Journal Article
. 2017 Jan; 12(1):e0167774.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167774.

Extending Whole Slide Imaging: Color Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) for Biological Applications

Yoshihiro Kawano 1 Kana Namiki 2 Atsushi Miyawaki 2 Takuji Ishikawa 1 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 28085892
  •     16 References

Abstract

Whole slide imaging (WSI) is a useful tool for multi-modal imaging, and in our work, we have often combined WSI with darkfield microscopy. However, traditional darkfield microscopy cannot use a single condenser to support high- and low-numerical-aperture objectives, which limits the modality of WSI. To overcome this limitation, we previously developed a darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) microscope using white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Although the developed DIRI is useful for biological applications, substantial problems remain to be resolved. In this study, we propose a novel illumination technique called color DIRI. The use of three-color LEDs dramatically improves the capability of the system, such that color DIRI (1) enables optimization of the illumination color; (2) can be combined with an oil objective lens; (3) can produce fluorescence excitation illumination; (4) can adjust the wavelength of light to avoid cell damage or reactions; and (5) can be used as a photostimulator. These results clearly illustrate that the proposed color DIRI can significantly extend WSI modalities for biological applications.

Projections from the rhomboid nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis: implications for cerebral hemisphere regulation of ingestive behaviors.
Hong-Wei Dong, Larry W Swanson.
J Comp Neurol, 2003 Jul 02; 463(4). PMID: 12836178
Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) paper: validation of digital pathology systems in the regulated nonclinical environment.
Richard E Long, Adam Smith, +6 authors, Amanda Lowe.
Toxicol Pathol, 2012 Jun 23; 41(1). PMID: 22723045
Digital imaging in pathology: the case for standardization.
Yukako Yagi, John R Gilbertson.
J Telemed Telecare, 2005 May 20; 11(3). PMID: 15901437
Applications and challenges of digital pathology and whole slide imaging.
C Higgins.
Biotech Histochem, 2015 May 16; 90(5). PMID: 25978139
Review.
Negative gravitactic behavior of Euglena gracilis can not be described by the mechanism of buoyancy-oriented upward swimming.
M Lebert, D P Hader.
Adv Space Res, 2001 Sep 07; 24(6). PMID: 11542631
Expanding imaging capabilities for microfluidics: applicability of darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) to observations in microfluidics.
Yoshihiro Kawano, Chino Otsuka, +4 authors, Takuji Ishikawa.
PLoS One, 2015 Mar 10; 10(3). PMID: 25748425    Free PMC article.
Basic organization of projections from the oval and fusiform nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis in adult rat brain.
H W Dong, G D Petrovich, A G Watts, L W Swanson.
J Comp Neurol, 2001 Jul 12; 436(4). PMID: 11447588
Highly Cited.
Overview of telepathology, virtual microscopy, and whole slide imaging: prospects for the future.
Ronald S Weinstein, Anna R Graham, +7 authors, John R Gilbertson.
Hum Pathol, 2009 Jun 26; 40(8). PMID: 19552937
Topography of projections from amygdala to bed nuclei of the stria terminalis.
H W Dong, G D Petrovich, L W Swanson.
Brain Res Brain Res Rev, 2001 Dec 26; 38(1-2). PMID: 11750933
Highly Cited. Review.
A blue-light-activated adenylyl cyclase mediates photoavoidance in Euglena gracilis.
Mineo Iseki, Shigeru Matsunaga, +7 authors, Masakatsu Watanabe.
Nature, 2002 Mar 05; 415(6875). PMID: 11875575
Review of the current state of whole slide imaging in pathology.
Liron Pantanowitz, Paul N Valenstein, +5 authors, Terence J Colgan.
J Pathol Inform, 2011 Sep 03; 2. PMID: 21886892    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Zonal distribution of sulfotransferase for phenol in olfactory sustentacular cells.
A Miyawaki, H Homma, +2 authors, K Mikoshiba.
EMBO J, 1996 May 01; 15(9). PMID: 8641270    Free PMC article.
Automated biomonitoring using real time movement analysis of Euglena gracilis.
H Tahedl, D P H├Ąder.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2001 Feb 13; 48(2). PMID: 11161690
Color standardization and optimization in whole slide imaging.
Yukako Yagi.
Diagn Pathol, 2011 Apr 22; 6 Suppl 1. PMID: 21489185    Free PMC article.
Quantitative differential phase contrast imaging in an LED array microscope.
Lei Tian, Laura Waller.
Opt Express, 2015 May 15; 23(9). PMID: 25969234
Darkfield adapter for whole slide imaging: adapting a darkfield internal reflection illumination system to extend WSI applications.
Yoshihiro Kawano, Christopher Higgins, +5 authors, Tobias Schilling.
PLoS One, 2013 Mar 23; 8(3). PMID: 23520500    Free PMC article.