. 2017 Dec; 31(2):214-234.
doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2017.156.

Implications of the tumor immune microenvironment for staging and therapeutics

Janis M Taube 1 Jérôme Galon 2 Lynette M Sholl 3 Scott J Rodig 3 Tricia R Cottrell 4 Nicolas A Giraldo 1 Alexander S Baras 4 Sanjay S Patel 3 Robert A Anders 4 David L Rimm 5 Ashley Cimino-Mathews 4 
  • PMID: 29192647
  •     159 References
  •     103 citations


Characterizing the tumor immune microenvironment enables the identification of new prognostic and predictive biomarkers, the development of novel therapeutic targets and strategies, and the possibility to guide first-line treatment algorithms. Although the driving elements within the tumor microenvironment of individual primary organ sites differ, many of the salient features remain the same. The presence of a robust antitumor milieu characterized by an abundance of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, Th1 helper cells, and associated cytokines often indicates a degree of tumor containment by the immune system and can even lead to tumor elimination. Some of these features have been combined into an 'Immunoscore', which has been shown to complement the prognostic ability of the current TNM staging for early stage colorectal carcinomas. Features of the immune microenvironment are also potential therapeutic targets, and immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis are especially promising. FDA-approved indications for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 are rapidly expanding across numerous tumor types and, in certain cases, are accompanied by companion or complimentary PD-L1 immunohistochemical diagnostics. Pathologists have direct visual access to tumor tissue and in-depth knowledge of the histological variations between and within tumor types and thus are poised to drive forward our understanding of the tumor microenvironment. This review summarizes the key components of the tumor microenvironment, presents an overview of and the challenges with PD-L1 antibodies and assays, and addresses newer candidate biomarkers, such as CD8+ cell density and mutational load. Characteristics of the local immune contexture and current pathology-related practices for specific tumor types are also addressed. In the future, characterization of the host antitumor immune response using multiplexed and multimodality biomarkers may help predict which patients will respond to immune-based therapies.

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Pembrolizumab versus investigator-choice chemotherapy for ipilimumab-refractory melanoma (KEYNOTE-002): a randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial.
Antoni Ribas, Igor Puzanov, +33 authors, Adil Daud.
Lancet Oncol, 2015 Jun 28; 16(8). PMID: 26115796
Highly Cited.
FOXP3 and survival in urinary bladder cancer.
Malin E Winerdal, Per Marits, +6 authors, Ola Winqvist.
BJU Int, 2011 Jan 20; 108(10). PMID: 21244603
PD-L1 expression in the Merkel cell carcinoma microenvironment: association with inflammation, Merkel cell polyomavirus and overall survival.
Evan J Lipson, Jeremy G Vincent, +10 authors, Janis M Taube.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2014 Jan 15; 1(1). PMID: 24416729    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression and Response to the Anti-Programmed Death 1 Antibody Pembrolizumab in Melanoma.
Adil I Daud, Jedd D Wolchok, +21 authors, Omid Hamid.
J Clin Oncol, 2016 Nov 20; 34(34). PMID: 27863197    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
From the immune contexture to the Immunoscore: the role of prognostic and predictive immune markers in cancer.
Helen Angell, Jérôme Galon.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2013 Apr 13; 25(2). PMID: 23579076
Highly Cited. Review.
MPDL3280A (anti-PD-L1) treatment leads to clinical activity in metastatic bladder cancer.
Thomas Powles, Joseph Paul Eder, +12 authors, Nicholas J Vogelzang.
Nature, 2014 Nov 28; 515(7528). PMID: 25428503
Highly Cited.
A Quantitative Comparison of Antibodies to Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1.
Patricia Gaule, James W Smithy, +7 authors, David L Rimm.
JAMA Oncol, 2016 Aug 20; 3(2). PMID: 27541827    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Nivolumab for Recurrent Squamous-Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
Robert L Ferris, George Blumenschein, +20 authors, Maura L Gillison.
N Engl J Med, 2016 Oct 11; 375(19). PMID: 27718784    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes correlates with extent of brain edema and overall survival time in patients with brain metastases.
Anna S Berghoff, Elisabeth Fuchs, +14 authors, Matthias Preusser.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Mar 05; 5(1). PMID: 26942067    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Targetable genetic features of primary testicular and primary central nervous system lymphomas.
Bjoern Chapuy, Margaretha G M Roemer, +28 authors, Margaret A Shipp.
Blood, 2015 Dec 25; 127(7). PMID: 26702065    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
First-Line Nivolumab in Stage IV or Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
David P Carbone, Martin Reck, +27 authors, CheckMate 026 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2017 Jun 22; 376(25). PMID: 28636851    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
In situ immune response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer predicts survival.
Sylvain Ladoire, Grégoire Mignot, +11 authors, François Ghiringhelli.
J Pathol, 2011 Mar 26; 224(3). PMID: 21437909
Favorable prognosis of renal cell carcinoma with increased expression of chemokines associated with a Th1-type immune response.
Tsunenori Kondo, Hayakazu Nakazawa, +5 authors, Kazunari Tanabe.
Cancer Sci, 2006 Jul 26; 97(8). PMID: 16863511
In situ cytotoxic and memory T cells predict outcome in patients with early-stage colorectal cancer.
Franck Pagès, Amos Kirilovsky, +12 authors, Jérôme Galon.
J Clin Oncol, 2009 Oct 28; 27(35). PMID: 19858404
Highly Cited.
Costimulatory molecule B7-H1 on the immune escape of bladder cancer and its clinical significance.
Yonghua Wang, Qianyuan Zhuang, +2 authors, Ruzhu Lan.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci, 2009 Feb 19; 29(1). PMID: 19224168
Using multiplexed assays of oncogenic drivers in lung cancers to select targeted drugs.
Mark G Kris, Bruce E Johnson, +25 authors, Paul A Bunn.
JAMA, 2014 May 23; 311(19). PMID: 24846037    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Pembrolizumab for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer.
Edward B Garon, Naiyer A Rizvi, +25 authors, KEYNOTE-001 Investigators.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Apr 22; 372(21). PMID: 25891174
Highly Cited.
Programmed death ligand-1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
Vamsidhar Velcheti, Kurt A Schalper, +7 authors, David L Rimm.
Lab Invest, 2013 Nov 13; 94(1). PMID: 24217091    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Pseudoprogression and Immune-Related Response in Solid Tumors.
Victoria L Chiou, Mauricio Burotto.
J Clin Oncol, 2015 Aug 12; 33(31). PMID: 26261262    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Overexpression of B7-H1 (PD-L1) significantly associates with tumor grade and postoperative prognosis in human urothelial cancers.
Juro Nakanishi, Yoshihiro Wada, +3 authors, Shoichi Ueda.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2006 Dec 23; 56(8). PMID: 17186290
Highly Cited.
Genomic and Transcriptomic Features of Response to Anti-PD-1 Therapy in Metastatic Melanoma.
Willy Hugo, Jesse M Zaretsky, +15 authors, Roger S Lo.
Cell, 2016 Mar 22; 165(1). PMID: 26997480    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Releasing the Brakes on Cancer Immunotherapy.
Dan R Littman.
Cell, 2015 Sep 12; 162(6). PMID: 26359975
Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or Monotherapy in Untreated Melanoma.
James Larkin, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, +28 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Jun 02; 373(1). PMID: 26027431    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Colocalization of inflammatory response with B7-h1 expression in human melanocytic lesions supports an adaptive resistance mechanism of immune escape.
Janis M Taube, Robert A Anders, +8 authors, Lieping Chen.
Sci Transl Med, 2012 Mar 31; 4(127). PMID: 22461641    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Programmed Death-1 Blockade With Pembrolizumab in Patients With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma After Brentuximab Vedotin Failure.
Philippe Armand, Margaret A Shipp, +8 authors, Craig H Moskowitz.
J Clin Oncol, 2016 Jun 30; 34(31). PMID: 27354476    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-1 Blockade in Tumors with Mismatch-Repair Deficiency.
Dung T Le, Jennifer N Uram, +32 authors, Luis A Diaz.
N Engl J Med, 2015 Jun 02; 372(26). PMID: 26028255    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Co-occurring genomic alterations define major subsets of KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma with distinct biology, immune profiles, and therapeutic vulnerabilities.
Ferdinandos Skoulidis, Lauren A Byers, +34 authors, John V Heymach.
Cancer Discov, 2015 Jun 13; 5(8). PMID: 26069186    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Immune infiltrates in the breast cancer microenvironment: detection, characterization and clinical implication.
Samantha Burugu, Karama Asleh-Aburaya, Torsten O Nielsen.
Breast Cancer, 2016 May 04; 24(1). PMID: 27138387
Systemic Therapy for Stage IV Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update.
Gregory A Masters, Sarah Temin, +12 authors, American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice.
J Clin Oncol, 2015 Sep 02; 33(30). PMID: 26324367    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Mutations Associated with Acquired Resistance to PD-1 Blockade in Melanoma.
Jesse M Zaretsky, Angel Garcia-Diaz, +26 authors, Antoni Ribas.
N Engl J Med, 2016 Jul 20; 375(9). PMID: 27433843    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Characteristics and clinical impacts of the immune environments in colorectal and renal cell carcinoma lung metastases: influence of tumor origin.
Romain Remark, Marco Alifano, +17 authors, Diane Damotte.
Clin Cancer Res, 2013 Jun 21; 19(15). PMID: 23785047
Highly Cited.
Evidence for a role of the PD-1:PD-L1 pathway in immune resistance of HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Sofia Lyford-Pike, Shiwen Peng, +12 authors, Sara I Pai.
Cancer Res, 2013 Jan 05; 73(6). PMID: 23288508    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Human renal cell carcinoma induces a dendritic cell subset that uses T-cell crosstalk for tumor-permissive milieu alterations.
Ainhoa-M Figel, Dorothee Brech, +13 authors, Elfriede Noessner.
Am J Pathol, 2011 Jun 28; 179(1). PMID: 21703422    Free PMC article.
The relatively favorable prognosis of medullary carcinoma of the breast.
Cancer, 1949 Jul 01; 2(4). PMID: 18144972
Highly Cited.
Randomized study of high-dose and low-dose interleukin-2 in patients with metastatic renal cancer.
James C Yang, Richard M Sherry, +10 authors, Steven A Rosenberg.
J Clin Oncol, 2003 Aug 14; 21(16). PMID: 12915604    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Safety and activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody in patients with advanced cancer.
Julie R Brahmer, Scott S Tykodi, +23 authors, Jon M Wigginton.
N Engl J Med, 2012 Jun 05; 366(26). PMID: 22658128    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Primary Resistance to PD-1 Blockade Mediated by JAK1/2 Mutations.
Daniel Sanghoon Shin, Jesse M Zaretsky, +24 authors, Antoni Ribas.
Cancer Discov, 2016 Dec 03; 7(2). PMID: 27903500    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-L2 Expression in Human Tumors: Relevance to Anti-PD-1 Therapy in Cancer.
Jennifer H Yearley, Christopher Gibson, +10 authors, Terrill McClanahan.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jun 18; 23(12). PMID: 28619999
Highly Cited.
Multiparametric profiling of non-small-cell lung cancers reveals distinct immunophenotypes.
Patrick H Lizotte, Elena V Ivanova, +23 authors, Kwok-Kin Wong.
JCI Insight, 2016 Oct 05; 1(14). PMID: 27699239    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Nivolumab in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hematologic Malignancy: Preliminary Results of a Phase Ib Study.
Alexander M Lesokhin, Stephen M Ansell, +20 authors, John Timmerman.
J Clin Oncol, 2016 Jun 09; 34(23). PMID: 27269947    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Tumor-Infiltrating and Peripheral Blood T-cell Immunophenotypes Predict Early Relapse in Localized Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Nicolas A Giraldo, Etienne Becht, +13 authors, Catherine Sautès-Fridman.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Feb 19; 23(15). PMID: 28213366
Highly Cited.
Quantitative Spatial Profiling of PD-1/PD-L1 Interaction and HLA-DR/IDO-1 Predicts Improved Outcomes of Anti-PD-1 Therapies in Metastatic Melanoma.
Douglas B Johnson, Jennifer Bordeaux, +22 authors, Naveen Dakappagari.
Clin Cancer Res, 2018 Jul 20; 24(21). PMID: 30021908    Free PMC article.
Combined nivolumab and ipilimumab versus ipilimumab alone in patients with advanced melanoma: 2-year overall survival outcomes in a multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial.
F Stephen Hodi, Jason Chesney, +18 authors, Michael A Postow.
Lancet Oncol, 2016 Sep 14; 17(11). PMID: 27622997    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-L1 Immunohistochemistry Assays for Lung Cancer: Results from Phase 1 of the Blueprint PD-L1 IHC Assay Comparison Project.
Fred R Hirsch, Abigail McElhinny, +19 authors, Keith M Kerr.
J Thorac Oncol, 2016 Dec 04; 12(2). PMID: 27913228
Highly Cited.
Harmonized PD-L1 immunohistochemistry for pulmonary squamous-cell and adenocarcinomas.
Andreas H Scheel, Manfred Dietel, +12 authors, Reinhard Buettner.
Mod Pathol, 2016 Jul 09; 29(10). PMID: 27389313
Highly Cited.
Avelumab in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma: a multicentre, single-group, open-label, phase 2 trial.
Howard L Kaufman, Jeffery Russell, +15 authors, Paul Nghiem.
Lancet Oncol, 2016 Sep 07; 17(10). PMID: 27592805    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Clinicopathologic Analysis of PD-L1 and PD-L2 Expression in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Association with Oncogenic Proteins Status.
Su-Jin Shin, Yoon Kyung Jeon, +4 authors, Heounjeong Go.
Ann Surg Oncol, 2015 Oct 16; 23(2). PMID: 26464193
Potential Predictive Value of TP53 and KRAS Mutation Status for Response to PD-1 Blockade Immunotherapy in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Zhong-Yi Dong, Wen-Zhao Zhong, +16 authors, Yi-Long Wu.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jan 01; 23(12). PMID: 28039262
Highly Cited.
Pooled Analysis of Long-Term Survival Data From Phase II and Phase III Trials of Ipilimumab in Unresectable or Metastatic Melanoma.
Dirk Schadendorf, F Stephen Hodi, +7 authors, Jedd D Wolchok.
J Clin Oncol, 2015 Feb 11; 33(17). PMID: 25667295    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Cutaneous Eruptions in Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Blockade: Clinicopathologic Analysis of the Nonlichenoid Histologic Pattern.
Genevieve J Kaunitz, Manisha Loss, +14 authors, Janis M Taube.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2017 Aug 18; 41(10). PMID: 28817405    Free PMC article.
Integrated molecular analysis of tumor biopsies on sequential CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade reveals markers of response and resistance.
Whijae Roh, Pei-Ling Chen, +37 authors, P Andrew Futreal.
Sci Transl Med, 2017 Mar 03; 9(379). PMID: 28251903    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Pembrolizumab for Platinum- and Cetuximab-Refractory Head and Neck Cancer: Results From a Single-Arm, Phase II Study.
Joshua Bauml, Tanguy Y Seiwert, +15 authors, Robert Haddad.
J Clin Oncol, 2017 Mar 23; 35(14). PMID: 28328302    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Fulminant Myocarditis with Combination Immune Checkpoint Blockade.
Douglas B Johnson, Justin M Balko, +29 authors, Javid J Moslehi.
N Engl J Med, 2016 Nov 03; 375(18). PMID: 27806233    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-L1 Expression in Melanoma: A Quantitative Immunohistochemical Antibody Comparison.
Joel C Sunshine, Peter L Nguyen, +10 authors, Janis M Taube.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Apr 22; 23(16). PMID: 28428193    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
PD-L1 and PD-L2 Genetic Alterations Define Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma and Predict Outcome.
Margaretha G M Roemer, Ranjana H Advani, +14 authors, Margaret A Shipp.
J Clin Oncol, 2016 Apr 14; 34(23). PMID: 27069084    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The immune contexture in human tumours: impact on clinical outcome.
Wolf Herman Fridman, Franck Pagès, Catherine Sautès-Fridman, Jérôme Galon.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2012 Mar 16; 12(4). PMID: 22419253
Highly Cited. Review.
PD-1 blockade with nivolumab in relapsed/refractory primary central nervous system and testicular lymphoma.
Lakshmi Nayak, Fabio M Iwamoto, +6 authors, Margaret A Shipp.
Blood, 2017 Mar 31; 129(23). PMID: 28356247    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Nivolumab for classical Hodgkin's lymphoma after failure of both autologous stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin: a multicentre, multicohort, single-arm phase 2 trial.
Anas Younes, Armando Santoro, +18 authors, Andreas Engert.
Lancet Oncol, 2016 Jul 28; 17(9). PMID: 27451390    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Agreement between Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1 Diagnostic Assays across Multiple Protein Expression Cutoffs in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Marianne J Ratcliffe, Alan Sharpe, +6 authors, Jill Walker.
Clin Cancer Res, 2017 Jan 12; 23(14). PMID: 28073845
Highly Cited.
Genetic basis for clinical response to CTLA-4 blockade in melanoma.
Alexandra Snyder, Vladimir Makarov, +18 authors, Timothy A Chan.
N Engl J Med, 2014 Nov 20; 371(23). PMID: 25409260    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Evolving notions on immune response in colorectal cancer and their implications for biomarker development.
Fabio Grizzi, Gianluca Basso, +6 authors, Luigi Laghi.
Inflamm Res, 2018 Jan 13; 67(5). PMID: 29322204
PD-L1 and Emerging Biomarkers in Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy.
Tricia R Cottrell, Janis M Taube.
Cancer J, 2018 Jan 24; 24(1). PMID: 29360727    Free PMC article.
Current Strategies to Enhance Anti-Tumour Immunity.
Katherine W Cook, Lindy G Durrant, Victoria A Brentville.
Biomedicines, 2018 Mar 24; 6(2). PMID: 29570634    Free PMC article.
TIME (Tumor Immunity in the MicroEnvironment) classification based on tumor CD274 (PD-L1) expression status and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal carcinomas.
Tsuyoshi Hamada, Thing Rinda Soong, +28 authors, Shuji Ogino.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Jun 15; 7(7). PMID: 29900052    Free PMC article.
The Role of Immune Escape and Immune Cell Infiltration in Breast Cancer.
André Steven, Barbara Seliger.
Breast Care (Basel), 2018 Jun 29; 13(1). PMID: 29950962    Free PMC article.
High expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in ocular adnexal sebaceous carcinoma.
Thomas J Kandl, Oded Sagiv, +7 authors, Michael T Tetzlaff.
Oncoimmunology, 2018 Sep 20; 7(9). PMID: 30228943    Free PMC article.
Quantitative Analyses of the Tumor Microenvironment Composition and Orientation in the Era of Precision Medicine.
Florent Petitprez, Cheng-Ming Sun, +3 authors, Wolf H Fridman.
Front Oncol, 2018 Oct 16; 8. PMID: 30319963    Free PMC article.
Recent advances in immunotherapies: from infection and autoimmunity, to cancer, and back again.
Samantha L Bucktrout, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Fred Ramsdell.
Genome Med, 2018 Nov 01; 10(1). PMID: 30376867    Free PMC article.
Utility of CD8 score by automated quantitative image analysis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Douglas J Hartman, Fahad Ahmad, +2 authors, Liron Pantanowitz.
Oral Oncol, 2018 Nov 10; 86. PMID: 30409313    Free PMC article.
Patient-derived Models Reveal Impact of the Tumor Microenvironment on Therapeutic Response.
Ayesha A Shafi, Matthew J Schiewer, +13 authors, Karen E Knudsen.
Eur Urol Oncol, 2018 Nov 24; 1(4). PMID: 30467556    Free PMC article.
Mechanisms of immunogenicity in colorectal cancer.
T O Sillo, A D Beggs, D G Morton, G Middleton.
Br J Surg, 2019 Jun 20; 106(10). PMID: 31216061    Free PMC article.
Correlation between subsets of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and risk stratification in patients with cervical cancer.
Rui Chen, Yi Gong, +3 authors, Qi Zhou.
PeerJ, 2019 Oct 17; 7. PMID: 31616592    Free PMC article.
Clinical impact of T cells, B cells and the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in muscle invasive bladder cancer: a comparative study of transurethral resection and cystectomy specimens.
Sara Wahlin, Björn Nodin, +2 authors, Karin Jirström.
Oncoimmunology, 2019 Oct 28; 8(11). PMID: 31646091    Free PMC article.
LncRNAs as Chromatin Regulators in Cancer: From Molecular Function to Clinical Potential.
Rodiola Begolli, Nikos Sideris, Antonis Giakountis.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Oct 30; 11(10). PMID: 31658672    Free PMC article.
Novel protein and immune response markers of human serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma of the ovary.
Dmitriy W Gutkin, Michael R Shurin, +8 authors, Anna Lokshin.
Cancer Biomark, 2019 Oct 29; 26(4). PMID: 31658047    Free PMC article.
Correlation between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer: A real-world study of a large Chinese cohort.
Yan Jin, Xuxia Shen, +4 authors, Yuan Li.
J Thorac Dis, 2020 Jan 07; 11(11). PMID: 31903248    Free PMC article.
Prognostic role of programmed death-ligand 1 expression in patients with biliary tract cancer: a meta-analysis.
Changjiang Lei, Xiulan Peng, +7 authors, Zhixiong Long.
Aging (Albany NY), 2019 Dec 28; 11(24). PMID: 31881008    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Assessment of JAK2, PD-L1, and PD-L2 Copy Number Alterations at 9p24.1 in Breast Cancer: Potential Implications for Clinical Management.
Sounak Gupta, Chad M Vanderbilt, +12 authors, Dara S Ross.
J Mol Diagn, 2018 Dec 24; 21(2). PMID: 30576871    Free PMC article.
Smoking and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Sub-Classified by Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells.
Tsuyoshi Hamada, Jonathan A Nowak, +23 authors, Shuji Ogino.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2018 Oct 13; 111(1). PMID: 30312431    Free PMC article.
Automated tumour budding quantification by machine learning augments TNM staging in muscle-invasive bladder cancer prognosis.
Nicolas Brieu, Christos G Gavriel, +3 authors, Peter D Caie.
Sci Rep, 2019 Mar 28; 9(1). PMID: 30914794    Free PMC article.
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells-derived IL-6 promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth and resistance to cisplatin via upregulating CD73 expression.
Jincheng Zeng, Shasha Chen, +10 authors, Haitao Zhang.
J Cancer, 2020 Mar 05; 11(8). PMID: 32127934    Free PMC article.
The clinical role of the TME in solid cancer.
Nicolas A Giraldo, Rafael Sanchez-Salas, +8 authors, Catherine Sautès-Fridman.
Br J Cancer, 2018 Nov 11; 120(1). PMID: 30413828    Free PMC article.
Integration of microbiology, molecular pathology, and epidemiology: a new paradigm to explore the pathogenesis of microbiome-driven neoplasms.
Tsuyoshi Hamada, Jonathan A Nowak, +2 authors, Shuji Ogino.
J Pathol, 2019 Jan 12; 247(5). PMID: 30632609    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
The Impact of Focused Ultrasound in Two Tumor Models: Temporal Alterations in the Natural History on Tumor Microenvironment and Immune Cell Response.
Gadi Cohen, Parwathy Chandran, +4 authors, Joseph A Frank.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Feb 09; 12(2). PMID: 32033171    Free PMC article.
Comparison of Biomarker Modalities for Predicting Response to PD-1/PD-L1 Checkpoint Blockade: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Steve Lu, Julie E Stein, +11 authors, Janis M Taube.
JAMA Oncol, 2019 Jul 19; 5(8). PMID: 31318407    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A longitudinal study of prediagnostic metabolic biomarkers and the risk of molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer.
Robin Myte, Sophia Harlid, +6 authors, Bethany Van Guelpen.
Sci Rep, 2020 Mar 27; 10(1). PMID: 32210264    Free PMC article.
The Role of the Lymphocyte Functional Crosstalk and Regulation in the Context of Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatment-Review.
Barbara Seliger.
Front Immunol, 2019 Sep 27; 10. PMID: 31555274    Free PMC article.
JAK2/PD-L1/PD-L2 (9p24.1) amplifications in renal cell carcinomas with sarcomatoid transformation: implications for clinical management.
Sounak Gupta, John C Cheville, +19 authors, Victor E Reuter.
Mod Pathol, 2019 Apr 19; 32(9). PMID: 30996253    Free PMC article.
An integrated analysis of lymphocytic reaction, tumour molecular characteristics and patient survival in colorectal cancer.
Koichiro Haruki, Keisuke Kosumi, +23 authors, Shuji Ogino.
Br J Cancer, 2020 Mar 12; 122(9). PMID: 32157241    Free PMC article.
JAK2, PD-L1, and PD-L2 (9p24.1) amplification in metastatic mucosal and cutaneous melanomas with durable response to immunotherapy.
Sounak Gupta, Chad M Vanderbilt, +8 authors, Dara S Ross.
Hum Pathol, 2018 Sep 22; 88. PMID: 30236595    Free PMC article.
Optimized fractionated radiotherapy with anti-PD-L1 and anti-TIGIT: a promising new combination.
Mathieu Grapin, Corentin Richard, +10 authors, Céline Mirjolet.
J Immunother Cancer, 2019 Jun 27; 7(1). PMID: 31238970    Free PMC article.
Prognostic Significance of the Tumor-Stromal Ratio in Invasive Breast Cancer and a Proposal of a New Ts-TNM Staging System.
Qian Xu, Jing-Ping Yuan, +3 authors, Bin Xiong.
J Oncol, 2020 May 08; 2020. PMID: 32377197    Free PMC article.
The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer statement on best practices for multiplex immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining and validation.
Janis M Taube, Guray Akturk, +25 authors, Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) Pathology Task Force..
J Immunother Cancer, 2020 May 18; 8(1). PMID: 32414858    Free PMC article.
Prognostic perspectives of PD-L1 combined with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, Epstein-Barr virus, and microsatellite instability in gastric carcinomas.
Euno Choi, Mee Soo Chang, +12 authors, Seung Chul Heo.
Diagn Pathol, 2020 Jun 06; 15(1). PMID: 32498695    Free PMC article.
Mitotic activity index and CD25+ lymphocytes predict risk of stage progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Melinda Lillesand, Vebjørn Kvikstad, +5 authors, Emiel A M Janssen.
PLoS One, 2020 Jun 03; 15(6). PMID: 32484812    Free PMC article.
Communication in the Cancer Microenvironment as a Target for Therapeutic Interventions.
Agnieszka Dominiak, Beata Chełstowska, Wioletta Olejarz, Grażyna Nowicka.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 May 20; 12(5). PMID: 32422889    Free PMC article.
Improving the Diagnostic Accuracy of the PD-L1 Test with Image Analysis and Multiplex Hybridization.
Matthew P Humphries, Victoria Bingham, +4 authors, Manuel Salto-Tellez.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 May 06; 12(5). PMID: 32365629    Free PMC article.
Exploring TCGA database for identification of potential prognostic genes in stomach adenocarcinoma.
Lin Zhou, Wei Huang, +2 authors, Xu Teng.
Cancer Cell Int, 2020 Jun 26; 20. PMID: 32581654    Free PMC article.
Beyond Cell Motility: The Expanding Roles of Chemokines and Their Receptors in Malignancy.
Dina Morein, Nofar Erlichman, Adit Ben-Baruch.
Front Immunol, 2020 Jun 26; 11. PMID: 32582148    Free PMC article.
Independent Prognostic Value of Intratumoral Heterogeneity and Immune Response Features by Automated Digital Immunohistochemistry Analysis in Early Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Carcinoma.
Dovile Zilenaite, Allan Rasmusson, +5 authors, Arvydas Laurinavicius.
Front Oncol, 2020 Jul 03; 10. PMID: 32612954    Free PMC article.
Prevalence of PD-L1 expression is associated with EMAST, density of peritumoral T-cells and recurrence-free survival in operable non-metastatic colorectal cancer.
Martin M Watson, Dordi Lea, +3 authors, Kjetil Søreide.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Apr 22; 69(8). PMID: 32314040    Free PMC article.
Integrating the Tumor Microenvironment into Cancer Therapy.
Sabina Sanegre, Federico Lucantoni, +3 authors, Tomás Álvaro Naranjo.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 01; 12(6). PMID: 32599891    Free PMC article.
Development and validation of an immune-related prognostic signature in lung adenocarcinoma.
Sijin Sun, Wei Guo, +11 authors, Jie He.
Cancer Med, 2020 Jun 28; 9(16). PMID: 32592319    Free PMC article.
The Proteomic Effects of Pulsed Focused Ultrasound on Tumor Microenvironments of Murine Melanoma and Breast Cancer Models.
Omer Aydin, Parwathy Chandran, +3 authors, Joseph A Frank.
Ultrasound Med Biol, 2019 Sep 19; 45(12). PMID: 31530419    Free PMC article.
The updated landscape of tumor microenvironment and drug repurposing.
Ming-Zhu Jin, Wei-Lin Jin.
Signal Transduct Target Ther, 2020 Aug 28; 5(1). PMID: 32843638    Free PMC article.
Immune infiltrating cells in duodenal cancers.
G Donisi, G Capretti, +8 authors, F Marchesi.
J Transl Med, 2020 Sep 05; 18(1). PMID: 32883314    Free PMC article.
Carbonic Anhydrase 4 serves as a Clinicopathological Biomarker for Outcomes and Immune Infiltration in Renal Cell Carcinoma, Lower Grade Glioma, Lung Adenocarcinoma and Uveal Melanoma.
Yue Xu, Wen-Hao Xu, +6 authors, Xiao-Feng Zhang.
J Cancer, 2020 Sep 15; 11(20). PMID: 32922550    Free PMC article.
Data-Driven Discovery of Immune Contexture Biomarkers.
Lars Ole Schwen, Emilia Andersson, +6 authors, Oliver Grimm.
Front Oncol, 2019 Jan 09; 8. PMID: 30619761    Free PMC article.
Quantitative Characterization of CD8+ T Cell Clustering and Spatial Heterogeneity in Solid Tumors.
Chang Gong, Robert A Anders, +7 authors, Aleksander S Popel.
Front Oncol, 2019 Jan 23; 8. PMID: 30666298    Free PMC article.
Applications of SNAP-tag technology in skin cancer therapy.
Eden Rebecca Padayachee, Henry Ademola Adeola, +4 authors, Stefan Barth.
Health Sci Rep, 2019 Feb 28; 2(2). PMID: 30809593    Free PMC article.
Expression of Potential Dermal Progenitor Cell Markers in the Tumour and Stroma of Skin Adnexal Malignant and Benign Tumours.
Sven R Quist, Maximilian Eckardt, André Kriesche, Harald P Gollnick.
Stem Cells Int, 2019 May 09; 2019. PMID: 31065284    Free PMC article.
Tumor derived EDIL3 modulates the expansion and osteoclastogenesis of myeloid derived suppressor cells in murine breast cancer model.
Zhang Kun, Gao Xin, +5 authors, Xiao Jianru.
J Bone Oncol, 2019 May 22; 16. PMID: 31110935    Free PMC article.
The Combination of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Immunotherapy in Primary Liver Tumors.
Malek Kreidieh, Youssef H Zeidan, Ali Shamseddine.
J Oncol, 2019 Jun 12; 2019. PMID: 31182960    Free PMC article.
The role of CD28 in the prognosis of young lung adenocarcinoma patients.
Dantong Sun, Lu Tian, +5 authors, Helei Hou.
BMC Cancer, 2020 Sep 25; 20(1). PMID: 32967633    Free PMC article.
Digital Image Analysis of CD8+ and CD3+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Yenlin Huang, Chieh Lin, +5 authors, Kai-Ping Chang.
Cancer Manag Res, 2020 Sep 29; 12. PMID: 32982423    Free PMC article.
Studying immune to non-immune cell cross-talk using single-cell technologies.
R Elmentaite, S A Teichmann, E Madissoon.
Curr Opin Syst Biol, 2020 Sep 29; 18. PMID: 32984660    Free PMC article.
Identification of a Prognostic Model Based on Immune-Related Genes of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Rui Li, Xiao Liu, +4 authors, Yi-Qing Qu.
Front Oncol, 2020 Oct 06; 10. PMID: 33014809    Free PMC article.
Efficacy and safety-in analysis of short-course radiation followed by mFOLFOX-6 plus avelumab for locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma.
Ali Shamseddine, Youssef H Zeidan, +21 authors, Fady Geara.
Radiat Oncol, 2020 Oct 09; 15(1). PMID: 33028346    Free PMC article.
Identification and validation of the prognostic value of immune-related genes in non-small cell lung cancer.
Rui Li, Xiao Liu, +4 authors, Yi-Qing Qu.
Am J Transl Res, 2020 Oct 13; 12(9). PMID: 33042464    Free PMC article.
Profiling of inhibitory immune checkpoints in glioblastoma: Potential pathogenetic players.
Salvo Danilo Lombardo, Alessia Bramanti, +7 authors, Paolo Fagone.
Oncol Lett, 2020 Oct 31; 20(6). PMID: 33123243    Free PMC article.
Characterization of somatic mutation-associated microenvironment signatures in acute myeloid leukemia patients based on TCGA analysis.
Jun Wang, Feng-Ting Dao, Lu Yang, Ya-Zhen Qin.
Sci Rep, 2020 Nov 06; 10(1). PMID: 33149230    Free PMC article.
A Seven Immune-Related lncRNAs Model to Increase the Predicted Value of Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Jian-Ping Li, Rui Li, +4 authors, Yi-Qing Qu.
Front Oncol, 2020 Nov 10; 10. PMID: 33163400    Free PMC article.
Rate differences between first and second primary cancers may outline immune dysfunction as a key risk factor.
Guoqiao Zheng, Kristina Sundquist, +3 authors, Kari Hemminki.
Cancer Med, 2020 Sep 23; 9(21). PMID: 32960498    Free PMC article.
New insights into the interaction of the immune system with non-small cell lung carcinomas.
Paul Hofman.
Transl Lung Cancer Res, 2020 Nov 20; 9(5). PMID: 33209644    Free PMC article.
Exosomes and breast cancer drug resistance.
Xingli Dong, Xupeng Bai, +4 authors, Yong Li.
Cell Death Dis, 2020 Nov 19; 11(11). PMID: 33203834    Free PMC article.
Immunoprofiling in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms Unveil Immunosuppressive Microenvironment.
Antonia Busse, Liliana H Mochmann, +12 authors, Patricia Grabowski.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Nov 25; 12(11). PMID: 33228231    Free PMC article.
Combining PARP inhibition, radiation, and immunotherapy: A possible strategy to improve the treatment of cancer?
Mathieu Césaire, Juliette Thariat, +3 authors, François Chevalier.
Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Nov 30; 19(12). PMID: 30487462    Free PMC article.
Integrating histopathology, immune biomarkers, and molecular subgroups in solid cancer: the next step in precision oncology.
Nicolas A Giraldo, J David Peske, Catherine Sautès-Fridman, Wolf H Fridman.
Virchows Arch, 2019 Jan 12; 474(4). PMID: 30631935
Immune contexture defined by single cell technology for prognosis prediction and immunotherapy guidance in cancer.
Tong Wu, Xuan Wu, Hong-Yang Wang, Lei Chen.
Cancer Commun (Lond), 2019 Apr 20; 39(1). PMID: 30999966    Free PMC article.
Hierarchical Clustering of Cutaneous Melanoma Based on Immunogenomic Profiling.
Jie Yu, Minyue Xie, +3 authors, Jing Ruan.
Front Oncol, 2020 Dec 18; 10. PMID: 33330057    Free PMC article.
Digital image analysis in pathologist-selected regions of interest predicts survival more accurately than whole-slide analysis: a direct comparison study in 153 gastric carcinomas.
You Jeong Heo, Taebum Lee, +6 authors, Kyoung-Mee Kim.
J Pathol Clin Res, 2020 Sep 05; 7(1). PMID: 32885920    Free PMC article.
Immune signature-based risk stratification and prediction of immune checkpoint inhibitor's efficacy for lung adenocarcinoma.
Ming Yi, Anping Li, +3 authors, Kongming Wu.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2021 Jan 03; 70(6). PMID: 33386920    Free PMC article.
Nondestructive, multiplex three-dimensional mapping of immune infiltrates in core needle biopsy.
Steve Seung-Young Lee, Vytautas P Bindokas, Mark W Lingen, Stephen J Kron.
Lab Invest, 2018 Nov 08; 99(9). PMID: 30401959    Free PMC article.
Microrheology for biomaterial design.
Katherine Joyner, Sydney Yang, Gregg A Duncan.
APL Bioeng, 2021 Jan 09; 4(4). PMID: 33415310    Free PMC article.
Novel uses of immunohistochemistry in breast pathology: interpretation and pitfalls.
Ashley Cimino-Mathews.
Mod Pathol, 2020 Oct 29; 34(Suppl 1). PMID: 33110239
Impact of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes on Overall Survival in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.
Anish A Butala, Varsha Jain, +6 authors, Jacob E Shabason.
Oncologist, 2020 Sep 05; 26(1). PMID: 32886418    Free PMC article.
PD-L1 amplification is associated with an immune cell rich phenotype in squamous cell cancer of the lung.
Torsten Goldmann, Sebastian Marwitz, +12 authors, Carina Strell.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2021 Feb 13; 70(9). PMID: 33576873    Free PMC article.
The immune contexture and Immunoscore in cancer prognosis and therapeutic efficacy.
Daniela Bruni, Helen K Angell, Jérôme Galon.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2020 Aug 06; 20(11). PMID: 32753728
Inflammation-Driven Breast Tumor Cell Plasticity: Stemness/EMT, Therapy Resistance and Dormancy.
Tamir Baram, Linor Rubinstein-Achiasaf, Hagar Ben-Yaakov, Adit Ben-Baruch.
Front Oncol, 2021 Feb 16; 10. PMID: 33585241    Free PMC article.
Immunoscore is a strong predictor of survival in the prognosis of stage II/III gastric cancer patients following 5-FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
Sumi Yun, Jiwon Koh, +6 authors, Hye Seung Lee.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Aug 14; 70(2). PMID: 32785776
The clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of programmed death-ligand 1 in prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 3133 patients.
Haixiang Shen, Jin Liu, +4 authors, Liping Xie.
Aging (Albany NY), 2020 Dec 16; 13(2). PMID: 33318295    Free PMC article.
Current and Future Perspectives of PD-1/PDL-1 Blockade in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Rangarirai Makuku, Neda Khalili, +2 authors, Nima Rezaei.
J Immunol Res, 2021 Mar 09; 2021. PMID: 33681388    Free PMC article.
An immune-related gene signature for predicting survival and immunotherapy efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Yifei Dai, Weijie Qiang, +3 authors, Dong Wang.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Oct 23; 70(4). PMID: 33089373
Prognostic Signature of Immune Genes and Immune-Related LncRNAs in Neuroblastoma: A Study Based on GEO and TARGET Datasets.
Xiaodan Zhong, Ying Tao, +4 authors, Yuanning Liu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Mar 27; 11. PMID: 33767996    Free PMC article.
Tumor Microenvironment in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The Arbitrator in Patients' Outcome.
Cristina Galindo-Pumariño, Manuel Collado, Mercedes Herrera, Cristina Peña.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(5). PMID: 33800796    Free PMC article.
Practical prediction model of the clinical response to programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitors in advanced gastric cancer.
Myung-Giun Noh, Youngmin Yoon, +6 authors, Hansoo Park.
Exp Mol Med, 2021 Feb 07; 53(2). PMID: 33547412    Free PMC article.
Clinical Significance of Tumor Microenvironment in Acral Melanoma: A Large Single-Institution Study of Caucasians.
Aneta Maria Borkowska, Anna Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, +3 authors, Piotr Łukasz Rutkowski.
J Clin Med, 2021 May 01; 10(7). PMID: 33916279    Free PMC article.
Characterization of the tumor immune microenvironment in human papillomavirus-positive and -negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Farah Succaria, Pia Kvistborg, +10 authors, Janis M Taube.
Cancer Immunol Immunother, 2020 Oct 31; 70(5). PMID: 33125511    Free PMC article.
T cells, B cells, and PD-L1 expression in esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: relationship with histopathological response and survival.
Maria Christina Svensson, Albin Lindén, +5 authors, Karin Jirström.
Oncoimmunology, 2021 Jun 10; 10(1). PMID: 34104541    Free PMC article.
Selecting the optimal immunotherapy regimen in driver-negative metastatic NSCLC.
Michael J Grant, Roy S Herbst, Sarah B Goldberg.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol, 2021 Jun 26; 18(10). PMID: 34168333
An Immune-Related Prognostic Classifier Is Associated with Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Microenvironment.
Xiao-Jie Liang, Rui-Ying Fu, +4 authors, Liang Wang.
J Immunol Res, 2021 Jul 03; 2021. PMID: 34212052    Free PMC article.
Identification of Prognostic Related Genes of Tumor Microenvironment Derived From Esophageal Cancer Patients.
Wei Yuan, Jiaqin Yan, +4 authors, Mingzhi Zhang.
Pathol Oncol Res, 2021 Jul 15; 27. PMID: 34257539    Free PMC article.
The Next-Generation of Combination Cancer Immunotherapy: Epigenetic Immunomodulators Transmogrify Immune Training to Enhance Immunotherapy.
Reza Bayat Mokhtari, Manpreet Sambi, +7 authors, Myron R Szewczuk.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jul 25; 13(14). PMID: 34298809    Free PMC article.
Multi-institutional TSA-amplified Multiplexed Immunofluorescence Reproducibility Evaluation (MITRE) Study.
Janis M Taube, Kristin Roman, +13 authors, Cliff Hoyt.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Jul 17; 9(7). PMID: 34266881    Free PMC article.
Construction and Validation of an Immune-Based Prognostic Model for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Based on Public Databases.
Miaobin Mao, Hongjian Ling, +3 authors, Rong Zheng.
Front Genet, 2021 Aug 03; 12. PMID: 34335699    Free PMC article.
Prognostic Significance of Gene Signature of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in Patients With Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Hong Feng, Fujun Yang, +6 authors, Hong Shangguan.
Front Oncol, 2021 Aug 13; 11. PMID: 34381716    Free PMC article.
Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) clinical practice guideline on immunotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer.
Leisha A Emens, Sylvia Adams, +14 authors, Jennifer K Litton.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Aug 15; 9(8). PMID: 34389617    Free PMC article.
E-Cadherin Expression and Blunted Interferon Response in Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm.
Luisa Lorenzi, Silvia Lonardi, +10 authors, Fabio Facchetti.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2021 Jun 04; 45(10). PMID: 34081040    Free PMC article.
Lipidomic Typing of Colorectal Cancer Tissue Containing Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes by MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging.
Vanna Denti, Allia Mahajneh, +9 authors, Andrew Smith.
Metabolites, 2021 Sep 27; 11(9). PMID: 34564418    Free PMC article.
A Machine Learning Model to Predict the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Immune Subtype.
Zihao Chen, Maoli Wang, +4 authors, Wenjie Shi.
Front Immunol, 2021 Oct 05; 12. PMID: 34603338    Free PMC article.
Effects of Molecular Iodine/Chemotherapy in the Immune Component of Breast Cancer Tumoral Microenvironment.
Olga Cuenca-Micó, Evangelina Delgado-González, +4 authors, Carmen Aceves.
Biomolecules, 2021 Oct 24; 11(10). PMID: 34680134    Free PMC article.
CKS2 Overexpression Correlates with Prognosis and Immune Cell Infiltration in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Comprehensive Study based on Bioinformatics and Experiments.
Zhiping Wang, Mengyan Zhang, +3 authors, Jiancheng Li.
J Cancer, 2021 Nov 04; 12(23). PMID: 34729099    Free PMC article.
The Integration of the Pre-Treatment Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in the Eighth Edition of the AJCC Staging System for Nasopharynx Cancer.
Zhong-Guo Liang, Fan Zhang, +8 authors, Xiao-Dong Zhu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Dec 04; 11. PMID: 34858812    Free PMC article.