Review
. 2016 Dec;389(10087).
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32454-0.

Molecular alterations in triple-negative breast cancer-the road to new treatment strategies

Carsten Denkert 1 Cornelia Liedtke 2 Andrew Tutt 3 Gunter von Minckwitz 4 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 27939063
  •     119 citations

Abstract

Triple-negative breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and specific therapies have not been available for a long time. Therefore, conventional chemotherapy is still considered the clinical state of the art. Different subgroups of triple-negative breast cancer have been identified on the basis of protein expression, mRNA signatures, and genomic alterations. Important elements of triple-negative breast cancer biology include high proliferative activity, an increased immunological infiltrate, a basal-like and a mesenchymal phenotype, and deficiency in homologous recombination, which is in part associated with loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 function. A minority of triple-negative tumours express luminal markers, such as androgen receptors, and have a lower proliferative activity. These biological subgroups are overlapping and currently cannot be combined into a unified model of triple-negative breast cancer biology. Nevertheless, the molecular analysis of this disease has identified potential options for targeted therapeutic intervention. This has led to promising clinical strategies, including modified chemotherapy approaches targeting the DNA damage response, angiogenesis inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, or even anti-androgens, all of which are being evaluated in phase 1-3 clinical studies. This Series paper focuses on the most relevant clinical questions, summarises the results of recent clinical trials, and gives an overview of ongoing studies and trial concepts that will lead to a more refined therapy for this tumour type.

Understanding breast cancer - The long and winding road.
Kiven Erique Lukong.
BBA Clin, 2017 Feb 15; 7. PMID: 28194329    Free PMC article.
Review.
Cancer subtypes in aetiological research.
Lorenzo Richiardi, Francesco Barone-Adesi, Neil Pearce.
Eur J Epidemiol, 2017 May 13; 32(5). PMID: 28497292
Germline Mutations in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Eric Hahnen, Jan Hauke, +3 authors, Rita K Schmutzler.
Breast Care (Basel), 2017 Jun 15; 12(1). PMID: 28611536    Free PMC article.
Review.
PITX2 DNA-methylation predicts response to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer patients.
Magdalena Absmaier, Rudolf Napieralski, +9 authors, Manfred Schmitt.
Int J Oncol, 2018 Jan 13; 52(3). PMID: 29328369    Free PMC article.
Score for the Survival Probability in Metastasis Breast Cancer: A Nomogram-Based Risk Assessment Model.
Zhenchong Xiong, Guangzheng Deng, +5 authors, Xi Wang.
Cancer Res Treat, 2018 Jan 16; 50(4). PMID: 29334609    Free PMC article.
The presence of PD-1 positive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in triple negative breast cancers is associated with a favorable outcome of disease.
Gero Brockhoff, Stephan Seitz, +4 authors, Anja Kathrin Wege.
Oncotarget, 2018 Feb 22; 9(5). PMID: 29464065    Free PMC article.
An integrative bioinformatics approach reveals coding and non-coding gene variants associated with gene expression profiles and outcome in breast cancer molecular subtypes.
Balázs Győrffy, Lőrinc Pongor, +6 authors, Libero Santarpia.
Br J Cancer, 2018 Mar 22; 118(8). PMID: 29559730    Free PMC article.
KIBRA (WWC1) Is a Metastasis Suppressor Gene Affected by Chromosome 5q Loss in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Jennifer F Knight, Vanessa Y C Sung, +18 authors, Morag Park.
Cell Rep, 2018 Mar 22; 22(12). PMID: 29562176    Free PMC article.
c-Src inhibitor selectively inhibits triple-negative breast cancer overexpressed Vimentin in vitro and in vivo.
Longquan Lou, Ziyi Yu, +2 authors, Yi Zhao.
Cancer Sci, 2018 Mar 27; 109(5). PMID: 29575318    Free PMC article.
Loss of TDP43 inhibits progression of triple-negative breast cancer in coordination with SRSF3.
Hao Ke, Limin Zhao, +12 authors, Baowei Jiao.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Mar 28; 115(15). PMID: 29581274    Free PMC article.
ANP32E induces tumorigenesis of triple-negative breast cancer cells by upregulating E2F1.
Zhenchong Xiong, Liping Ye, +9 authors, Xi Wang.
Mol Oncol, 2018 Apr 11; 12(6). PMID: 29633513    Free PMC article.
EPHB6 augments both development and drug sensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer tumours.
Behzad M Toosi, Amr El Zawily, +18 authors, Andrew Freywald.
Oncogene, 2018 Apr 28; 37(30). PMID: 29700392    Free PMC article.
(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate Synthetic Analogues Inhibit Fatty Acid Synthase and Show Anticancer Activity in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Joan Crous-Masó, Sònia Palomeras, +5 authors, Teresa Puig.
Molecules, 2018 May 13; 23(5). PMID: 29751678    Free PMC article.
How shall we treat early triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC): from the current standard to upcoming immuno-molecular strategies.
Ji Hyun Park, Jin-Hee Ahn, Sung-Bae Kim.
ESMO Open, 2018 May 17; 3(Suppl 1). PMID: 29765774    Free PMC article.
Review.
Upregulation of miR-374a promotes tumor metastasis and progression by downregulating LACTB and predicts unfavorable prognosis in breast cancer.
Jun Zhang, Yuting He, +9 authors, Ranran Sun.
Cancer Med, 2018 May 24;. PMID: 29790671    Free PMC article.
Immunotherapeutic interventions of Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Zehuan Li, Yiran Qiu, +2 authors, Jin Wang.
J Transl Med, 2018 Jun 01; 16(1). PMID: 29848327    Free PMC article.
Review.
LRP5 regulates the expression of STK40, a new potential target in triple-negative breast cancers.
Sylvie Maubant, Tania Tahtouh, +16 authors, Thierry Dubois.
Oncotarget, 2018 Jun 02; 9(32). PMID: 29854300    Free PMC article.
The suppression of DUSP5 expression correlates with paclitaxel resistance and poor prognosis in basal-like breast cancer.
Tieju Liu, Huizhi Sun, +9 authors, Xiulan Zhao.
Int J Med Sci, 2018 Jun 19; 15(7). PMID: 29910679    Free PMC article.
PIM2-mediated phosphorylation of hexokinase 2 is critical for tumor growth and paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer.
Tingting Yang, Chune Ren, +7 authors, Zhenhai Yu.
Oncogene, 2018 Jul 10; 37(45). PMID: 29985480    Free PMC article.
TLR4/MyD88 signaling determines the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells.
Kunlin Wu, Huihao Zhang, +6 authors, Xiangjin Chen.
Mol Med Rep, 2018 Aug 02; 18(3). PMID: 30066873    Free PMC article.
Anti-inflammatory signaling by mammary tumor cells mediates prometastatic macrophage polarization in an innovative intraductal mouse model for triple-negative breast cancer.
Jonas Steenbrugge, Koen Breyne, +7 authors, Evelyne Meyer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2018 Aug 17; 37(1). PMID: 30111338    Free PMC article.
Silencing of casein kinase 1 delta reduces migration and metastasis of triple negative breast cancer cells.
Isabelle Bar, Ahmad Merhi, +5 authors, Paul Delrée.
Oncotarget, 2018 Aug 17; 9(56). PMID: 30112110    Free PMC article.
Downregulation of Dock1 and Elmo1 suppresses the migration and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer epithelial cells through the RhoA/Rac1 pathway.
Yueyang Liang, Shushu Wang, Yi Zhang.
Oncol Lett, 2018 Aug 22; 16(3). PMID: 30127952    Free PMC article.
SOX2 Promotes Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
Peng Liu, Hailin Tang, +5 authors, Longzhong Liu.
Front Pharmacol, 2018 Sep 07; 9. PMID: 30186173    Free PMC article.
A Structured Tumor-Immune Microenvironment in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Revealed by Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging.
Leeat Keren, Marc Bosse, +9 authors, Michael Angelo.
Cell, 2018 Sep 08; 174(6). PMID: 30193111    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Breast cancer development and progression: Risk factors, cancer stem cells, signaling pathways, genomics, and molecular pathogenesis.
Yixiao Feng, Mia Spezia, +15 authors, Guosheng Ren.
Genes Dis, 2018 Sep 28; 5(2). PMID: 30258937    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Prediction of pathological complete response and prognosis in patients with neoadjuvant treatment for triple-negative breast cancer.
Paul Gass, Michael P Lux, +12 authors, Marius Wunderle.
BMC Cancer, 2018 Oct 31; 18(1). PMID: 30373556    Free PMC article.
LncRNA DANCR upregulates PI3K/AKT signaling through activating serine phosphorylation of RXRA.
Jianming Tang, Guangsheng Zhong, +11 authors, Aihong Bi.
Cell Death Dis, 2018 Dec 07; 9(12). PMID: 30518934    Free PMC article.
Integrating clinical, molecular, proteomic and histopathological data within the tissue context: tissunomics.
Santiago Ramón Y Cajal, Stefan Hümmer, +5 authors, Javier Hernandez-Losa.
Histopathology, 2019 Jan 23; 75(1). PMID: 30667539    Free PMC article.
Review.
GSIAR: gene-subcategory interaction-based improved deep representation learning for breast cancer subcategorical analysis using gene expression, applicable for precision medicine.
Chiranjib Sur.
Med Biol Eng Comput, 2019 Oct 09; 57(11). PMID: 31591679
RORγ is a targetable master regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis in a cancer subtype.
Demin Cai, Junjian Wang, +19 authors, Hong-Wu Chen.
Nat Commun, 2019 Oct 13; 10(1). PMID: 31604910    Free PMC article.
Recent advances in nanotheranostics for triple negative breast cancer treatment.
Vikram Thakur, Rajaletchumy Veloo Kutty.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Oct 30; 38(1). PMID: 31661003    Free PMC article.
Review.
Overexpression of MiR-146a-5p Upregulates lncRNA HOTAIR in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells and Predicts Poor Prognosis.
Hongguang Liang, Weihua Huang, +2 authors, Lixian Zeng.
Technol Cancer Res Treat, 2019 Nov 02; 18. PMID: 31672084    Free PMC article.
Novel and Alternative Targets Against Breast Cancer Stemness to Combat Chemoresistance.
Sangita Sridharan, Cory M Howard, +4 authors, Dayanidhi Raman.
Front Oncol, 2019 Nov 05; 9. PMID: 31681564    Free PMC article.
Review.
JS001, an anti-PD-1 mAb for advanced triple negative breast cancer patients after multi-line systemic therapy in a phase I trial.
Li Bian, Huiqiang Zhang, +5 authors, Zefei Jiang.
Ann Transl Med, 2019 Nov 09; 7(18). PMID: 31700871    Free PMC article.
A gene regulatory network to control EMT programs in development and disease.
Hassan Fazilaty, Luciano Rago, +5 authors, M Angela Nieto.
Nat Commun, 2019 Nov 13; 10(1). PMID: 31712603    Free PMC article.
High expression of polo-like kinase 1 is associated with TP53 inactivation, DNA repair deficiency, and worse prognosis in ER positive Her2 negative breast cancer.
Takashi Takeshita, Mariko Asaoka, +4 authors, Kazuaki Takabe.
Am J Transl Res, 2019 Nov 19; 11(10). PMID: 31737202    Free PMC article.
Chemotherapy drugs derived nanoparticles encapsulating mRNA encoding tumor suppressor proteins to treat triple-negative breast cancer.
Chengxiang Zhang, Xinfu Zhang, +9 authors, Yizhou Dong.
Nano Res, 2019 Nov 19; 12(4). PMID: 31737223    Free PMC article.
Long non-coding RNA heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2-antisense RNA 1 overexpression inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells by reducing RUNX2 expression in triple-negative breast cancer.
Min Wei, Lei Liu, Zhiwei Wang.
Oncol Lett, 2019 Dec 04; 18(6). PMID: 31788122    Free PMC article.
EGFR-specific CAR-T cells trigger cell lysis in EGFR-positive TNBC.
Yan Liu, Yehui Zhou, +9 authors, Jingzhong Zhang.
Aging (Albany NY), 2019 Dec 06; 11(23). PMID: 31804974    Free PMC article.
Long Noncoding RNA DCST1-AS1 Promotes Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Triple-negative Breast Cancer by Forming a Positive Regulatory Loop with miR-873-5p and MYC.
Li Tang, Yuli Chen, +3 authors, Feng Yan.
J Cancer, 2020 Jan 04; 11(2). PMID: 31897227    Free PMC article.
AJCC 8th edition prognostic staging provides no better discriminatory ability in prognosis than anatomical staging in triple negative breast cancer.
Jiehua He, Julia Y Tsang, +7 authors, Peng Sun.
BMC Cancer, 2020 Jan 08; 20(1). PMID: 31906874    Free PMC article.
Comparing MicroRNA Profilings of Purified HER-2-Negative and HER-2-Positive Cells Validates miR-362-5p/Sema3A as Characteristic Molecular Change in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.
Xiaoqing Zhang, Qi He, +4 authors, Jianfeng Wang.
Dis Markers, 2020 Jan 14; 2019. PMID: 31929841    Free PMC article.
Enhanced JunD/RSK3 signalling due to loss of BRD4/FOXD3/miR-548d-3p axis determines BET inhibition resistance.
Fang Tai, Kunxiang Gong, +2 authors, Jian Shi.
Nat Commun, 2020 Jan 16; 11(1). PMID: 31937753    Free PMC article.
MiR-205 Dysregulations in Breast Cancer: The Complexity and Opportunities.
Yajuan Xiao, Brock Humphries, Chengfeng Yang, Zhishan Wang.
Noncoding RNA, 2019 Nov 23; 5(4). PMID: 31752366    Free PMC article.
Review.
CD155 contributes to the mesenchymal phenotype of triple-negative breast cancer.
Qianqian Zheng, Jian Gao, +4 authors, Chenghai Zhao.
Cancer Sci, 2019 Dec 13; 111(2). PMID: 31830330    Free PMC article.
Prospect for Application of PARP Inhibitor in Patients with HER2 Negative Breast Cancer.
Nan Shao, Yawei Shi, +5 authors, Ying Lin.
Int J Biol Sci, 2019 Jun 12; 15(5). PMID: 31182917    Free PMC article.
Review.
Combined targeting EGFR and SRC as a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer.
Alexandra Canonici, Alacoque L Browne, +12 authors, John Crown.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2020 Feb 18; 12. PMID: 32064003    Free PMC article.
[Overexpression of histone deacetylase 11 suppresses basal-like breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis].
Zhang Yi, Luo Wenwen, Wang Kun, Shi Jian.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 2019 Jul 26; 39(7). PMID: 31340905    Free PMC article.
Detecting heterogeneity in and between breast cancer cell lines.
Yang Shen, B U Sebastian Schmidt, +4 authors, Wolfgang Losert.
Cancer Converg, 2020 Feb 25; 4(1). PMID: 32090168    Free PMC article.
AXL Controls Directed Migration of Mesenchymal Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
Olivier Zajac, Renaud Leclere, +6 authors, Thierry Dubois.
Cells, 2020 Jan 23; 9(1). PMID: 31963783    Free PMC article.
Evaluation of site-specific homologous recombination activity of BRCA1 by direct quantitation of gene editing efficiency.
Yuki Yoshino, Shino Endo, +3 authors, Natsuko Chiba.
Sci Rep, 2019 Feb 09; 9(1). PMID: 30733539    Free PMC article.
Cancer Testis Antigen Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis and is Traceable in the Circulating Extracellular Vesicles.
Anbarasu Kannan, Julie V Philley, +6 authors, Santanu Dasgupta.
Sci Rep, 2019 Aug 14; 9(1). PMID: 31406142    Free PMC article.
Interfering MSN-NONO complex-activated CREB signaling serves as a therapeutic strategy for triple-negative breast cancer.
Yuanyuan Qin, Weilong Chen, +8 authors, Suling Liu.
Sci Adv, 2020 Mar 05; 6(8). PMID: 32128390    Free PMC article.
Annual Congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO): Munich, Germany, 19-23 October 2018.
Martin Chopra.
Target Oncol, 2018 Nov 15; 13(6). PMID: 30426327
A Bayesian network meta-analysis of the efficacy of targeted therapies and chemotherapy for treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.
Huihui Chen, Wei Lu, +3 authors, Yiding Chen.
Cancer Med, 2018 Dec 14; 8(1). PMID: 30525293    Free PMC article.
LRP8 is overexpressed in estrogen-negative breast cancers and a potential target for these tumors.
Virginie Maire, Faisal Mahmood, +7 authors, Thierry Dubois.
Cancer Med, 2018 Dec 24; 8(1). PMID: 30575334    Free PMC article.
Combining the oncolytic peptide LTX-315 with doxorubicin demonstrates therapeutic potential in a triple-negative breast cancer model.
Ketil A Camilio, Meng-Yu Wang, +5 authors, Gunhild M Mælandsmo.
Breast Cancer Res, 2019 Jan 24; 21(1). PMID: 30670061    Free PMC article.
Precise targeting of POLR2A as a therapeutic strategy for human triple negative breast cancer.
Jiangsheng Xu, Yunhua Liu, +10 authors, Xiaoming He.
Nat Nanotechnol, 2019 Feb 26; 14(4). PMID: 30804480    Free PMC article.
Editorial Comment: 2017 Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Proceedings.
John H Healey.
Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2019 Feb 28; 477(4). PMID: 30811356    Free PMC article.
The endogenous retrovirus-derived long noncoding RNA TROJAN promotes triple-negative breast cancer progression via ZMYND8 degradation.
Xi Jin, Xiao-En Xu, +17 authors, Zhi-Ming Shao.
Sci Adv, 2019 Mar 12; 5(3). PMID: 30854423    Free PMC article.
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5: A novel therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancers.
Mathilde Vinet, Samyuktha Suresh, +14 authors, Thierry Dubois.
Cancer Med, 2019 Apr 09; 8(5). PMID: 30957988    Free PMC article.
Transcriptional positive cofactor 4 promotes breast cancer proliferation and metastasis through c-Myc mediated Warburg effect.
Peng Luo, Chi Zhang, +9 authors, Chunmeng Shi.
Cell Commun Signal, 2019 Apr 18; 17(1). PMID: 30992017    Free PMC article.
CCAT1 promotes triple-negative breast cancer progression by suppressing miR-218/ZFX signaling.
Chunyong Han, Xuebiao Li, +2 authors, Jian Yin.
Aging (Albany NY), 2019 Jul 17; 11(14). PMID: 31310241    Free PMC article.
Supervised Machine Learning Predictive Analytics For Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Death Outcomes.
Yucan Xu, Lingsha Ju, +2 authors, Jianjun Yang.
Onco Targets Ther, 2019 Dec 06; 12. PMID: 31802913    Free PMC article.
Pharmacological screening and transcriptomic functional analyses identify a synergistic interaction between dasatinib and olaparib in triple-negative breast cancer.
Verónica Corrales-Sánchez, María Del Mar Noblejas-López, +6 authors, Alberto Ocaña.
J Cell Mol Med, 2020 Feb 08; 24(5). PMID: 32032474    Free PMC article.
LncRNA FAM83H-AS1 promotes triple-negative breast cancer progression by regulating the miR-136-5p/metadherin axis.
Chunyong Han, Yiwei Fu, +2 authors, Qian Li.
Aging (Albany NY), 2020 Feb 20; 12(4). PMID: 32074085    Free PMC article.
Therapy With Carboplatin and Anti-PD-1 Antibodies Before Surgery Demonstrates Sustainable Anti-Tumor Effects for Secondary Cancers in Mice With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Meizhuo Gao, Tie Wang, +3 authors, Hongjiang Song.
Front Immunol, 2020 Mar 21; 11. PMID: 32194569    Free PMC article.
Blocking c-Met and EGFR reverses acquired resistance of PARP inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer.
Yu-Yi Chu, Clinton Yam, +16 authors, Mien-Chie Hung.
Am J Cancer Res, 2020 Mar 21; 10(2). PMID: 32195033    Free PMC article.
LncRNA PAPAS may promote triple-negative breast cancer by downregulating miR-34a.
Yan Kong, Cuizhi Geng, Qian Dong.
J Int Med Res, 2019 Jun 30; 47(8). PMID: 31248310    Free PMC article.
Nano-puerarin regulates tumor microenvironment and facilitates chemo- and immunotherapy in murine triple negative breast cancer model.
Huan Xu, Mengying Hu, +7 authors, Leaf Huang.
Biomaterials, 2020 Jan 28; 235. PMID: 31986348    Free PMC article.
MicroRNA-4417 is a tumor suppressor and prognostic biomarker for triple-negative breast cancer.
Chen Khuan Wong, Christopher Gromisch, +5 authors, Sam Thiagalingam.
Cancer biology & therapy, 2019 Mar 30; 20(8). PMID: 30922194    Free PMC article.
Proteomic Profiling of the ECM of Xenograft Breast Cancer Metastases in Different Organs Reveals Distinct Metastatic Niches.
Jess D Hebert, Samuel A Myers, +4 authors, Richard O Hynes.
Cancer Res, 2020 Feb 06; 80(7). PMID: 32019869    Free PMC article.
Dietary Compound Isoliquiritigenin, an Antioxidant from Licorice, Suppresses Triple-Negative Breast Tumor Growth via Apoptotic Death Program Activation in Cell and Xenograft Animal Models.
Po-Han Lin, Yi-Fen Chiang, +8 authors, Shih-Min Hsia.
Antioxidants (Basel), 2020 Mar 14; 9(3). PMID: 32164337    Free PMC article.
Adrenomedullin inhibits tumor metastasis and is associated with good prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients.
Li-Li Liu, Shi-Lu Chen, +5 authors, Rong-Zhen Luo.
Am J Transl Res, 2020 Apr 10; 12(3). PMID: 32269711    Free PMC article.
Breast Cancer: A Molecularly Heterogenous Disease Needing Subtype-Specific Treatments.
Ugo Testa, Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi.
Med Sci (Basel), 2020 Mar 27; 8(1). PMID: 32210163    Free PMC article.
Review.
Class I histone deacetylase inhibition is synthetic lethal with BRCA1 deficiency in breast cancer cells.
Baoyuan Zhang, Junfang Lyu, +8 authors, Joong Sup Shim.
Acta Pharm Sin B, 2020 Apr 24; 10(4). PMID: 32322466    Free PMC article.
Prolonged Time to Adjuvant Chemotherapy Initiation Was Associated with Worse Disease Outcome in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients.
Lifen Cai, Yiwei Tong, +3 authors, Xiaosong Chen.
Sci Rep, 2020 Apr 29; 10(1). PMID: 32341397    Free PMC article.
[Immunoncology and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes-new strategies for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer].
Carsten Denkert.
Pathologe, 2020 Apr 05; 41(3). PMID: 32246201
Review.
RNA-seq analysis identified hormone-related genes associated with prognosis of triple negative breast cancer.
Fei Chen, Yuancheng Li, +10 authors, Hongbing Shen.
J Biomed Res, 2020 Apr 20; 34(2). PMID: 32305967    Free PMC article.
Expression of Tumour-Associated MUC1 Is a Poor Prognostic Marker in Breast Cancer in Kumasi, Ghana.
E Atta Manu, K Bedu-Addo, +3 authors, B M Duduyemi.
J Oncol, 2020 May 08; 2020. PMID: 32377198    Free PMC article.
Hydrogen sulfide and its donors: Novel antitumor and antimetastatic therapies for triple-negative breast cancer.
Haonan Li, Fanxing Xu, +7 authors, Dahong Li.
Redox Biol, 2020 May 14; 34. PMID: 32403079    Free PMC article.
Review.
Inhibition of the polyamine synthesis enzyme ornithine decarboxylase sensitizes triple-negative breast cancer cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Renee C Geck, Jackson R Foley, +3 authors, Alex Toker.
J Biol Chem, 2020 Mar 07; 295(19). PMID: 32139506    Free PMC article.
Cancer Classification at the Crossroads.
Antonino Carbone.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Apr 25; 12(4). PMID: 32326638    Free PMC article.
Interleukin-31 Receptor α Is Required for Basal-Like Breast Cancer Progression.
Yanling He, Xinyuan Zhang, +3 authors, Jian Shi.
Front Oncol, 2020 Jun 13; 10. PMID: 32528891    Free PMC article.
Circular RNA hsa_circ_0131242 Promotes Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Progression by Sponging hsa-miR-2682.
Yueting Li, Pengxu Shi, +2 authors, Daqing Jiang.
Onco Targets Ther, 2020 Jun 18; 13. PMID: 32547106    Free PMC article.
Rhein Derivative 4F Inhibits the Malignant Phenotype of Breast Cancer by Downregulating Rac1 Protein.
Xinxiao Li, Yunfeng Liu, +7 authors, Danrong Li.
Front Pharmacol, 2020 Jun 18; 11. PMID: 32547389    Free PMC article.
Ginsenoside panaxatriol reverses TNBC paclitaxel resistance by inhibiting the IRAK1/NF-κB and ERK pathways.
Panpan Wang, Dan Song, +8 authors, Ronghua Zhang.
PeerJ, 2020 Jun 18; 8. PMID: 32547883    Free PMC article.
Prognostic characterization of OAS1/OAS2/OAS3/OASL in breast cancer.
Yujie Zhang, Chaoran Yu.
BMC Cancer, 2020 Jun 21; 20(1). PMID: 32560641    Free PMC article.
Diagnosis of triple negative breast cancer based on radiomics signatures extracted from preoperative contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography.
Qingliang Feng, Qiang Hu, +2 authors, Ziyi Yin.
BMC Cancer, 2020 Jun 24; 20(1). PMID: 32571245    Free PMC article.
Clinical application of ceramide in cancer treatment.
Kazuki Moro, Masayuki Nagahashi, +2 authors, Toshifumi Wakai.
Breast Cancer, 2019 Apr 10; 26(4). PMID: 30963461    Free PMC article.
Review.
ADAM9 Mediates Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Progression via AKT/NF-κB Pathway.
Rui Zhou, William C S Cho, +9 authors, Mei Tian.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2020 Jul 09; 7. PMID: 32637415    Free PMC article.
RNA-binding proteins in tumor progression.
Hai Qin, Haiwei Ni, +4 authors, Lufeng Zheng.
J Hematol Oncol, 2020 Jul 13; 13(1). PMID: 32653017    Free PMC article.
Review.
The circRNA circIFI30 promotes progression of triple-negative breast cancer and correlates with prognosis.
Lei Xing, Rui Yang, +6 authors, Junxia Chen.
Aging (Albany NY), 2020 Jun 05; 12(11). PMID: 32497020    Free PMC article.
Association of HDAC8 Expression with Pathological Findings in Triple Negative and Non-Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Implications for Diagnosis.
Mohammad-Nazir Menbari, Karim Rahimi, +5 authors, Mohammad Abdi.
Iran Biomed J, 2020 May 21; 24(5). PMID: 32429642    Free PMC article.
Optimal Systemic Treatment for Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Jenny Furlanetto, Sibylle Loibl.
Breast Care (Basel), 2020 Aug 11; 15(3). PMID: 32774215    Free PMC article.
Review.
A long non-coding RNA OLBC15 promotes triple-negative breast cancer progression via enhancing ZNF326 degradation.
Chao Deng, Bojuan Zhang, +4 authors, Jiaojiao Wu.
J Clin Lab Anal, 2020 Apr 25; 34(8). PMID: 32329931    Free PMC article.
Cytokine profiling in serum-derived exosomes isolated by different methods.
Hae Hyun Jung, Ji-Yeon Kim, Ji Eun Lim, Young-Hyuck Im.
Sci Rep, 2020 Aug 23; 10(1). PMID: 32826923    Free PMC article.
MicroRNA-27b-3p Promotes Tumor Progression and Metastasis by Inhibiting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Song-Jie Shen, Yu Song, +4 authors, Qiang Sun.
Front Oncol, 2020 Aug 28; 10. PMID: 32850439    Free PMC article.
Critical Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies: Triple Negative Breast Cancer Quae Exempli Causa.
Maria-Ancuta Jurj, Mihail Buse, +4 authors, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Aug 23; 21(16). PMID: 32823908    Free PMC article.
Review.
LncRNA DLG1-AS1 Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation in Triple Negative Breast Cancer by Downregulating miR-203.
Shuyan Li.
J Breast Cancer, 2020 Sep 11; 23(4). PMID: 32908786    Free PMC article.
Dissecting the heterogeneity of the alternative polyadenylation profiles in triple-negative breast cancers.
Lei Wang, Guan-Tian Lang, +7 authors, Zhi-Ming Shao.
Theranostics, 2020 Sep 16; 10(23). PMID: 32929364    Free PMC article.
Circular HER2 RNA positive triple negative breast cancer is sensitive to Pertuzumab.
Jie Li, Maoguang Ma, +8 authors, Nu Zhang.
Mol Cancer, 2020 Sep 13; 19(1). PMID: 32917240    Free PMC article.
Knockdown of DNA/RNA-binding protein KIN17 promotes apoptosis of triple-negative breast cancer cells.
Xiang Gao, Zhenping Liu, +4 authors, Tao Zeng.
Oncol Lett, 2019 Jan 19; 17(1). PMID: 30655766    Free PMC article.
Triple-negative breast cancer: the reality in Chile and in Latin America.
Christian Caglevic, Jaime Anabalón, +6 authors, Mauricio Mahave.
Ecancermedicalscience, 2019 Feb 23; 13. PMID: 30792810    Free PMC article.
Review.
Pokemon Inhibits Transforming Growth Factor β-Smad4-Related Cell Proliferation Arrest in Breast Cancer through Specificity Protein 1.
Ling Chen, Jing Zhong, +8 authors, Xu-Yu Zu.
J Breast Cancer, 2019 Apr 04; 22(1). PMID: 30941230    Free PMC article.
Tumor location of the central and nipple portion is associated with impaired survival for women with breast cancer.
Fei Ji, Wei-Kai Xiao, +10 authors, Kun Wang.
Cancer Manag Res, 2019 May 02; 11. PMID: 31040717    Free PMC article.
Pivotal Role of AKT2 during Dynamic Phenotypic Change of Breast Cancer Stem Cells.
Petra Gener, Diana Rafael, +8 authors, Simó Schwartz.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Jul 31; 11(8). PMID: 31357505    Free PMC article.
The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway: A Viable Target in Breast Cancer?
Priyanka Bhateja, Mathew Cherian, Sarmila Majumder, Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Aug 10; 11(8). PMID: 31394751    Free PMC article.
Review.
Cowpea Mosaic Virus Immunotherapy Combined with Cyclophosphamide Reduces Breast Cancer Tumor Burden and Inhibits Lung Metastasis.
Hui Cai, Chao Wang, Sourabh Shukla, Nicole F Steinmetz.
Adv Sci (Weinh), 2019 Aug 28; 6(16). PMID: 31453050    Free PMC article.
Long-Lasting Response after Pembrolizumab in a Patient with Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Paloma Peinado, Carmen Ramírez, +5 authors, Fernando Moreno.
Breast Care (Basel), 2020 Sep 29; 15(4). PMID: 32982655    Free PMC article.
Positive progress: current and evolving role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.
Christine E Simmons, Christine Brezden-Masley, +2 authors, Anil Abraham Joy.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2020 Oct 06; 12. PMID: 33014143    Free PMC article.
Review.
SYTL4 downregulates microtubule stability and confers paclitaxel resistance in triple-negative breast cancer.
Xi-Yu Liu, Wang Jiang, +6 authors, Yi-Zhou Jiang.
Theranostics, 2020 Oct 13; 10(24). PMID: 33042263    Free PMC article.
Anti-metastatic action of an N 4-aryl substituted thiosemicarbazone on advanced triple negative breast cancer.
A M Sólimo, M C Soraires Santacruz, +4 authors, M A Callero.
Heliyon, 2020 Oct 20; 6(10). PMID: 33072918    Free PMC article.
Inter-tumor genomic heterogeneity of breast cancers: comprehensive genomic profile of primary early breast cancers and relapses.
Caterina Fumagalli, Alberto Ranghiero, +8 authors, Massimo Barberis.
Breast Cancer Res, 2020 Oct 17; 22(1). PMID: 33059724    Free PMC article.
A combination of LightOn gene expression system and tumor microenvironment-responsive nanoparticle delivery system for targeted breast cancer therapy.
Xinyu Hou, Chenting Shou, +8 authors, Feng Gao.
Acta Pharm Sin B, 2020 Oct 23; 10(9). PMID: 33088693    Free PMC article.
Neoadjuvant Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Current Evidence and Literature-Based Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.
Daniele Marinelli, Marco Mazzotta, +14 authors, Patrizia Vici.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Sep 10; 12(9). PMID: 32899209    Free PMC article.
Potent antitumor activity of cepharanthine against triple-negative breast cancer spheroids compared with tetrandrine.
Anna Kiyomi, Risako Miyakawa, +5 authors, Munetoshi Sugiura.
Oncol Lett, 2020 Oct 27; 20(6). PMID: 33101499    Free PMC article.
HCK can serve as novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for Breast Cancer patients.
Xudong Zhu, Yixiao Zhang, +10 authors, Caigang Liu.
Int J Med Sci, 2020 Nov 10; 17(17). PMID: 33162805    Free PMC article.