Journal Article
. 2017 Oct; 8:31.
doi: 10.4103/jpi.jpi_13_17.

A Design Study Investigating Augmented Reality and Photograph Annotation in a Digitalized Grossing Workstation

Joyce A Chow 1 Martin E Törnros 2 Marie Waltersson 3 Helen Richard 4 Madeleine Kusoffsky 1 Claes F Lundström 3 Arianit Kurti 1 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 28966831
  •     8 References

Abstract

Context: Within digital pathology, digitalization of the grossing procedure has been relatively underexplored in comparison to digitalization of pathology slides.

Aims: Our investigation focuses on the interaction design of an augmented reality gross pathology workstation and refining the interface so that information and visualizations are easily recorded and displayed in a thoughtful view.

Settings And Design: The work in this project occurred in two phases: the first phase focused on implementation of an augmented reality grossing workstation prototype while the second phase focused on the implementation of an incremental prototype in parallel with a deeper design study.

Subjects And Methods: Our research institute focused on an experimental and "designerly" approach to create a digital gross pathology prototype as opposed to focusing on developing a system for immediate clinical deployment.

Statistical Analysis Used: Evaluation has not been limited to user tests and interviews, but rather key insights were uncovered through design methods such as "rapid ethnography" and "conversation with materials".

Results: We developed an augmented reality enhanced digital grossing station prototype to assist pathology technicians in capturing data during examination. The prototype uses a magnetically tracked scalpel to annotate planned cuts and dimensions onto photographs taken of the work surface. This article focuses on the use of qualitative design methods to evaluate and refine the prototype. Our aims were to build on the strengths of the prototype's technology, improve the ergonomics of the digital/physical workstation by considering numerous alternative design directions, and to consider the effects of digitalization on personnel and the pathology diagnostics information flow from a wider perspective. A proposed interface design allows the pathology technician to place images in relation to its orientation, annotate directly on the image, and create linked information.

Conclusions: The augmented reality magnetically tracked scalpel reduces tool switching though limitations in today's augmented reality technology fall short of creating an ideal immersive workflow by requiring the use of a monitor. While this technology catches up, we recommend focusing efforts on enabling the easy creation of layered, complex reports, linking, and viewing information across systems. Reflecting upon our results, we argue for digitalization to focus not only on how to record increasing amounts of data but also how these data can be accessed in a more thoughtful way that draws upon the expertise and creativity of pathology professionals using the systems.

Keywords: Augmented reality; design methods; gross pathology; human–computer interaction; interface design; visualization.

Improving the creation and reporting of structured findings during digital pathology review.
Ida Cervin, Jesper Molin, Claes Lundström.
J Pathol Inform, 2016 Aug 27; 7. PMID: 27563491    Free PMC article.
Summary of 2(nd) Nordic symposium on digital pathology.
Claes Lundström, Sten Thorstenson, +2 authors, Darren Treanor.
J Pathol Inform, 2015 Mar 17; 6. PMID: 25774316    Free PMC article.
Integration of digital gross pathology images for enterprise-wide access.
Milon Amin, Gaurav Sharma, +6 authors, Liron Pantanowitz.
J Pathol Inform, 2012 Apr 25; 3. PMID: 22530178    Free PMC article.
Digital pathology: current status and future perspectives.
Shaimaa Al-Janabi, André Huisman, Paul J Van Diest.
Histopathology, 2011 Apr 12; 61(1). PMID: 21477260
Review.
A comparative study of input devices for digital slide navigation.
Jesper Molin, Claes Lundström, Morten Fjeld.
J Pathol Inform, 2015 Mar 17; 6. PMID: 25774318    Free PMC article.
Going fully digital: Perspective of a Dutch academic pathology lab.
Nikolas Stathonikos, Mitko Veta, André Huisman, Paul J van Diest.
J Pathol Inform, 2013 Jul 17; 4. PMID: 23858390    Free PMC article.
Use of a wiki as an interactive teaching tool in pathology residency education: Experience with a genomics, research, and informatics in pathology course.
Seung Park, Anil Parwani, Trevor Macpherson, Liron Pantanowitz.
J Pathol Inform, 2012 Oct 02; 3. PMID: 23024891    Free PMC article.
Systematic review on the effectiveness of augmented reality applications in medical training.
E Z Barsom, M Graafland, M P Schijven.
Surg Endosc, 2016 Feb 26; 30(10). PMID: 26905573    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.