238    Free PMC article.
Physical activity level, exercise behavior, barriers, and preferences of patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema.
Vesile Yildiz Kabak, Ceren Gursen, +2 authors, Tulin Duger.
Support Care Cancer, 2020 Nov 11; 29(7). PMID: 33170403