Journal Article
. 2017 Dec; 318(22):2199-2210.
doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.14585.

Diagnostic Assessment of Deep Learning Algorithms for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Women With Breast Cancer

Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi 1 Mitko Veta 2 Paul Johannes van Diest 3 Bram van Ginneken 1 Nico Karssemeijer 1 Geert Litjens 4 Jeroen A W M van der Laak 4 the CAMELYON16 Consortium  Meyke Hermsen 4 Quirine F Manson 3 Maschenka Balkenhol 4 Oscar Geessink 4 Nikolaos Stathonikos 3 Marcory Crf van Dijk 5 Peter Bult 4 Francisco Beca 6 Andrew H Beck 6 Dayong Wang 6 Aditya Khosla 7 Rishab Gargeya 8 Humayun Irshad 6 Aoxiao Zhong 9 Qi Dou 9 Quanzheng Li 9 Hao Chen 10 Huang-Jing Lin 10 Pheng-Ann Heng 10 Christian Haß 11 Elia Bruni 11 Quincy Wong 12 Ugur Halici 13 Mustafa Ümit Öner 13 Rengul Cetin-Atalay 14 Matt Berseth 15 Vitali Khvatkov 16 Alexei Vylegzhanin 16 Oren Kraus 17 Muhammad Shaban 18 Nasir Rajpoot 18 Ruqayya Awan 19 Korsuk Sirinukunwattana 18 Talha Qaiser 18 Yee-Wah Tsang 20 David Tellez 4 Jonas Annuscheit 21 Peter Hufnagl 21 Mira Valkonen 22 Kimmo Kartasalo 21 Leena Latonen 23 Pekka Ruusuvuori 21 Kaisa Liimatainen 21 Shadi Albarqouni 24 Bharti Mungal 24 Ami George 24 Stefanie Demirci 24 Nassir Navab 24 Seiryo Watanabe 25 Shigeto Seno 25 Yoichi Takenaka 25 Hideo Matsuda 25 Hady Ahmady Phoulady 26 Vassili Kovalev 27 Alexander Kalinovsky 27 Vitali Liauchuk 27 Gloria Bueno 28 M Milagro Fernandez-Carrobles 28 Ismael Serrano 28 Oscar Deniz 28 Daniel Racoceanu 29 Rui Venâncio 30 
  • PMID: 29234806
  •     16 References
  •     409 citations


Importance: Application of deep learning algorithms to whole-slide pathology images can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency.

Objective: Assess the performance of automated deep learning algorithms at detecting metastases in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections of lymph nodes of women with breast cancer and compare it with pathologists' diagnoses in a diagnostic setting.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Researcher challenge competition (CAMELYON16) to develop automated solutions for detecting lymph node metastases (November 2015-November 2016). A training data set of whole-slide images from 2 centers in the Netherlands with (n = 110) and without (n = 160) nodal metastases verified by immunohistochemical staining were provided to challenge participants to build algorithms. Algorithm performance was evaluated in an independent test set of 129 whole-slide images (49 with and 80 without metastases). The same test set of corresponding glass slides was also evaluated by a panel of 11 pathologists with time constraint (WTC) from the Netherlands to ascertain likelihood of nodal metastases for each slide in a flexible 2-hour session, simulating routine pathology workflow, and by 1 pathologist without time constraint (WOTC).

Exposures: Deep learning algorithms submitted as part of a challenge competition or pathologist interpretation.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The presence of specific metastatic foci and the absence vs presence of lymph node metastasis in a slide or image using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The 11 pathologists participating in the simulation exercise rated their diagnostic confidence as definitely normal, probably normal, equivocal, probably tumor, or definitely tumor.

Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the algorithms ranged from 0.556 to 0.994. The top-performing algorithm achieved a lesion-level, true-positive fraction comparable with that of the pathologist WOTC (72.4% [95% CI, 64.3%-80.4%]) at a mean of 0.0125 false-positives per normal whole-slide image. For the whole-slide image classification task, the best algorithm (AUC, 0.994 [95% CI, 0.983-0.999]) performed significantly better than the pathologists WTC in a diagnostic simulation (mean AUC, 0.810 [range, 0.738-0.884]; P < .001). The top 5 algorithms had a mean AUC that was comparable with the pathologist interpreting the slides in the absence of time constraints (mean AUC, 0.960 [range, 0.923-0.994] for the top 5 algorithms vs 0.966 [95% CI, 0.927-0.998] for the pathologist WOTC).

Conclusions And Relevance: In the setting of a challenge competition, some deep learning algorithms achieved better diagnostic performance than a panel of 11 pathologists participating in a simulation exercise designed to mimic routine pathology workflow; algorithm performance was comparable with an expert pathologist interpreting whole-slide images without time constraints. Whether this approach has clinical utility will require evaluation in a clinical setting.

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Anoop Mayampurath, L Nelson Sanchez-Pinto, +2 authors, Matthew Churpek.
PLoS One, 2019 Aug 01; 14(7). PMID: 31365580    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Global Health -A Framework and Strategy for Adoption and Sustainability.
Trevor D Hadley, Rowland W Pettit, +2 authors, Hamisu M Salihu.
Int J MCH AIDS, 2020 Mar 04; 9(1). PMID: 32123635    Free PMC article.
A Fast and Refined Cancer Regions Segmentation Framework in Whole-slide Breast Pathological Images.
Zichao Guo, Hong Liu, +6 authors, Yueliang Qian.
Sci Rep, 2019 Jan 31; 9(1). PMID: 30696894    Free PMC article.
Convolutional neural networks can accurately distinguish four histologic growth patterns of lung adenocarcinoma in digital slides.
Arkadiusz Gertych, Zaneta Swiderska-Chadaj, +7 authors, Beatrice S Knudsen.
Sci Rep, 2019 Feb 08; 9(1). PMID: 30728398    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A Fully Automated System Using A Convolutional Neural Network to Predict Renal Allograft Rejection: Extra-validation with Giga-pixel Immunostained Slides.
Young-Gon Kim, Gyuheon Choi, +5 authors, Namkug Kim.
Sci Rep, 2019 Mar 28; 9(1). PMID: 30914690    Free PMC article.
Predicting Ion Mobility Collision Cross-Sections Using a Deep Neural Network: DeepCCS.
Pier-Luc Plante, Élina Francovic-Fontaine, +5 authors, Jacques Corbeil.
Anal Chem, 2019 Apr 02; 91(8). PMID: 30932474    Free PMC article.
Design of self-assembly dipeptide hydrogels and machine learning via their chemical features.
Fei Li, Jinsong Han, +6 authors, Linxian Li.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2019 May 22; 116(23). PMID: 31110004    Free PMC article.
A Novel Digital Score for Abundance of Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes Predicts Disease Free Survival in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Muhammad Shaban, Syed Ali Khurram, +6 authors, Nasir M Rajpoot.
Sci Rep, 2019 Sep 19; 9(1). PMID: 31527658    Free PMC article.
Can Machine Learning Algorithms Predict Which Patients Will Achieve Minimally Clinically Important Differences From Total Joint Arthroplasty?
Mark Alan Fontana, Stephen Lyman, +2 authors, Catherine H MacLean.
Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2019 May 17; 477(6). PMID: 31094833    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Machine Learning in Prediction of Second Primary Cancer and Recurrence in Colorectal Cancer.
Wen-Chien Ting, Yen-Chiao Angel Lu, +3 authors, Chia-Ling Lin.
Int J Med Sci, 2020 Mar 07; 17(3). PMID: 32132862    Free PMC article.
Impact of a deep learning assistant on the histopathologic classification of liver cancer.
Amirhossein Kiani, Bora Uyumazturk, +18 authors, Jeanne Shen.
NPJ Digit Med, 2020 Mar 07; 3. PMID: 32140566    Free PMC article.
Machine learning reveals chronic graft-versus-host disease phenotypes and stratifies survival after stem cell transplant for hematologic malignancies.
Jocelyn S Gandelman, Michael T Byrne, +10 authors, Madan H Jagasia.
Haematologica, 2018 Sep 22; 104(1). PMID: 30237265    Free PMC article.
Impact of Deep Learning Assistance on the Histopathologic Review of Lymph Nodes for Metastatic Breast Cancer.
David F Steiner, Robert MacDonald, +6 authors, Martin C Stumpe.
Am J Surg Pathol, 2018 Oct 13; 42(12). PMID: 30312179    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Artificial intelligence and deep learning in ophthalmology.
Daniel Shu Wei Ting, Louis R Pasquale, +7 authors, Tien Yin Wong.
Br J Ophthalmol, 2018 Oct 27; 103(2). PMID: 30361278    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Beyond the H&E: Advanced Technologies for in situ Tissue Biomarker Imaging.
Lauren E Himmel, Troy A Hackett, +7 authors, Kelli L Boyd.
ILAR J, 2018 Nov 22; 59(1). PMID: 30462242    Free PMC article.
DeepSeeNet: A Deep Learning Model for Automated Classification of Patient-based Age-related Macular Degeneration Severity from Color Fundus Photographs.
Yifan Peng, Shazia Dharssi, +5 authors, Zhiyong Lu.
Ophthalmology, 2018 Nov 25; 126(4). PMID: 30471319    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning in Image Cytometry: A Review.
Anindya Gupta, Philip J Harrison, +9 authors, Carolina Wählby.
Cytometry A, 2018 Dec 20; 95(4). PMID: 30565841    Free PMC article.
Cochlear Implantation in Postlingually Deaf Adults is Time-sensitive Towards Positive Outcome: Prediction using Advanced Machine Learning Techniques.
Hosung Kim, Woo Seok Kang, +16 authors, Jong Woo Chung.
Sci Rep, 2018 Dec 24; 8(1). PMID: 30573747    Free PMC article.
Overview of Deep Learning in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
Jun Ki Min, Min Seob Kwak, Jae Myung Cha.
Gut Liver, 2019 Jan 12; 13(4). PMID: 30630221    Free PMC article.
Predicting survival from colorectal cancer histology slides using deep learning: A retrospective multicenter study.
Jakob Nikolas Kather, Johannes Krisam, +15 authors, Niels Halama.
PLoS Med, 2019 Jan 25; 16(1). PMID: 30677016    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The use of digital pathology and image analysis in clinical trials.
Robert Pell, Karin Oien, +6 authors, UK National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cellular-Molecular Pathology (CM-Path) quality assurance working group.
J Pathol Clin Res, 2019 Feb 16; 5(2). PMID: 30767396    Free PMC article.
Detection of chromosome structural variation by targeted next-generation sequencing and a deep learning application.
Hosub Park, Sung-Min Chun, +10 authors, Chang Ohk Sung.
Sci Rep, 2019 Mar 08; 9(1). PMID: 30842562    Free PMC article.
Development of an intelligent decision support system for ischemic stroke risk assessment in a population-based electronic health record database.
Chen-Ying Hung, Ching-Heng Lin, +2 authors, Chi-Chun Lee.
PLoS One, 2019 Mar 14; 14(3). PMID: 30865675    Free PMC article.
Detection of breast cancer lymph node metastases in frozen sections with a point-of-care low-cost microscope scanner.
Oscar Holmström, Nina Linder, +6 authors, Johan Lundin.
PLoS One, 2019 Mar 20; 14(3). PMID: 30889174    Free PMC article.
Development and Validation of a Deep Learning-Based Automated Detection Algorithm for Major Thoracic Diseases on Chest Radiographs.
Eui Jin Hwang, Sunggyun Park, +10 authors, DLAD Development and Evaluation Group.
JAMA Netw Open, 2019 Mar 23; 2(3). PMID: 30901052    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Physician Confidence in Artificial Intelligence: An Online Mobile Survey.
Songhee Oh, Jae Heon Kim, +3 authors, Soon Hyo Kwon.
J Med Internet Res, 2019 Mar 26; 21(3). PMID: 30907742    Free PMC article.
HistoQC: An Open-Source Quality Control Tool for Digital Pathology Slides.
Andrew Janowczyk, Ren Zuo, +2 authors, Anant Madabhushi.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2019 Apr 17; 3. PMID: 30990737    Free PMC article.
Interpretable classification of Alzheimer's disease pathologies with a convolutional neural network pipeline.
Ziqi Tang, Kangway V Chuang, +4 authors, Brittany N Dugger.
Nat Commun, 2019 May 17; 10(1). PMID: 31092819    Free PMC article.
Performance of a Deep Learning Model vs Human Reviewers in Grading Endoscopic Disease Severity of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis.
Ryan W Stidham, Wenshuo Liu, +5 authors, Akbar K Waljee.
JAMA Netw Open, 2019 May 18; 2(5). PMID: 31099869    Free PMC article.
Assessment of Machine Learning Detection of Environmental Enteropathy and Celiac Disease in Children.
Sana Syed, Mohammad Al-Boni, +8 authors, Donald E Brown.
JAMA Netw Open, 2019 Jun 15; 2(6). PMID: 31199451    Free PMC article.
Fast fit-free analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging via deep learning.
Jason T Smith, Ruoyang Yao, +6 authors, Xavier Intes.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2019 Nov 14; 116(48). PMID: 31719196    Free PMC article.
Attitudes Of Chinese Cancer Patients Toward The Clinical Use Of Artificial Intelligence.
Keyi Yang, Zhi Zeng, Hu Peng, Yu Jiang.
Patient Prefer Adherence, 2019 Dec 06; 13. PMID: 31802856    Free PMC article.
Usefulness of Deep Learning Analysis for the Diagnosis of Malignancy in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas.
Takamichi Kuwahara, Kazuo Hara, +11 authors, Yasumasa Niwa.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol, 2019 May 23; 10(5). PMID: 31117111    Free PMC article.
Histopathological growth patterns of colorectal liver metastasis exhibit little heterogeneity and can be determined with a high diagnostic accuracy.
D J Höppener, P M H Nierop, +5 authors, C Verhoef.
Clin Exp Metastasis, 2019 May 28; 36(4). PMID: 31134394    Free PMC article.
Pathology Image Analysis Using Segmentation Deep Learning Algorithms.
Shidan Wang, Donghan M Yang, +2 authors, Guanghua Xiao.
Am J Pathol, 2019 Jun 15; 189(9). PMID: 31199919    Free PMC article.
Retrospective imaging studies of gastric cancer: Study protocol clinical trial (SPIRIT Compliant).
Zixing Huang, Dan Liu, +5 authors, Bing Wu.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2020 Feb 23; 99(8). PMID: 32080093    Free PMC article.
AppendiXNet: Deep Learning for Diagnosis of Appendicitis from A Small Dataset of CT Exams Using Video Pretraining.
Pranav Rajpurkar, Allison Park, +7 authors, Bhavik N Patel.
Sci Rep, 2020 Mar 05; 10(1). PMID: 32127625    Free PMC article.
A pilot trial of Convolution Neural Network for automatic retention-monitoring of capsule endoscopes in the stomach and duodenal bulb.
Tao Gan, Shuaicheng Liu, +2 authors, Li Yang.
Sci Rep, 2020 Mar 07; 10(1). PMID: 32139758    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence-Driven Structurization of Diagnostic Information in Free-Text Pathology Reports.
Pericles S Giannaris, Zainab Al-Taie, +11 authors, Dmitriy Shin.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Mar 14; 11. PMID: 32166042    Free PMC article.
Development and Validation of a Deep Learning System to Detect Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Using Fundus Photographs.
Hanruo Liu, Liu Li, +27 authors, Ningli Wang.
JAMA Ophthalmol, 2019 Sep 13; 137(12). PMID: 31513266    Free PMC article.
Limited Number of Cases May Yield Generalizable Models, a Proof of Concept in Deep Learning for Colon Histology.
Lorne Holland, Dongguang Wei, +6 authors, Hooman H Rashidi.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Mar 17; 11. PMID: 32175170    Free PMC article.
Machine learning for the prediction of severe pneumonia during posttransplant hospitalization in recipients of a deceased-donor kidney transplant.
You Luo, Zuofu Tang, +8 authors, Ning Na.
Ann Transl Med, 2020 Mar 17; 8(4). PMID: 32175375    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy: the Real-World Emerging Application.
Valentina Bellemo, Gilbert Lim, +8 authors, Daniel Shu Wei Ting.
Curr Diab Rep, 2019 Aug 02; 19(9). PMID: 31367962
Systematic Review.
Successful Identification of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Nasopharyngeal Biopsies Using Deep Learning.
Wen-Yu Chuang, Shang-Hung Chang, +12 authors, Chao-Yuan Yeh.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Feb 27; 12(2). PMID: 32098314    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence with multi-functional machine learning platform development for better healthcare and precision medicine.
Zeeshan Ahmed, Khalid Mohamed, Saman Zeeshan, XinQi Dong.
Database (Oxford), 2020 Mar 19; 2020. PMID: 32185396    Free PMC article.
Deep learning pathological microscopic features in endemic nasopharyngeal cancer: Prognostic value and protentional role for individual induction chemotherapy.
Kuiyuan Liu, Weixiong Xia, +4 authors, Xing Lv.
Cancer Med, 2019 Dec 21; 9(4). PMID: 31860791    Free PMC article.
Prognostic analysis of histopathological images using pre-trained convolutional neural networks: application to hepatocellular carcinoma.
Liangqun Lu, Bernie J Daigle.
PeerJ, 2020 Mar 24; 8. PMID: 32201640    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence and Ophthalmology
Kadircan Keskinbora, Fatih Güven.
Turk J Ophthalmol, 2020 Mar 14; 50(1). PMID: 32167262    Free PMC article.
Human-machine collaboration: bringing artificial intelligence into colonoscopy.
Omer F Ahmad, Danail Stoyanov, Laurence B Lovat.
Frontline Gastroenterol, 2019 Jun 18; 10(2). PMID: 31205664    Free PMC article.
Quantitative Assessment of the Effects of Compression on Deep Learning in Digital Pathology Image Analysis.
Yijiang Chen, Andrew Janowczyk, Anant Madabhushi.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2020 Mar 11; 4. PMID: 32155093    Free PMC article.
Automated endoscopic detection and classification of colorectal polyps using convolutional neural networks.
Tsuyoshi Ozawa, Soichiro Ishihara, +3 authors, Tomohiro Tada.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol, 2020 Apr 02; 13. PMID: 32231710    Free PMC article.
Diagnostic performance of convolutional neural network-based Tanner-Whitehouse 3 bone age assessment system.
Xue-Lian Zhou, Er-Gang Wang, +15 authors, Jun-Fen Fu.
Quant Imaging Med Surg, 2020 Apr 10; 10(3). PMID: 32269926    Free PMC article.
Automatic diagnosis of the 12-lead ECG using a deep neural network.
Antônio H Ribeiro, Manoel Horta Ribeiro, +9 authors, Antonio Luiz P Ribeiro.
Nat Commun, 2020 Apr 11; 11(1). PMID: 32273514    Free PMC article.
Modeling the Research Landscapes of Artificial Intelligence Applications in Diabetes (GAPRESEARCH).
Giang Thu Vu, Bach Xuan Tran, +7 authors, Cyrus S H Ho.
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020 Mar 21; 17(6). PMID: 32192211    Free PMC article.
Assessing Small Bowel Stricturing and Morphology in Crohn's Disease Using Semi-automated Image Analysis.
Ryan W Stidham, Binu Enchakalody, +5 authors, Mahmoud Al-Hawary.
Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2019 Sep 11; 26(5). PMID: 31504540    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence in sleep medicine: background and implications for clinicians.
Cathy A Goldstein, Richard B Berry, +4 authors, M Brandon Westover.
J Clin Sleep Med, 2020 Feb 18; 16(4). PMID: 32065113    Free PMC article.
Emerging role of deep learning-based artificial intelligence in tumor pathology.
Yahui Jiang, Meng Yang, +2 authors, Yan Sun.
Cancer Commun (Lond), 2020 Apr 12; 40(4). PMID: 32277744    Free PMC article.
Deep learning assessment of breast terminal duct lobular unit involution: Towards automated prediction of breast cancer risk.
Suzanne C Wetstein, Allison M Onken, +13 authors, Mitko Veta.
PLoS One, 2020 Apr 16; 15(4). PMID: 32294107    Free PMC article.
Different fundus imaging modalities and technical factors in AI screening for diabetic retinopathy: a review.
Gilbert Lim, Valentina Bellemo, +3 authors, Daniel S W Ting.
Eye Vis (Lond), 2020 Apr 22; 7. PMID: 32313813    Free PMC article.
Impact of JPEG 2000 compression on deep convolutional neural networks for metastatic cancer detection in histopathological images.
Farhad Ghazvinian Zanjani, Svitlana Zinger, +3 authors, Peter H N de With.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham), 2019 May 01; 6(2). PMID: 31037247    Free PMC article.
Value of Public Challenges for the Development of Pathology Deep Learning Algorithms.
Douglas Joseph Hartman, Jeroen A W M Van Der Laak, Metin N Gurcan, Liron Pantanowitz.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Apr 23; 11. PMID: 32318315    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence and Pharmacometrics: Time to Embrace, Capitalize, and Advance?
Ayyappa Chaturvedula, Stacie Calad-Thomson, +3 authors, Navin Goyal.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol, 2019 Apr 22; 8(7). PMID: 31006175    Free PMC article.
A Hematologist-Level Deep Learning Algorithm (BMSNet) for Assessing the Morphologies of Single Nuclear Balls in Bone Marrow Smears: Algorithm Development.
Yi-Ying Wu, Tzu-Chuan Huang, +8 authors, Chin Lin.
JMIR Med Inform, 2020 Apr 09; 8(4). PMID: 32267237    Free PMC article.
Assessment of Machine Learning of Breast Pathology Structures for Automated Differentiation of Breast Cancer and High-Risk Proliferative Lesions.
Ezgi Mercan, Sachin Mehta, +3 authors, Joann G Elmore.
JAMA Netw Open, 2019 Aug 10; 2(8). PMID: 31397859    Free PMC article.
Assessment of individual tumor buds using keratin immunohistochemistry: moderate interobserver agreement suggests a role for machine learning.
J M Bokhorst, A Blank, +11 authors, I D Nagtegaal.
Mod Pathol, 2019 Dec 18; 33(5). PMID: 31844269    Free PMC article.
Clinical Implementation of Deep Learning in Thoracic Radiology: Potential Applications and Challenges.
Eui Jin Hwang, Chang Min Park.
Korean J Radiol, 2020 Apr 24; 21(5). PMID: 32323497    Free PMC article.
Deep learned tissue "fingerprints" classify breast cancers by ER/PR/Her2 status from H&E images.
Rishi R Rawat, Itzel Ortega, +4 authors, David B Agus.
Sci Rep, 2020 May 01; 10(1). PMID: 32350370    Free PMC article.
Deep learning in rare disease. Detection of tubers in tuberous sclerosis complex.
Iván Sánchez Fernández, Edward Yang, +9 authors, TACERN Study Group.
PLoS One, 2020 Apr 30; 15(4). PMID: 32348367    Free PMC article.
Accurate diagnosis of lymphoma on whole-slide histopathology images using deep learning.
Charlotte Syrykh, Arnaud Abreu, +7 authors, Pierre Brousset.
NPJ Digit Med, 2020 May 08; 3. PMID: 32377574    Free PMC article.
Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Intraoperative Margin Assessment in Future Breast-Conserving Surgery.
Ambara R Pradipta, Tomonori Tanei, +3 authors, Katsunori Tanaka.
Adv Sci (Weinh), 2020 May 10; 7(9). PMID: 32382473    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-enabled point-of-care sensing using multiplexed paper-based sensors.
Zachary S Ballard, Hyou-Arm Joung, +5 authors, Aydogan Ozcan.
NPJ Digit Med, 2020 May 16; 3. PMID: 32411827    Free PMC article.
Report on computational assessment of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group.
Mohamed Amgad, Elisabeth Specht Stovgaard, +66 authors, International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2020 May 16; 6. PMID: 32411818    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence in oncology.
Hideyuki Shimizu, Keiichi I Nakayama.
Cancer Sci, 2020 Mar 07; 111(5). PMID: 32133724    Free PMC article.
Development of a Deep Learning Algorithm for the Histopathologic Diagnosis and Gleason Grading of Prostate Cancer Biopsies: A Pilot Study.
Ohad Kott, Drew Linsley, +5 authors, Boris Gershman.
Eur Urol Focus, 2019 Nov 27; 7(2). PMID: 31767543    Free PMC article.
Generalizable Inter-Institutional Classification of Abnormal Chest Radiographs Using Efficient Convolutional Neural Networks.
Ian Pan, Saurabh Agarwal, Derek Merck.
J Digit Imaging, 2019 Mar 07; 32(5). PMID: 30838482    Free PMC article.
Epiretinal Membrane Detection at the Ophthalmologist Level using Deep Learning of Optical Coherence Tomography.
Ying-Chih Lo, Keng-Hung Lin, +4 authors, Che-Lun Hung.
Sci Rep, 2020 May 23; 10(1). PMID: 32439844    Free PMC article.
Individualized eHealth Support for Oncological Therapy Management.
Timo Schinköthe.
Breast Care (Basel), 2019 Jul 19; 14(3). PMID: 31316310    Free PMC article.
Deep learning for cardiovascular medicine: a practical primer.
Chayakrit Krittanawong, Kipp W Johnson, +7 authors, Sanjiv M Narayan.
Eur Heart J, 2019 Mar 01; 40(25). PMID: 30815669    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence Algorithms to Assess Hormonal Status From Tissue Microarrays in Patients With Breast Cancer.
Gil Shamai, Yoav Binenbaum, +3 authors, Ron Kimmel.
JAMA Netw Open, 2019 Jul 28; 2(7). PMID: 31348505    Free PMC article.
Deep-Learning-Based Characterization of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Breast Cancers From Histopathology Images and Multiomics Data.
Zixiao Lu, Siwen Xu, +5 authors, Kun Huang.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2020 May 27; 4. PMID: 32453636    Free PMC article.
The Impact of Medical Big Data Anonymization on Early Acute Kidney Injury Risk Prediction.
Xing Song, Lemuel R Waitman, +3 authors, Mei Liu.
AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc, 2020 Jun 02; 2020. PMID: 32477684    Free PMC article.
Preoperative Prediction of Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Early-T-Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer by Machine Learning Algorithms.
Yijun Wu, Jianghao Liu, +9 authors, Shanqing Li.
Front Oncol, 2020 Jun 02; 10. PMID: 32477952    Free PMC article.
Detection of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Digitized Histological Images from the Head and Neck Using Convolutional Neural Networks.
Martin Halicek, Maysam Shahedi, +4 authors, Baowei Fei.
Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng, 2019 Feb 01; 10956. PMID: 32476700    Free PMC article.
Automated quantitative analysis of Ki-67 staining and HE images recognition and registration based on whole tissue sections in breast carcinoma.
Min Feng, Yang Deng, +10 authors, Hong Bu.
Diagn Pathol, 2020 May 31; 15(1). PMID: 32471471    Free PMC article.
Hyperspectral imaging and deep learning for the detection of breast cancer cells in digitized histological images.
Samuel Ortega, Martin Halicek, +6 authors, Baowei Fei.
Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng, 2020 Jun 13; 11320. PMID: 32528219    Free PMC article.
Weakly-supervised learning for lung carcinoma classification using deep learning.
Fahdi Kanavati, Gouji Toyokawa, +7 authors, Masayuki Tsuneki.
Sci Rep, 2020 Jun 11; 10(1). PMID: 32518413    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-based survival prediction for multiple cancer types using histopathology images.
Ellery Wulczyn, David F Steiner, +7 authors, Martin C Stumpe.
PLoS One, 2020 Jun 20; 15(6). PMID: 32555646    Free PMC article.
Systems Biology and Kidney Disease.
Jennifer A Schaub, Habib Hamidi, Lalita Subramanian, Matthias Kretzler.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 2020 Jan 30; 15(5). PMID: 31992571    Free PMC article.
Classifying non-small cell lung cancer types and transcriptomic subtypes using convolutional neural networks.
Kun-Hsing Yu, Feiran Wang, +4 authors, Isaac S Kohane.
J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2020 May 05; 27(5). PMID: 32364237    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence-tutoring problem-based learning in ophthalmology clerkship.
Dongxuan Wu, Yifan Xiang, +5 authors, Haotian Lin.
Ann Transl Med, 2020 Jul 04; 8(11). PMID: 32617320    Free PMC article.
Reinventing polysomnography in the age of precision medicine.
Diane C Lim, Diego R Mazzotti, +8 authors, SAGIC Investigators.
Sleep Med Rev, 2020 Apr 15; 52. PMID: 32289733    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning for the Classification of Small-Cell and Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
Mark Kriegsmann, Christian Haag, +18 authors, Katharina Kriegsmann.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jun 21; 12(6). PMID: 32560475    Free PMC article.
Medical Treatment of Lung Cancer: Can Immune Cells Predict the Response? A Systematic Review.
Philippe Rochigneux, Alejandro J Garcia, +3 authors, Edward B Garon.
Front Immunol, 2020 Jul 17; 11. PMID: 32670271    Free PMC article.
Systematic Review.
Deep learning-based classification of the mouse estrous cycle stages.
Kyohei Sano, Shingo Matsuda, +3 authors, Chihiro Sutoh.
Sci Rep, 2020 Jul 18; 10(1). PMID: 32678183    Free PMC article.
Utilizing Automated Breast Cancer Detection to Identify Spatial Distributions of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Invasive Breast Cancer.
Han Le, Rajarsi Gupta, +14 authors, Joel Saltz.
Am J Pathol, 2020 Apr 12; 190(7). PMID: 32277893    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence in digital breast pathology: Techniques and applications.
Asmaa Ibrahim, Paul Gamble, +4 authors, Emad A Rakha.
Breast, 2020 Jan 15; 49. PMID: 31935669    Free PMC article.
Improving breast cancer care coordination and symptom management by using AI driven predictive toolkits.
E C Moser, Gayatri Narayan.
Breast, 2020 Jan 25; 50. PMID: 31978814    Free PMC article.
Clinical Validation of a Deep Learning Algorithm for Detection of Pneumonia on Chest Radiographs in Emergency Department Patients with Acute Febrile Respiratory Illness.
Jae Hyun Kim, Jin Young Kim, +5 authors, Chang Min Park.
J Clin Med, 2020 Jul 01; 9(6). PMID: 32599874    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Cutaneous Oncology.
Yu Seong Chu, Hong Gi An, Byung Ho Oh, Sejung Yang.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2020 Aug 06; 7. PMID: 32754606    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence and Health Technology Assessment: Anticipating a New Level of Complexity.
Hassane Alami, Pascale Lehoux, +7 authors, Jean-Paul Fortin.
J Med Internet Res, 2020 May 15; 22(7). PMID: 32406850    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning Could Diagnose Diabetic Nephropathy with Renal Pathological Immunofluorescent Images.
Shinji Kitamura, Kensaku Takahashi, +3 authors, Jun Wada.
Diagnostics (Basel), 2020 Jul 15; 10(7). PMID: 32660112    Free PMC article.
Clinical-grade computational pathology using weakly supervised deep learning on whole slide images.
Gabriele Campanella, Matthew G Hanna, +7 authors, Thomas J Fuchs.
Nat Med, 2019 Jul 17; 25(8). PMID: 31308507    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Current Trends of Artificial Intelligence for Colorectal Cancer Pathology Image Analysis: A Systematic Review.
Nishant Thakur, Hongjun Yoon, Yosep Chong.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 17; 12(7). PMID: 32668721    Free PMC article.
Automatic detection of squamous cell carcinoma metastasis in esophageal lymph nodes using semantic segmentation.
Yi Pan, Zhuo Sun, +13 authors, Shuangmei Zou.
Clin Transl Med, 2020 Jul 30; 10(3). PMID: 32722861    Free PMC article.
Development and clinical application of deep learning model for lung nodules screening on CT images.
Sijia Cui, Shuai Ming, +6 authors, Haochu Wang.
Sci Rep, 2020 Aug 14; 10(1). PMID: 32788705    Free PMC article.
Fully Automated Postlumpectomy Breast Margin Assessment Utilizing Convolutional Neural Network Based Optical Coherence Tomography Image Classification Method.
Diana Mojahed, Richard S Ha, +6 authors, Christine P Hendon.
Acad Radiol, 2019 Jul 22; 27(5). PMID: 31324579    Free PMC article.
Anatomical Context Protects Deep Learning from Adversarial Perturbations in Medical Imaging.
Yi Li, Huahong Zhang, +3 authors, Yevgeniy Vorobeychik.
Neurocomputing, 2020 Aug 31; 379. PMID: 32863583    Free PMC article.
Histopathological Classification of Breast Cancer Images Using a Multi-Scale Input and Multi-Feature Network.
Taimoor Shakeel Sheikh, Yonghee Lee, Migyung Cho.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Jul 30; 12(8). PMID: 32722111    Free PMC article.
Clinically applicable histopathological diagnosis system for gastric cancer detection using deep learning.
Zhigang Song, Shuangmei Zou, +21 authors, Huaiyin Shi.
Nat Commun, 2020 Aug 29; 11(1). PMID: 32855423    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence to Decode Cancer Mechanism: Beyond Patient Stratification for Precision Oncology.
Sandip Kumar Patel, Bhawana George, Vineeta Rai.
Front Pharmacol, 2020 Sep 10; 11. PMID: 32903628    Free PMC article.
Data Engineering for Machine Learning in Women's Imaging and Beyond.
Chen Cui, Shinn-Huey S Chou, +2 authors, Anthony E Samir.
AJR Am J Roentgenol, 2019 Feb 20; 213(1). PMID: 30779668
Machine learning: applications of artificial intelligence to imaging and diagnosis.
James A Nichols, Hsien W Herbert Chan, Matthew A B Baker.
Biophys Rev, 2018 Sep 06; 11(1). PMID: 30182201    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence and Digital Pathology: Challenges and Opportunities.
Hamid Reza Tizhoosh, Liron Pantanowitz.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Jan 05; 9. PMID: 30607305    Free PMC article.
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Computer-Aided Laser Dissection: A Microdissection Workflow Leveraging Image Analysis Tools.
Jason D Hipp, Donald J Johann, +12 authors, Michael A Tangrea.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Jan 10; 9. PMID: 30622835    Free PMC article.
Cascade Reaction in Human Live Tissue Allows Clinically Applicable Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Morphology.
Tomonori Tanei, Ambara R Pradipta, +10 authors, Katsunori Tanaka.
Adv Sci (Weinh), 2019 Jan 30; 6(2). PMID: 30693189    Free PMC article.
Machine Learning in Health Care: A Critical Appraisal of Challenges and Opportunities.
Mark Sendak, Michael Gao, +2 authors, Suresh Balu.
EGEMS (Wash DC), 2019 Feb 02; 7(1). PMID: 30705919    Free PMC article.
Diagnostic accuracy of a deep learning approach to calculate FFR from coronary CT angiography.
Zhi-Qiang Wang, Yu-Jie Zhou, +5 authors, Yue-Ping Li.
J Geriatr Cardiol, 2019 Feb 26; 16(1). PMID: 30800150    Free PMC article.
Automatic glaucoma classification using color fundus images based on convolutional neural networks and transfer learning.
Juan J Gómez-Valverde, Alfonso Antón, +5 authors, María J Ledesma-Carbayo.
Biomed Opt Express, 2019 Feb 26; 10(2). PMID: 30800522    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence for precision oncology: beyond patient stratification.
Francisco Azuaje.
NPJ Precis Oncol, 2019 Mar 02; 3. PMID: 30820462    Free PMC article.
Examination of Independent Prognostic Power of Gene Expressions and Histopathological Imaging Features in Cancer.
Tingyan Zhong, Mengyun Wu, Shuangge Ma.
Cancers (Basel), 2019 Mar 16; 11(3). PMID: 30871256    Free PMC article.
Deep learning opens new horizons in personalized medicine.
Georgios Z Papadakis, Apostolos H Karantanas, +3 authors, Kostas Marias.
Biomed Rep, 2019 Apr 17; 10(4). PMID: 30988951    Free PMC article.
Implementing Precision Medicine and Artificial Intelligence in Plastic Surgery: Concepts and Future Prospects.
You J Kim, Brian P Kelley, Jacob S Nasser, Kevin C Chung.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open, 2019 May 03; 7(3). PMID: 31044104    Free PMC article.
Gastroenterology Meets Machine Learning: Status Quo and Quo Vadis.
Amina Adadi, Safae Adadi, Mohammed Berrada.
Adv Bioinformatics, 2019 May 09; 2019. PMID: 31065266    Free PMC article.
Deep Convolutional Neural Network-Based Positron Emission Tomography Analysis Predicts Esophageal Cancer Outcome.
Cheng-Kun Yang, Joe Chao-Yuan Yeh, +4 authors, Po-Kuei Hsu.
J Clin Med, 2019 Jun 16; 8(6). PMID: 31200519    Free PMC article.
Duodenal Biopsies Classification and Understanding using Convolutional Neural Networks.
Mohammad Al Boni, Sana Syed, +2 authors, Donald E Brown.
AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc, 2019 Jul 02; 2019. PMID: 31258999    Free PMC article.
The application of convolutional neural network to stem cell biology.
Dai Kusumoto, Shinsuke Yuasa.
Inflamm Regen, 2019 Jul 18; 39. PMID: 31312276    Free PMC article.
Staining Invariant Features for Improving Generalization of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks in Computational Pathology.
Sebastian Otálora, Manfredo Atzori, +2 authors, Henning Müller.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol, 2019 Sep 12; 7. PMID: 31508414    Free PMC article.
Multi-Field-of-View Deep Learning Model Predicts Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Status from Whole-Slide Hematoxylin and Eosin Images.
Lingdao Sha, Boleslaw L Osinski, +7 authors, Stephen S F Yip.
J Pathol Inform, 2019 Sep 17; 10. PMID: 31523482    Free PMC article.
Melanoma Prognosis: Accuracy of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual Eighth Edition.
Shirin Bajaj, Douglas Donnelly, +9 authors, Iman Osman.
J Natl Cancer Inst, 2020 Jan 25; 112(9). PMID: 31977051    Free PMC article.
Banff Digital Pathology Working Group: Going digital in transplant pathology.
Alton B Farris, Ishita Moghe, +10 authors, Kim Solez.
Am J Transplant, 2020 Mar 19; 20(9). PMID: 32185875    Free PMC article.
Automatic detection of hand hygiene using computer vision technology.
Amit Singh, Albert Haque, +7 authors, Arnold Milstein.
J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2020 Jul 28; 27(8). PMID: 32712656    Free PMC article.
How to make your research jump off the page: Co-creation to broaden public engagement in medical research.
Nina Finley, Talia H Swartz, Kevin Cao, Joseph D Tucker.
PLoS Med, 2020 Sep 15; 17(9). PMID: 32925970    Free PMC article.
Deep learning quantification of percent steatosis in donor liver biopsy frozen sections.
Lulu Sun, Jon N Marsh, +5 authors, Ta-Chiang Liu.
EBioMedicine, 2020 Sep 28; 60. PMID: 32980688    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence in pulmonary medicine: computer vision, predictive model and COVID-19.
Danai Khemasuwan, Jeffrey S Sorensen, Henri G Colt.
Eur Respir Rev, 2020 Oct 03; 29(157). PMID: 33004526    Free PMC article.
LibMI: An Open Source Library for Efficient Histopathological Image Processing.
Yuxin Dong, Pargorn Puttapirat, +2 authors, Chen Li.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Oct 13; 11. PMID: 33042605    Free PMC article.
TissueWand, a Rapid Histopathology Annotation Tool.
Martin Lindvall, Alexander Sanner, +4 authors, Jonas Löwgren.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Oct 13; 11. PMID: 33042606    Free PMC article.
Clinical Trials for Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis: A Cross-Sectional Study of Registered Trials in
Jingsi Dong, Yingcai Geng, +4 authors, Yonggang Zhang.
Front Oncol, 2020 Oct 13; 10. PMID: 33042806    Free PMC article.
Non-invasive evaluation for benign and malignant subcentimeter pulmonary ground-glass nodules (≤1 cm) based on CT texture analysis.
Xianghua Hu, Weichuan Ye, +10 authors, Jiansong Ji.
Br J Radiol, 2020 Jul 21; 93(1114). PMID: 32686958    Free PMC article.
Developing Sustainable Classification of Diseases via Deep Learning and Semi-Supervised Learning.
Chunwu Yin, Zhanbo Chen.
Healthcare (Basel), 2020 Aug 28; 8(3). PMID: 32846941    Free PMC article.
Identification of Gastritis Subtypes by Convolutional Neuronal Networks on Histological Images of Antrum and Corpus Biopsies.
Georg Steinbuss, Katharina Kriegsmann, Mark Kriegsmann.
Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Sep 17; 21(18). PMID: 32932860    Free PMC article.
Temporal Trends in Cervical Spine Curvature of South Korean Adults Assessed by Deep Learning System Segmentation, 2006-2018.
YiRang Shin, Kyunghwa Han, Young Han Lee.
JAMA Netw Open, 2020 Oct 16; 3(10). PMID: 33057644    Free PMC article.
Machine learning in GI endoscopy: practical guidance in how to interpret a novel field.
Fons van der Sommen, Jeroen de Groof, +9 authors, Jacques J G H M Bergman.
Gut, 2020 May 13; 69(11). PMID: 32393540    Free PMC article.
Comparison of Conventional Statistical Methods with Machine Learning in Medicine: Diagnosis, Drug Development, and Treatment.
Hema Sekhar Reddy Rajula, Giuseppe Verlato, +2 authors, Vassilios Fanos.
Medicina (Kaunas), 2020 Sep 12; 56(9). PMID: 32911665    Free PMC article.
Challenge for Diagnostic Assessment of Deep Learning Algorithm for Metastases Classification in Sentinel Lymph Nodes on Frozen Tissue Section Digital Slides in Women with Breast Cancer.
Young-Gon Kim, In Hye Song, +21 authors, Gyungyub Gong.
Cancer Res Treat, 2020 Jul 01; 52(4). PMID: 32599974    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning Reveals Cancer Metastasis and Therapeutic Antibody Targeting in the Entire Body.
Chenchen Pan, Oliver Schoppe, +24 authors, Ali Ertürk.
Cell, 2019 Dec 14; 179(7). PMID: 31835038    Free PMC article.
Integrative Data Augmentation with U-Net Segmentation Masks Improves Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients.
Yong Won Jin, Shuo Jia, Ahmed Bilal Ashraf, Pingzhao Hu.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Oct 16; 12(10). PMID: 33053723    Free PMC article.
Incidental cerebral aneurysms detected by a computer-assisted detection system based on artificial intelligence: A case series.
Yuki Shimada, Tetsuya Tanimoto, +7 authors, Naoyuki Kitamura.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2020 Oct 31; 99(43). PMID: 33120725    Free PMC article.
Tailoring Therapy for Children With Neuroblastoma on the Basis of Risk Group Classification: Past, Present, and Future.
Wayne H Liang, Sara M Federico, +4 authors, Susan L Cohn.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2020 Oct 16; 4. PMID: 33058692    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Anesthesiology: Current Techniques, Clinical Applications, and Limitations.
Daniel A Hashimoto, Elan Witkowski, +2 authors, Guy Rosman.
Anesthesiology, 2020 Jan 16; 132(2). PMID: 31939856    Free PMC article.
AI in the treatment of fertility: key considerations.
Jason Swain, Matthew Tex VerMilyea, +2 authors, Fertility AI Forum Group.
J Assist Reprod Genet, 2020 Sep 30; 37(11). PMID: 32989510    Free PMC article.
The ethical adoption of artificial intelligence in radiology.
Keshav Shree Mudgal, Neelanjan Das.
BJR Open, 2020 Nov 13; 2(1). PMID: 33178959    Free PMC article.
PyHIST: A Histological Image Segmentation Tool.
Manuel Muñoz-Aguirre, Vasilis F Ntasis, Santiago Rojas, Roderic Guigó.
PLoS Comput Biol, 2020 Oct 20; 16(10). PMID: 33075075    Free PMC article.
Potential use of deep learning techniques for postmortem imaging.
Akos Dobay, Jonathan Ford, +5 authors, Lars C Ebert.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol, 2020 Sep 30; 16(4). PMID: 32990926    Free PMC article.
A narrative review of digital pathology and artificial intelligence: focusing on lung cancer.
Taro Sakamoto, Tomoi Furukawa, +8 authors, Junya Fukuoka.
Transl Lung Cancer Res, 2020 Nov 20; 9(5). PMID: 33209648    Free PMC article.
Deep Convolutional Neural Network Based on Computed Tomography Images for the Preoperative Diagnosis of Occult Peritoneal Metastasis in Advanced Gastric Cancer.
Zixing Huang, Dan Liu, +6 authors, Bin Song.
Front Oncol, 2020 Nov 24; 10. PMID: 33224893    Free PMC article.
Is Artificial Intelligence the New Friend for Radiologists? A Review Article.
Sravani Gampala, Varun Vankeshwaram, Satya Siva P Gadula.
Cureus, 2020 Nov 27; 12(10). PMID: 33240726    Free PMC article.
DeepLN: an artificial intelligence-based automated system for lung cancer screening.
Jixiang Guo, Chengdi Wang, +5 authors, Weimin Li.
Ann Transl Med, 2020 Nov 27; 8(18). PMID: 33240975    Free PMC article.
Digital Pathology: Advantages, Limitations and Emerging Perspectives.
Stephan W Jahn, Markus Plass, Farid Moinfar.
J Clin Med, 2020 Nov 22; 9(11). PMID: 33217963    Free PMC article.
Comparative analysis of transcriptomic profile, histology, and IDH mutation for classification of gliomas.
Paul M H Tran, Lynn K H Tran, +8 authors, Jin-Xiong She.
Sci Rep, 2020 Nov 28; 10(1). PMID: 33244057    Free PMC article.
Using deep convolutional neural networks to identify and classify tumor-associated stroma in diagnostic breast biopsies.
Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, Maeve Mullooly, +11 authors, Mark E Sherman.
Mod Pathol, 2018 Jun 15; 31(10). PMID: 29899550    Free PMC article.
Precision immunoprofiling by image analysis and artificial intelligence.
Viktor H Koelzer, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Jens Rittscher, Kirsten D Mertz.
Virchows Arch, 2018 Nov 25; 474(4). PMID: 30470933    Free PMC article.
How will "democratization of artificial intelligence" change the future of radiologists?
Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Maki Ishibashi, Hitomi Kobayashi.
Jpn J Radiol, 2018 Dec 24; 37(1). PMID: 30578448
Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Genotype⁻Phenotype Identification.
Lewis J Frey.
Genes (Basel), 2019 Jan 02; 10(1). PMID: 30597900    Free PMC article.
A Machine Learning Approach to Predicting Case Duration for Robot-Assisted Surgery.
Beiqun Zhao, Ruth S Waterman, Richard D Urman, Rodney A Gabriel.
J Med Syst, 2019 Jan 07; 43(2). PMID: 30612192
Translating cancer genomics into precision medicine with artificial intelligence: applications, challenges and future perspectives.
Jia Xu, Pengwei Yang, +6 authors, Baiju Parikh.
Hum Genet, 2019 Jan 24; 138(2). PMID: 30671672    Free PMC article.
Iterative unsupervised domain adaptation for generalized cell detection from brightfield z-stacks.
Kaisa Liimatainen, Lauri Kananen, Leena Latonen, Pekka Ruusuvuori.
BMC Bioinformatics, 2019 Feb 16; 20(1). PMID: 30767778    Free PMC article.
Current status and perspectives for computer-aided ultrasonic diagnosis of liver lesions using deep learning technology.
Naoshi Nishida, Makoto Yamakawa, Tsuyoshi Shiina, Masatoshi Kudo.
Hepatol Int, 2019 Feb 23; 13(4). PMID: 30790230
Computer aided quantification of intratumoral stroma yields an independent prognosticator in rectal cancer.
Oscar G F Geessink, Alexi Baidoshvili, +7 authors, Jeroen A W M van der Laak.
Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2019 Mar 03; 42(3). PMID: 30825182
Ultrasound image analysis using deep learning algorithm for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
Junho Song, Young Jun Chai, +9 authors, Akira Miyauchi.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Apr 16; 98(15). PMID: 30985680    Free PMC article.
Deep learning and manual assessment show that the absolute mitotic count does not contain prognostic information in triple negative breast cancer.
Maschenka C A Balkenhol, Peter Bult, +4 authors, Jeroen A W M van der Laak.
Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2019 Apr 17; 42(4). PMID: 30989469
Image Thresholding Improves 3-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network Diagnosis of Different Acute Brain Hemorrhages on Computed Tomography Scans.
Justin Ker, Satya P Singh, +3 authors, Lipo Wang.
Sensors (Basel), 2019 May 15; 19(9). PMID: 31083289    Free PMC article.
Deep learning for automatic Gleason pattern classification for grade group determination of prostate biopsies.
Marit Lucas, Ilaria Jansen, +5 authors, Henk A Marquering.
Virchows Arch, 2019 May 18; 475(1). PMID: 31098801    Free PMC article.
Prediction of pathologic stage in non-small cell lung cancer using machine learning algorithm based on CT image feature analysis.
Lingming Yu, Guangyu Tao, +4 authors, Qunhui Chen.
BMC Cancer, 2019 May 19; 19(1). PMID: 31101024    Free PMC article.
Breast cancer outcome prediction with tumour tissue images and machine learning.
Riku Turkki, Dmitrii Byckhov, +8 authors, Nina Linder.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2019 May 24; 177(1). PMID: 31119567    Free PMC article.
Can endoscopists differentiate cytomegalovirus esophagitis from herpes simplex virus esophagitis based on gross endoscopic findings?
Kyung Hwa Jung, Jonggi Choi, +12 authors, Sung-Han Kim.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Jun 07; 98(23). PMID: 31169688    Free PMC article.
Machine learning approaches for pathologic diagnosis.
Daisuke Komura, Shumpei Ishikawa.
Virchows Arch, 2019 Jun 22; 475(2). PMID: 31222375
Artificial neural network models to predict nodal status in clinically node-negative breast cancer.
Looket Dihge, Mattias Ohlsson, +2 authors, Lisa Rydén.
BMC Cancer, 2019 Jun 23; 19(1). PMID: 31226956    Free PMC article.
Application of deep learning (3-dimensional convolutional neural network) for the prediction of pathological invasiveness in lung adenocarcinoma: A preliminary study.
Masahiro Yanagawa, Hirohiko Niioka, +8 authors, Noriyuki Tomiyama.
Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Jun 25; 98(25). PMID: 31232960    Free PMC article.
Exploring the druggable space around the Fanconi anemia pathway using machine learning and mechanistic models.
Marina Esteban-Medina, María Peña-Chilet, Carlos Loucera, Joaquín Dopazo.
BMC Bioinformatics, 2019 Jul 04; 20(1). PMID: 31266445    Free PMC article.
Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations for Classification of Lymph Node Metastases.
Iam Palatnik de Sousa, Marley Maria Bernardes Rebuzzi Vellasco, Eduardo Costa da Silva.
Sensors (Basel), 2019 Jul 10; 19(13). PMID: 31284419    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Decision Support: a Focused Literature Survey.
Stefania Montani, Manuel Striani.
Yearb Med Inform, 2019 Aug 17; 28(1). PMID: 31419824    Free PMC article.
Cortical reorganization following auditory deprivation predicts cochlear implant performance in postlingually deaf adults.
Zhe Sun, Ji Won Seo, +9 authors, Hosung Kim.
Hum Brain Mapp, 2020 Oct 07; 42(1). PMID: 33022826    Free PMC article.
Deep neural network models for computational histopathology: A survey.
Chetan L Srinidhi, Ozan Ciga, Anne L Martel.
Med Image Anal, 2020 Oct 14; 67. PMID: 33049577    Free PMC article.
Reimagining T Staging Through Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Image Processing Approaches in Digital Pathology.
Kaustav Bera, Ian Katz, Anant Madabhushi.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2020 Nov 10; 4. PMID: 33166198    Free PMC article.
Precision medicine in the era of artificial intelligence: implications in chronic disease management.
Murugan Subramanian, Anne Wojtusciszyn, +5 authors, Lotfi Chouchane.
J Transl Med, 2020 Dec 11; 18(1). PMID: 33298113    Free PMC article.
Comparing Deep Learning and Immunohistochemistry in Determining the Site of Origin for Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Jordan Redemann, Fred A Schultz, +4 authors, Joshua A Hanson.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Dec 22; 11. PMID: 33343993    Free PMC article.
Using Image Registration and Machine Learning to Develop a Workstation Tool for Rapid Analysis of Glomeruli in Medical Renal Biopsies.
David C Wilbur, Jason R Pettus, +4 authors, Eric Wirch.
J Pathol Inform, 2020 Dec 22; 11. PMID: 33343997    Free PMC article.
A Human-Algorithm Integration System for Hip Fracture Detection on Plain Radiography: System Development and Validation Study.
Chi-Tung Cheng, Chih-Chi Chen, +5 authors, Chien-Hung Liao.
JMIR Med Inform, 2020 Nov 28; 8(11). PMID: 33245279    Free PMC article.
Single-Cell Spatial Analysis of Tumor and Immune Microenvironment on Whole-Slide Image Reveals Hepatocellular Carcinoma Subtypes.
Haiyue Wang, Yuming Jiang, +3 authors, Ruijiang Li.
Cancers (Basel), 2020 Dec 03; 12(12). PMID: 33260561    Free PMC article.
A 'Real-Life' Experience on Automated Digital Image Analysis of FGFR2 Immunohistochemistry in Breast Cancer.
Marcin Braun, Dominika Piasecka, +3 authors, Hanna M Romanska.
Diagnostics (Basel), 2020 Dec 11; 10(12). PMID: 33297384    Free PMC article.
The International Collaboration for Cancer Classification and Research.
Ian A Cree, Blanca Iciar Indave Ruiz, +14 authors, IC3R participants.
Int J Cancer, 2020 Aug 21; 148(3). PMID: 32818326    Free PMC article.
Osteoid Metaplasia in Femoral Artery Plaques Is Associated With the Clinical Severity of Lower Extremity Artery Disease in Men.
Mirjami Laivuori, Johanna Tolva, +8 authors, Juha Sinisalo.
Front Cardiovasc Med, 2020 Dec 29; 7. PMID: 33363220    Free PMC article.
Generalizing deep whole-brain segmentation for post-contrast MRI with transfer learning.
Camilo Bermudez, Samuel W Remedios, +4 authors, Bennett A Landman.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham), 2021 Jan 01; 7(6). PMID: 33381612    Free PMC article.
Detection of pneumoperitoneum in the abdominal radiograph images using artificial neural networks.
Mimi Kim, Jong Soo Kim, Changhwan Lee, Bo-Kyeong Kang.
Eur J Radiol Open, 2021 Jan 02; 8. PMID: 33385018    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning and Multivariable Models Select EVAR Patients for Short-Stay Discharge.
Devin S Zarkowsky, Besma Nejim, +3 authors, Mahmoud B Malas.
Vasc Endovascular Surg, 2020 Sep 11; 55(1). PMID: 32909908    Free PMC article.
Limitations of Deep Learning Attention Mechanisms in Clinical Research: Empirical Case Study Based on the Korean Diabetic Disease Setting.
Junetae Kim, Sangwon Lee, +6 authors, Hyo Soung Cha.
J Med Internet Res, 2020 Dec 17; 22(12). PMID: 33325832    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging and Its Application in Sonography for the Management of Liver Tumor.
Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jan 08; 10. PMID: 33409151    Free PMC article.
Deep learning extended depth-of-field microscope for fast and slide-free histology.
Lingbo Jin, Yubo Tang, +9 authors, Ashok Veeraraghavan.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2020 Dec 16; 117(52). PMID: 33318169    Free PMC article.
Comprehensive analysis of metastatic gastric cancer tumour cells using single-cell RNA-seq.
Bin Wang, Yingyi Zhang, +5 authors, Xianbao Zhan.
Sci Rep, 2021 Jan 15; 11(1). PMID: 33441952    Free PMC article.
[Artificial intelligence in cardiology : Relevance, current applications, and future developments].
Bettina Zippel-Schultz, Carsten Schultz, +4 authors, Thomas M Helms.
Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol, 2021 Jan 16; 32(1). PMID: 33449234
Noninvasive Prediction of Occult Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer Using Deep Learning.
Yuming Jiang, Xiaokun Liang, +11 authors, Ruijiang Li.
JAMA Netw Open, 2021 Jan 06; 4(1). PMID: 33399858    Free PMC article.
Can Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Increase or Predict the Success Rate of Testicular Sperm Aspiration in Patients With Azoospermia?
Heng Xue, Shou-Yang Wang, Li-Gang Cui, Kai Hong.
AJR Am J Roentgenol, 2019 Feb 27;. PMID: 30807223    Free PMC article.
Deep Neural Network-Based Prediction of the Risk of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia.
Jun Ki Min, Hyo-Joon Yang, +6 authors, Dong Il Park.
Gut Liver, 2020 Dec 31; 15(1). PMID: 33376229    Free PMC article.
Designing deep learning studies in cancer diagnostics.
Andreas Kleppe, Ole-Johan Skrede, +3 authors, Håvard E Danielsen.
Nat Rev Cancer, 2021 Jan 31; 21(3). PMID: 33514930
Pathway-Based Drug-Repurposing Schemes in Cancer: The Role of Translational Bioinformatics.
Enrique Hernández-Lemus, Mireya Martínez-García.
Front Oncol, 2021 Feb 02; 10. PMID: 33520715    Free PMC article.
Automated Classification and Segmentation in Colorectal Images Based on Self-Paced Transfer Network.
Yao Yao, Shuiping Gou, +2 authors, Shuixiang He.
Biomed Res Int, 2021 Feb 06; 2021. PMID: 33542924    Free PMC article.
Aggregation of cohorts for histopathological diagnosis with deep morphological analysis.
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Sci Rep, 2021 Feb 05; 11(1). PMID: 33536550    Free PMC article.
Predicting aggressive histopathological features in esophageal cancer with positron emission tomography using a deep convolutional neural network.
Joe Chao-Yuan Yeh, Wei-Hsiang Yu, +4 authors, Po-Kuei Hsu.
Ann Transl Med, 2021 Feb 09; 9(1). PMID: 33553330    Free PMC article.

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Machine learning predicts unpredicted deaths with high accuracy following hepatopancreatic surgery.
Kota Sahara, Anghela Z Paredes, +8 authors, Timothy M Pawlik.
Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr, 2021 Feb 13; 10(1). PMID: 33575287    Free PMC article.
Precision Medicine, AI, and the Future of Personalized Health Care.
Kevin B Johnson, Wei-Qi Wei, +5 authors, Jane L Snowdon.
Clin Transl Sci, 2020 Sep 23; 14(1). PMID: 32961010    Free PMC article.
Development and Validation of a Machine Learning Prognostic Model for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence After Surgical Resection.
Yao Huang, Hengkai Chen, +3 authors, Jingfeng Liu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Feb 19; 10. PMID: 33598425    Free PMC article.
Colonic Polyp Detection in Endoscopic Videos With Single Shot Detection Based Deep Convolutional Neural Network.
Ming Liu, Jue Jiang, Zenan Wang.
IEEE Access, 2019 Jan 01; 7. PMID: 33604228    Free PMC article.
A Correlation Analysis between SNPs and ROIs of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Deep Learning.
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Biomed Res Int, 2021 Feb 26; 2021. PMID: 33628827    Free PMC article.
Predicting the postoperative blood coagulation state of children with congenital heart disease by machine learning based on real-world data.
Kai Guo, Xiaoyan Fu, +3 authors, Shuxuan Ma.
Transl Pediatr, 2021 Feb 27; 10(1). PMID: 33633935    Free PMC article.
Boosted EfficientNet: Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Breast Cancer Using Convolutional Neural Networks.
Jun Wang, Qianying Liu, +2 authors, Hefeng Zhou.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Feb 11; 13(4). PMID: 33562232    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning Image Analysis of Benign Breast Disease to Identify Subsequent Risk of Breast Cancer.
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JNCI Cancer Spectr, 2021 Mar 02; 5(1). PMID: 33644680    Free PMC article.
An annotation-free whole-slide training approach to pathological classification of lung cancer types using deep learning.
Chi-Long Chen, Chi-Chung Chen, +6 authors, Cheng-Yu Chen.
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Medicine and artificial intelligence: a strategy for the future, employing Porter's classic framework.
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Convolutional Neural Network-Based Artificial Intelligence for Classification of Protein Localization Patterns.
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Biomolecules, 2021 Mar 07; 11(2). PMID: 33670112    Free PMC article.
Hidden Variables in Deep Learning Digital Pathology and Their Potential to Cause Batch Effects: Prediction Model Study.
Max Schmitt, Roman Christoph Maron, +14 authors, Titus Josef Brinker.
J Med Internet Res, 2021 Feb 03; 23(2). PMID: 33528370    Free PMC article.
Analyzing fundus images to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) using deep learning system in the Yangtze River delta region of China.
Li Lu, Peifang Ren, +5 authors, Wei Han.
Ann Transl Med, 2021 Mar 13; 9(3). PMID: 33708853    Free PMC article.
Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging-based grading analysis for gliomas by integrating radiomics and deep features.
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Ann Transl Med, 2021 Mar 13; 9(4). PMID: 33708925    Free PMC article.
Human-interpretable image features derived from densely mapped cancer pathology slides predict diverse molecular phenotypes.
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Nat Commun, 2021 Mar 14; 12(1). PMID: 33712588    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine, current applications and future role with special emphasis on its potential and promise in pathology: present and future impact, obstacles including costs and acceptance among pathologists, practical and philosophical considerations. A comprehensive review.
Zubair Ahmad, Shabina Rahim, Maha Zubair, Jamshid Abdul-Ghafar.
Diagn Pathol, 2021 Mar 19; 16(1). PMID: 33731170    Free PMC article.
Deep Multi-Magnification Networks for multi-class breast cancer image segmentation.
David Joon Ho, Dig V K Yarlagadda, +6 authors, Thomas J Fuchs.
Comput Med Imaging Graph, 2021 Jan 24; 88. PMID: 33485058    Free PMC article.
Future Medical Artificial Intelligence Application Requirements and Expectations of Physicians in German University Hospitals: Web-Based Survey.
Oliver Maassen, Sebastian Fritsch, +6 authors, Johannes Bickenbach.
J Med Internet Res, 2021 Mar 06; 23(3). PMID: 33666563    Free PMC article.
Application of artificial intelligence using a convolutional neural network for diagnosis of early gastric cancer based on magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging.
Hiroya Ueyama, Yusuke Kato, +10 authors, Tomohiro Tada.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2020 Jul 19; 36(2). PMID: 32681536    Free PMC article.
Accurate diagnosis of colorectal cancer based on histopathology images using artificial intelligence.
K S Wang, G Yu, +51 authors, H W Deng.
BMC Med, 2021 Mar 24; 19(1). PMID: 33752648    Free PMC article.
A hierarchical deep learning approach with transparency and interpretability based on small samples for glaucoma diagnosis.
Yongli Xu, Man Hu, +13 authors, Ningli Wang.
NPJ Digit Med, 2021 Mar 13; 4(1). PMID: 33707616    Free PMC article.
Predicting gastric cancer outcome from resected lymph node histopathology images using deep learning.
Xiaodong Wang, Ying Chen, +15 authors, Guanzhen Yu.
Nat Commun, 2021 Mar 14; 12(1). PMID: 33712598    Free PMC article.
The Potential of Artificial Intelligence to Detect Lymphovascular Invasion in Testicular Cancer.
Abhisek Ghosh, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, +8 authors, Clare Verrill.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(6). PMID: 33809521    Free PMC article.
Evolution of the liver biopsy and its future.
Dhanpat Jain, Richard Torres, +3 authors, Vasilis Vasiliou.
Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2021 Apr 08; 6. PMID: 33824924    Free PMC article.
Interactive Classification of Whole-Slide Imaging Data for Cancer Researchers.
Sanghoon Lee, Mohamed Amgad, +6 authors, Lee A D Cooper.
Cancer Res, 2020 Dec 24; 81(4). PMID: 33355190    Free PMC article.
Semi-supervised learning for an improved diagnosis of COVID-19 in CT images.
Chang Hee Han, Misuk Kim, Jin Tae Kwak.
PLoS One, 2021 Apr 02; 16(4). PMID: 33793650    Free PMC article.
How will artificial intelligence and bioinformatics change our understanding of IgA Nephropathy in the next decade?
Roman David Bülow, Daniel Dimitrov, Peter Boor, Julio Saez-Rodriguez.
Semin Immunopathol, 2021 Apr 10; 43(5). PMID: 33835214    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Research and Precision Medicine.
Bhavneet Bhinder, Coryandar Gilvary, Neel S Madhukar, Olivier Elemento.
Cancer Discov, 2021 Apr 04; 11(4). PMID: 33811123    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence in cancer research: learning at different levels of data granularity.
Davide Cirillo, Iker Núñez-Carpintero, Alfonso Valencia.
Mol Oncol, 2021 Feb 04; 15(4). PMID: 33533192    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-based grading of ductal carcinoma in situ in breast histopathology images.
Suzanne C Wetstein, Nikolas Stathonikos, +5 authors, Mitko Veta.
Lab Invest, 2021 Feb 21; 101(4). PMID: 33608619    Free PMC article.
A review on recent advancements in diagnosis and classification of cancers using artificial intelligence.
Priyanka Ramesh, Ramanathan Karuppasamy, Shanthi Veerappapillai.
Biomedicine (Taipei), 2021 Apr 16; 10(3). PMID: 33854922    Free PMC article.
Predicting treatment response from longitudinal images using multi-task deep learning.
Cheng Jin, Heng Yu, +9 authors, Ruijiang Li.
Nat Commun, 2021 Mar 27; 12(1). PMID: 33767170    Free PMC article.
A deep learning model for the classification of indeterminate lung carcinoma in biopsy whole slide images.
Fahdi Kanavati, Gouji Toyokawa, +6 authors, Masayuki Tsuneki.
Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 16; 11(1). PMID: 33854137    Free PMC article.
A deep learning model to detect pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy.
Yoshiki Naito, Masayuki Tsuneki, +25 authors, Hirohisa Yano.
Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 21; 11(1). PMID: 33875703    Free PMC article.
Overcoming the limitations of patch-based learning to detect cancer in whole slide images.
Ozan Ciga, Tony Xu, +3 authors, Anne L Martel.
Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 28; 11(1). PMID: 33903725    Free PMC article.
Machine Learning and Syncope Management in the ED: The Future Is Coming.
Franca Dipaola, Dana Shiffer, +3 authors, Raffaello Furlan.
Medicina (Kaunas), 2021 May 01; 57(4). PMID: 33917508    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence & Tissue Biomarkers: Advantages, Risks and Perspectives for Pathology.
Cesare Lancellotti, Pierandrea Cancian, +4 authors, Luca Di Tommaso.
Cells, 2021 May 01; 10(4). PMID: 33918173    Free PMC article.
Combination of Active Transfer Learning and Natural Language Processing to Improve Liver Volumetry Using Surrogate Metrics with Deep Learning.
Brett Marinelli, Martin Kang, +5 authors, Eric K Oermann.
Radiol Artif Intell, 2019 Jan 30; 1(1). PMID: 33937782    Free PMC article.
Detection and Classification of Myocardial Delayed Enhancement Patterns on MR Images with Deep Neural Networks: A Feasibility Study.
Yasutoshi Ohta, Hiroto Yunaga, +2 authors, Toshihide Ogawa.
Radiol Artif Intell, 2019 May 29; 1(3). PMID: 33937791    Free PMC article.
Fully Automatic Volume Measurement of the Spleen at CT Using Deep Learning.
Gabriel E Humpire-Mamani, Joris Bukala, +3 authors, Colin Jacobs.
Radiol Artif Intell, 2021 May 04; 2(4). PMID: 33937830    Free PMC article.
Establishment and clinical application value of an automatic diagnosis platform for rectal cancer T-staging based on a deep neural network.
Qing-Yao Wu, Shang-Long Liu, +6 authors, Yun Lu.
Chin Med J (Engl), 2021 Apr 03; 134(7). PMID: 33797468    Free PMC article.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the immunotherapy era.
Sterre T Paijens, Annegé Vledder, Marco de Bruyn, Hans W Nijman.
Cell Mol Immunol, 2020 Nov 04; 18(4). PMID: 33139907    Free PMC article.
Deep learning in histopathology: the path to the clinic.
Jeroen van der Laak, Geert Litjens, Francesco Ciompi.
Nat Med, 2021 May 16; 27(5). PMID: 33990804
SPIE-AAPM-NCI BreastPathQ challenge: an image analysis challenge for quantitative tumor cellularity assessment in breast cancer histology images following neoadjuvant treatment.
Nicholas Petrick, Shazia Akbar, +7 authors, BreastPathQ Challenge Group.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham), 2021 May 15; 8(3). PMID: 33987451    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine as a strategic valuable tool.
Andreas Larentzakis, Nik Lygeros.
Pan Afr Med J, 2021 May 18; 38. PMID: 33995790    Free PMC article.
Deep learning with convolutional neural network in the assessment of breast cancer molecular subtypes based on US images: a multicenter retrospective study.
Meng Jiang, Di Zhang, +7 authors, Christoph F Dietrich.
Eur Radiol, 2020 Nov 24; 31(6). PMID: 33226454
The diagnosis and outcome of Krukenberg tumors.
Hao Xie, Bradley J Erickson, +2 authors, Joleen M Hubbard.
J Gastrointest Oncol, 2021 May 21; 12(2). PMID: 34012621    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning Based on Standard H&E Images of Primary Melanoma Tumors Identifies Patients at Risk for Visceral Recurrence and Death.
Prathamesh M Kulkarni, Eric J Robinson, +19 authors, Yvonne M Saenger.
Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Oct 23; 26(5). PMID: 31636101    Free PMC article.
A fast and effective detection framework for whole-slide histopathology image analysis.
Jun Ruan, Zhikui Zhu, +3 authors, Junqiu Yue.
PLoS One, 2021 May 13; 16(5). PMID: 33979398    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence for classifying uncertain images by humans in determining choroidal vascular running pattern and comparisons with automated classification between artificial intelligence.
Shozo Sonoda, Hideki Shiihara, +10 authors, Taiji Sakamoto.
PLoS One, 2021 May 15; 16(5). PMID: 33989334    Free PMC article.
Improving the Generalizability of Infantile Cataracts Detection via Deep Learning-Based Lens Partition Strategy and Multicenter Datasets.
Jiewei Jiang, Shutao Lei, +9 authors, Haotian Lin.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2021 May 25; 8. PMID: 34026791    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning in Pancreatic Tissue: Identification of Anatomical Structures, Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Mark Kriegsmann, Katharina Kriegsmann, +3 authors, Matthias M Gaida.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jun 03; 22(10). PMID: 34065423    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning for the Classification of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma on Histopathological Images.
Georg Steinbuss, Mark Kriegsmann, +5 authors, Katharina Kriegsmann.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 13(10). PMID: 34067726    Free PMC article.
A generalized deep learning framework for whole-slide image segmentation and analysis.
Mahendra Khened, Avinash Kori, +2 authors, Balaji Srinivasan.
Sci Rep, 2021 Jun 04; 11(1). PMID: 34078928    Free PMC article.
Opportunities and challenges of artificial intelligence in the medical field: current application, emerging problems, and problem-solving strategies.
Lushun Jiang, Zhe Wu, +4 authors, Yunqing Qiu.
J Int Med Res, 2021 Mar 28; 49(3). PMID: 33771068    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence-based methods in head and neck cancer diagnosis: an overview.
Hanya Mahmood, Muhammad Shaban, Nasir Rajpoot, Syed A Khurram.
Br J Cancer, 2021 Apr 21; 124(12). PMID: 33875821    Free PMC article.
How can artificial intelligence models assist PD-L1 expression scoring in breast cancer: results of multi-institutional ring studies.
Xinran Wang, Liang Wang, +15 authors, Yueping Liu.
NPJ Breast Cancer, 2021 May 28; 7(1). PMID: 34039982    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence in dermatology and healthcare: An overview.
Varadraj Vasant Pai, Rohini Bhat Pai.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol, 2021 Jun 12; 87(4). PMID: 34114421
Automatic Detection and Segmentation of Breast Cancer on MRI Using Mask R-CNN Trained on Non-Fat-Sat Images and Tested on Fat-Sat Images.
Yang Zhang, Siwa Chan, +12 authors, Min-Ying Su.
Acad Radiol, 2020 Dec 16;. PMID: 33317911    Free PMC article.
Federated learning improves site performance in multicenter deep learning without data sharing.
Karthik V Sarma, Stephanie Harmon, +16 authors, Corey W Arnold.
J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2021 Feb 05; 28(6). PMID: 33537772    Free PMC article.
Requirements for implementation of artificial intelligence in the practice of gastrointestinal pathology.
Hiroshi Yoshida, Tomoharu Kiyuna.
World J Gastroenterol, 2021 Jun 18; 27(21). PMID: 34135556    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning-Based Multi-Class Classification of Breast Digital Pathology Images.
Weiming Mi, Junjie Li, +4 authors, Hao Zou.
Cancer Manag Res, 2021 Jun 19; 13. PMID: 34140807    Free PMC article.
A novel computer-aided diagnostic system for accurate detection and grading of liver tumors.
Ahmed Alksas, Mohamed Shehata, +8 authors, Ayman El-Baz.
Sci Rep, 2021 Jun 25; 11(1). PMID: 34162893    Free PMC article.
The increasing importance of histologic grading in tailoring adjuvant systemic therapy in 30,843 breast cancer patients.
C van Dooijeweert, I O Baas, +3 authors, E van der Wall.
Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2021 Feb 01; 187(2). PMID: 33517555    Free PMC article.
Articles That Use Artificial Intelligence for Ultrasound: A Reader's Guide.
Ming Kuang, Hang-Tong Hu, +2 authors, Xiao-Zhou Lu.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jun 29; 11. PMID: 34178622    Free PMC article.
Exploring photoacoustic spectroscopy-based machine learning together with metabolomics to assess breast tumor progression in a xenograft model ex vivo.
Jackson Rodrigues, Ashwini Amin, +7 authors, Krishna Kishore Mahato.
Lab Invest, 2021 Apr 21; 101(7). PMID: 33875792    Free PMC article.
Integrating the Health-care Enterprise Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Guideline for Digital Pathology Interoperability.
Rajesh C Dash, Nicholas Jones, +7 authors, François Macary.
J Pathol Inform, 2021 Jul 06; 12. PMID: 34221632    Free PMC article.
A Novel Nomogram Based on Machine Learning-Pathomics Signature and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio for Survival Prediction of Bladder Cancer Patients.
Siteng Chen, Liren Jiang, +6 authors, Junhua Zheng.
Front Oncol, 2021 Jul 06; 11. PMID: 34222026    Free PMC article.
Comparison of predicted psychological distress among workers between artificial intelligence and psychiatrists: a cross-sectional study in Tsukuba Science City, Japan.
Shotaro Doki, Shinichiro Sasahara, +8 authors, Ichiyo Matsuzaki.
BMJ Open, 2021 Jun 25; 11(6). PMID: 34162646    Free PMC article.
Clinical use of machine learning-based pathomics signature for diagnosis and survival prediction of bladder cancer.
Siteng Chen, Liren Jiang, +6 authors, Junhua Zheng.
Cancer Sci, 2021 May 02; 112(7). PMID: 33931925    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Pathology.
Sebastian Försch, Frederick Klauschen, Peter Hufnagl, Wilfried Roth.
Dtsch Arztebl Int, 2021 May 25; 118(12). PMID: 34024323    Free PMC article.
Using deep learning to identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy.
Julia Gong, F Christopher Holsinger, +7 authors, Serena Yeung.
Sci Rep, 2021 Jul 14; 11(1). PMID: 34253767    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence for clinical oncology.
Benjamin H Kann, Ahmed Hosny, Hugo J W L Aerts.
Cancer Cell, 2021 May 01; 39(7). PMID: 33930310    Free PMC article.
Deep Learning Models for Gastric Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Classification in Whole Slide Images.
Fahdi Kanavati, Shin Ichihara, +3 authors, Masayuki Tsuneki.
Technol Cancer Res Treat, 2021 Jul 01; 20. PMID: 34191660    Free PMC article.
Diagnostic assessment of deep learning for melanocytic lesions using whole-slide pathological images.
Wei Ba, Rui Wang, +8 authors, Chengxin Li.
Transl Oncol, 2021 Jul 01; 14(9). PMID: 34192650    Free PMC article.
Application of deep learning to predict advanced neoplasia using big clinical data in colorectal cancer screening of asymptomatic adults.
Hyo-Joon Yang, Chang Woo Cho, +4 authors, Dong Il Park.
Korean J Intern Med, 2020 Oct 24; 36(4). PMID: 33092313    Free PMC article.
Quantitative assessment of inflammatory infiltrates in kidney transplant biopsies using multiplex tyramide signal amplification and deep learning.
Meyke Hermsen, Valery Volk, +12 authors, Jeroen A W M van der Laak.
Lab Invest, 2021 May 20; 101(8). PMID: 34006891    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence in healthcare: transforming the practice of medicine.
Junaid Bajwa, Usman Munir, Aditya Nori, Bryan Williams.
Future Healthc J, 2021 Jul 22; 8(2). PMID: 34286183    Free PMC article.
Role of Artificial Intelligence in Video Capsule Endoscopy.
Ioannis Tziortziotis, Faidon-Marios Laskaratos, Sergio Coda.
Diagnostics (Basel), 2021 Jul 03; 11(7). PMID: 34209029    Free PMC article.
Random forest approach for determining risk prediction and predictive factors of type 2 diabetes: large-scale health check-up data in Japan.
Tadao Ooka, Hisashi Johno, +3 authors, Zentaro Yamagata.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health, 2021 Jul 27; 4(1). PMID: 34308121    Free PMC article.
A Computational Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Assessment Method Comparable with Visual Reporting Guidelines for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Peng Sun, Jiehua He, +11 authors, Shuoyu Xu.
EBioMedicine, 2021 Jul 20; 70. PMID: 34280779    Free PMC article.
Prediction of BRCA Gene Mutation in Breast Cancer Based on Deep Learning and Histopathology Images.
Xiaoxiao Wang, Chong Zou, +9 authors, Yifen Zhang.
Front Genet, 2021 Aug 07; 12. PMID: 34354733    Free PMC article.
Normalization of HE-stained histological images using cycle consistent generative adversarial networks.
Marlen Runz, Daniel Rusche, +3 authors, Cleo-Aron Weis.
Diagn Pathol, 2021 Aug 08; 16(1). PMID: 34362386    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-based predictive biomarker of pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy from histological images in breast cancer.
Fengling Li, Yongquan Yang, +4 authors, Hong Bu.
J Transl Med, 2021 Aug 18; 19(1). PMID: 34399795    Free PMC article.
Label-free quality control and identification of human keratinocyte stem cells by deep learning-based automated cell tracking.
Takuya Hirose, Jun'ichi Kotoku, +2 authors, Daisuke Nanba.
Stem Cells, 2021 Mar 31; 39(8). PMID: 33783921    Free PMC article.
Deep learning in systems medicine.
Haiying Wang, Estelle Pujos-Guillot, +11 authors, Huiru Zheng.
Brief Bioinform, 2020 Nov 17; 22(2). PMID: 33197934    Free PMC article.
Interobserver variability between experienced and inexperienced observers in the histopathological analysis of Wilms tumors: a pilot study for future algorithmic approach.
Jikke J Rutgers, Tessa Bánki, +7 authors, Ronald R de Krijger.
Diagn Pathol, 2021 Aug 23; 16(1). PMID: 34419100    Free PMC article.
The current issues and future perspective of artificial intelligence for developing new treatment strategy in non-small cell lung cancer: harmonization of molecular cancer biology and artificial intelligence.
Ichidai Tanaka, Taiki Furukawa, Masahiro Morise.
Cancer Cell Int, 2021 Aug 28; 21(1). PMID: 34446006    Free PMC article.
Pulmonary COVID-19: Learning Spatiotemporal Features Combining CNN and LSTM Networks for Lung Ultrasound Video Classification.
Bruno Barros, Paulo Lacerda, Célio Albuquerque, Aura Conci.
Sensors (Basel), 2021 Aug 29; 21(16). PMID: 34450928    Free PMC article.
Automatic detection of 39 fundus diseases and conditions in retinal photographs using deep neural networks.
Ling-Ping Cen, Jie Ji, +29 authors, Mingzhi Zhang.
Nat Commun, 2021 Aug 12; 12(1). PMID: 34376678    Free PMC article.
Breast Tumor Classification Using an Ensemble Machine Learning Method.
Adel S Assiri, Saima Nazir, Sergio A Velastin.
J Imaging, 2020 May 29; 6(6). PMID: 34460585    Free PMC article.
Comparative Study of First Order Optimizers for Image Classification Using Convolutional Neural Networks on Histopathology Images.
Ibrahem Kandel, Mauro Castelli, Aleš Popovič.
J Imaging, 2021 Aug 31; 6(9). PMID: 34460749    Free PMC article.
Development and evaluation of deep learning-based segmentation of histologic structures in the kidney cortex with multiple histologic stains.
Catherine P Jayapandian, Yijiang Chen, +12 authors, Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE).
Kidney Int, 2020 Aug 25; 99(1). PMID: 32835732    Free PMC article.
The Beginning of a New Era: Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare.
Akshara Kumar, Shivaprasad Gadag, Usha Yogendra Nayak.
Adv Pharm Bull, 2021 Sep 14; 11(3). PMID: 34513616    Free PMC article.
Evaluation of machine learning solutions in medicine.
Tony Antoniou, Muhammad Mamdani.
CMAJ, 2021 Sep 01; 193(36). PMID: 34462315    Free PMC article.
A depthwise separable dense convolutional network with convolution block attention module for COVID-19 diagnosis on CT scans.
Qian Li, Jiangbo Ning, Jianping Yuan, Ling Xiao.
Comput Biol Med, 2021 Sep 17; 137. PMID: 34530335    Free PMC article.
A Review on the Current Applications of Artificial Intelligence in the Operating Room.
David C Birkhoff, Anne Sophie H M van Dalen, Marlies P Schijven.
Surg Innov, 2021 Feb 25; 28(5). PMID: 33625307    Free PMC article.
Identification of nodal micrometastasis in colorectal cancer using deep learning on annotation-free whole-slide images.
Wen-Yu Chuang, Chi-Chung Chen, +7 authors, Chao-Yuan Yeh.
Mod Pathol, 2021 Jun 10; 34(10). PMID: 34103664    Free PMC article.
Artificial intelligence-based image analysis can predict outcome in high-grade serous carcinoma via histology alone.
Anna Ray Laury, Sami Blom, +2 authors, Olli Mikael Carpén.
Sci Rep, 2021 Sep 29; 11(1). PMID: 34580357    Free PMC article.
Automated NLP Extraction of Clinical Rationale for Treatment Discontinuation in Breast Cancer.
Matthew S Alkaitis, Monica N Agrawal, +2 authors, David Sontag.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform, 2021 May 15; 5. PMID: 33989016    Free PMC article.
Shifting Gears in Precision Oncology-Challenges and Opportunities of Integrative Data Analysis.
Ka-Won Noh, Reinhard Buettner, Sebastian Klein.
Biomolecules, 2021 Sep 29; 11(9). PMID: 34572523    Free PMC article.
Machine learning and deep learning methods that use omics data for metastasis prediction.
Somayah Albaradei, Maha Thafar, +4 authors, Xin Gao.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J, 2021 Oct 01; 19. PMID: 34589181    Free PMC article.
DeepHistoClass: A Novel Strategy for Confident Classification of Immunohistochemistry Images Using Deep Learning.
Biraja Ghoshal, Feria Hikmet, +2 authors, Cecilia Lindskog.
Mol Cell Proteomics, 2021 Aug 24; 20. PMID: 34425263    Free PMC article.
Deep learning-based virtual cytokeratin staining of gastric carcinomas to measure tumor-stroma ratio.
Yiyu Hong, You Jeong Heo, +5 authors, Kyoung-Mee Kim.
Sci Rep, 2021 Sep 30; 11(1). PMID: 34584193    Free PMC article.
Digital pathology and artificial intelligence in translational medicine and clinical practice.
Vipul Baxi, Robin Edwards, Michael Montalto, Saurabh Saha.
Mod Pathol, 2021 Oct 07;. PMID: 34611303    Free PMC article.
Detection and analysis of COVID-19 in medical images using deep learning techniques.
Dandi Yang, Cristhian Martinez, +3 authors, Jesus Carretero.
Sci Rep, 2021 Oct 06; 11(1). PMID: 34608186    Free PMC article.
Artificial Intelligence in Brain Tumour Surgery-An Emerging Paradigm.
Simon Williams, Hugo Layard Horsfall, +5 authors, Hani J Marcus.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Oct 14; 13(19). PMID: 34638495    Free PMC article.
A deep learning model for gastric diffuse-type adenocarcinoma classification in whole slide images.
Fahdi Kanavati, Masayuki Tsuneki.
Sci Rep, 2021 Oct 16; 11(1). PMID: 34650155    Free PMC article.
The Application of Projection Word Embeddings on Medical Records Scoring System.
Chin Lin, Yung-Tsai Lee, +5 authors, Wen-Hui Fang.
Healthcare (Basel), 2021 Oct 24; 9(10). PMID: 34682978    Free PMC article.
Development of an AI system for accurately diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma from computed tomography imaging data.
Meiyun Wang, Fangfang Fu, +13 authors, Fei Tian.
Br J Cancer, 2021 Aug 09; 125(8). PMID: 34365472    Free PMC article.
Radiomics-based machine learning analysis and characterization of breast lesions with multiparametric diffusion-weighted MR.
Kun Sun, Zhicheng Jiao, +6 authors, Dinggang Shen.
J Transl Med, 2021 Oct 26; 19(1). PMID: 34689804    Free PMC article.
Minimally invasive gastrointestinal surgery: From past to the future.
Reno Rudiman.
Ann Med Surg (Lond), 2021 Oct 28; 71. PMID: 34703585    Free PMC article.
Development of deep learning-based detecting systems for pathologic myopia using retinal fundus images.
Li Lu, Enliang Zhou, +10 authors, Wei Han.
Commun Biol, 2021 Oct 28; 4(1). PMID: 34702997    Free PMC article.
Second-Generation Digital Health Platforms: Placing the Patient at the Center and Focusing on Clinical Outcomes.
Yaron Ilan.
Front Digit Health, 2021 Oct 30; 2. PMID: 34713042    Free PMC article.
Machine learning to guide clinical decision-making in abdominal surgery-a systematic literature review.
Jonas Henn, Andreas Buness, +2 authors, Hanno Matthaei.
Langenbecks Arch Surg, 2021 Oct 31;. PMID: 34716472
Diagnosis of Celiac Disease and Environmental Enteropathy on Biopsy Images Using Color Balancing on Convolutional Neural Networks.
Kamran Kowsari, Rasoul Sali, +7 authors, Donald E Brown.
Proc Futur Technol Conf FTC (2019), 2020 Jan 01; 1069. PMID: 34726364    Free PMC article.
Design and Assessment of Convolutional Neural Network Based Methods for Vitiligo Diagnosis.
Li Zhang, Suraj Mishra, +8 authors, Xiuping Han.
Front Med (Lausanne), 2021 Nov 05; 8. PMID: 34733869    Free PMC article.
Dynamic Learning Rate in Deep CNN Model for Metastasis Detection and Classification of Histopathology Images.
Anil Johny, K N Madhusoodanan.
Comput Math Methods Med, 2021 Nov 06; 2021. PMID: 34737788    Free PMC article.