Review
. 2018 Jan; 200(2):459-468.
doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1701155.

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy: Challenges to Bench-to-Bedside Efficacy

Shivani Srivastava 1 Stanley R Riddell 2 
Affiliations
  • PMID: 29311388
  •     141 References
  •     72 citations

Abstract

Immunotherapy with T cells genetically modified to express chimeric Ag receptors (CARs) that target tumor-associated molecules have impressive efficacy in hematological malignancies. The field has now embraced the challenge of applying this approach to treat common epithelial malignancies, which make up the majority of cancer cases but evade immunologic attack by a variety of subversive mechanisms. In this study, we review the principles that have guided CAR T cell design and the extraordinary clinical results being achieved in B cell malignancies targeting CD19 with a single infusion of engineered T cells. This success has raised expectations that CAR T cells can be applied to solid tumors, but numerous obstacles must be overcome to achieve the success observed in hematologic cancers. Potential solutions driven by advances in genetic engineering, synthetic biology, T cell biology, and improved tumor models that recapitulate the obstacles in human tumors are discussed.

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Chemotherapy-refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and indolent B-cell malignancies can be effectively treated with autologous T cells expressing an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor.
James N Kochenderfer, Mark E Dudley, +23 authors, Steven A Rosenberg.
J Clin Oncol, 2014 Aug 27; 33(6). PMID: 25154820    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
TanCAR: A Novel Bispecific Chimeric Antigen Receptor for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Zakaria Grada, Meenakshi Hegde, +12 authors, Nabil Ahmed.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids, 2013 Jul 11; 2. PMID: 23839099    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Precision Tumor Recognition by T Cells With Combinatorial Antigen-Sensing Circuits.
Kole T Roybal, Levi J Rupp, +4 authors, Wendell A Lim.
Cell, 2016 Feb 03; 164(4). PMID: 26830879    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Ionic immune suppression within the tumour microenvironment limits T cell effector function.
Robert Eil, Suman K Vodnala, +15 authors, Nicholas P Restifo.
Nature, 2016 Sep 15; 537(7621). PMID: 27626381    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Enhancing antitumor efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor T cells through constitutive CD40L expression.
Kevin J Curran, Beatrijs A Seinstra, +6 authors, Renier J Brentjens.
Mol Ther, 2015 Jan 15; 23(4). PMID: 25582824    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Trp53R172H and KrasG12D cooperate to promote chromosomal instability and widely metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice.
Sunil R Hingorani, Lifu Wang, +6 authors, David A Tuveson.
Cancer Cell, 2005 May 17; 7(5). PMID: 15894267
Highly Cited.
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells derived from defined CD8+ and CD4+ subsets confer superior antitumor reactivity in vivo.
D Sommermeyer, M Hudecek, +4 authors, S R Riddell.
Leukemia, 2015 Sep 16; 30(2). PMID: 26369987    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Genetically engineered mouse models of cancer reveal new insights about the antitumor immune response.
Michel DuPage, Tyler Jacks.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2013 Mar 08; 25(2). PMID: 23465466    Free PMC article.
Review.
Comparison of naïve and central memory derived CD8+ effector cell engraftment fitness and function following adoptive transfer.
Xiuli Wang, ChingLam W Wong, +9 authors, Michael C Jensen.
Oncoimmunology, 2016 Mar 05; 5(1). PMID: 26942092    Free PMC article.
Highly multiplexed imaging of tumor tissues with subcellular resolution by mass cytometry.
Charlotte Giesen, Hao A O Wang, +11 authors, Bernd Bodenmiller.
Nat Methods, 2014 Mar 04; 11(4). PMID: 24584193
Highly Cited.
VEGF Neutralization Plus CTLA-4 Blockade Alters Soluble and Cellular Factors Associated with Enhancing Lymphocyte Infiltration and Humoral Recognition in Melanoma.
Xinqi Wu, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, +5 authors, F Stephen Hodi.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2016 Aug 24; 4(10). PMID: 27549123    Free PMC article.
CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PD-1 disruption enhances anti-tumor efficacy of human chimeric antigen receptor T cells.
Levi J Rupp, Kathrin Schumann, +4 authors, Alexander Marson.
Sci Rep, 2017 Apr 09; 7(1). PMID: 28389661    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A single dose of peripherally infused EGFRvIII-directed CAR T cells mediates antigen loss and induces adaptive resistance in patients with recurrent glioblastoma.
Donald M O'Rourke, MacLean P Nasrallah, +18 authors, Marcela V Maus.
Sci Transl Med, 2017 Jul 21; 9(399). PMID: 28724573    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A Chimeric Switch-Receptor Targeting PD1 Augments the Efficacy of Second-Generation CAR T Cells in Advanced Solid Tumors.
Xiaojun Liu, Raghuveer Ranganathan, +8 authors, Edmund K Moon.
Cancer Res, 2016 Mar 17; 76(6). PMID: 26979791    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
A human memory T cell subset with stem cell-like properties.
Luca Gattinoni, Enrico Lugli, +14 authors, Nicholas P Restifo.
Nat Med, 2011 Sep 20; 17(10). PMID: 21926977    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Distinct Signaling of Coreceptors Regulates Specific Metabolism Pathways and Impacts Memory Development in CAR T Cells.
Omkar U Kawalekar, Roddy S O'Connor, +13 authors, Carl H June.
Immunity, 2016 Feb 18; 44(2). PMID: 26885860
Highly Cited.
Intent-to-treat leukemia remission by CD19 CAR T cells of defined formulation and dose in children and young adults.
Rebecca A Gardner, Olivia Finney, +14 authors, Michael C Jensen.
Blood, 2017 Apr 15; 129(25). PMID: 28408462    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
NKG2D CARs as cell therapy for cancer.
Charles L Sentman, Kenneth R Meehan.
Cancer J, 2014 Mar 29; 20(2). PMID: 24667963    Free PMC article.
Review.
Co-introduced functional CCR2 potentiates in vivo anti-lung cancer functionality mediated by T cells double gene-modified to express WT1-specific T-cell receptor.
Hiroaki Asai, Hiroshi Fujiwara, +9 authors, Masaki Yasukawa.
PLoS One, 2013 Feb 27; 8(2). PMID: 23441216    Free PMC article.
Virus-specific T cells engineered to coexpress tumor-specific receptors: persistence and antitumor activity in individuals with neuroblastoma.
Martin A Pule, Barbara Savoldo, +13 authors, Malcolm K Brenner.
Nat Med, 2008 Nov 04; 14(11). PMID: 18978797    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Conditional mouse lung cancer models using adenoviral or lentiviral delivery of Cre recombinase.
Michel DuPage, Alison L Dooley, Tyler Jacks.
Nat Protoc, 2009 Jun 30; 4(7). PMID: 19561589    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
T cells with chimeric antigen receptors have potent antitumor effects and can establish memory in patients with advanced leukemia.
Michael Kalos, Bruce L Levine, +4 authors, Carl H June.
Sci Transl Med, 2011 Aug 13; 3(95). PMID: 21832238    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Checkpoint blockade in cancer immunotherapy.
Alan J Korman, Karl S Peggs, James P Allison.
Adv Immunol, 2006 May 30; 90. PMID: 16730267    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Phase 1 Results of ZUMA-1: A Multicenter Study of KTE-C19 Anti-CD19 CAR T Cell Therapy in Refractory Aggressive Lymphoma.
Frederick L Locke, Sattva S Neelapu, +13 authors, William Y Go.
Mol Ther, 2017 Jan 28; 25(1). PMID: 28129122    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CD19 CAR-T cells of defined CD4+:CD8+ composition in adult B cell ALL patients.
Cameron J Turtle, Laïla-Aïcha Hanafi, +20 authors, David G Maloney.
J Clin Invest, 2016 Apr 26; 126(6). PMID: 27111235    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Spatiotemporal basis of CTLA-4 costimulatory molecule-mediated negative regulation of T cell activation.
Tadashi Yokosuka, Wakana Kobayashi, +6 authors, Takashi Saito.
Immunity, 2010 Sep 28; 33(3). PMID: 20870175
Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma.
David G McFadden, Katerina Politi, +14 authors, Harold Varmus.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2016 Oct 30; 113(42). PMID: 27702896    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Enhanced effector responses in activated CD8+ T cells deficient in diacylglycerol kinases.
Matthew J Riese, Liang-Chuan S Wang, +5 authors, Steven M Albelda.
Cancer Res, 2013 Apr 12; 73(12). PMID: 23576561    Free PMC article.
Dual targeting of ErbB2 and MUC1 in breast cancer using chimeric antigen receptors engineered to provide complementary signaling.
Scott Wilkie, May C I van Schalkwyk, +7 authors, John Maher.
J Clin Immunol, 2012 Apr 25; 32(5). PMID: 22526592
Highly Cited.
A Tet-On Inducible System for Controlling CD19-Chimeric Antigen Receptor Expression upon Drug Administration.
Reona Sakemura, Seitaro Terakura, +9 authors, Hitoshi Kiyoi.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2016 Jun 23; 4(8). PMID: 27329987
Highly Cited.
Facilitating T Cell Infiltration in Tumor Microenvironment Overcomes Resistance to PD-L1 Blockade.
Haidong Tang, Yang Wang, +6 authors, Yang-Xin Fu.
Cancer Cell, 2016 Mar 16; 29(3). PMID: 26977880    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Interleukin-35 Limits Anti-Tumor Immunity.
Meghan E Turnis, Deepali V Sawant, +7 authors, Dario A A Vignali.
Immunity, 2016 Feb 14; 44(2). PMID: 26872697    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Dual CD19 and CD123 targeting prevents antigen-loss relapses after CD19-directed immunotherapies.
Marco Ruella, David M Barrett, +18 authors, Saar Gill.
J Clin Invest, 2016 Aug 30; 126(10). PMID: 27571406    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma.
Tyler R Simpson, Fubin Li, +11 authors, Sergio A Quezada.
J Exp Med, 2013 Jul 31; 210(9). PMID: 23897981    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Coexpressed Catalase Protects Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Redirected T Cells as well as Bystander Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Loss of Antitumor Activity.
Maarten A Ligtenberg, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, +6 authors, Rolf Kiessling.
J Immunol, 2015 Dec 18; 196(2). PMID: 26673145    Free PMC article.
Tumor-specific CD8+ T cells expressing interleukin-12 eradicate established cancers in lymphodepleted hosts.
Sid P Kerkar, Pawel Muranski, +12 authors, Nicholas P Restifo.
Cancer Res, 2010 Jul 22; 70(17). PMID: 20647327    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Reduction of MDSCs with All-trans Retinoic Acid Improves CAR Therapy Efficacy for Sarcomas.
Adrienne H Long, Steven L Highfill, +8 authors, Crystal L Mackall.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2016 Aug 24; 4(10). PMID: 27549124    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Structural Design of Engineered Costimulation Determines Tumor Rejection Kinetics and Persistence of CAR T Cells.
Zeguo Zhao, Maud Condomines, +5 authors, Michel Sadelain.
Cancer Cell, 2015 Oct 16; 28(4). PMID: 26461090    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Targeting fibroblast activation protein in tumor stroma with chimeric antigen receptor T cells can inhibit tumor growth and augment host immunity without severe toxicity.
Liang-Chuan S Wang, Albert Lo, +11 authors, Steven M Albelda.
Cancer Immunol Res, 2014 Apr 30; 2(2). PMID: 24778279    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Targeting a CAR to the TRAC locus with CRISPR/Cas9 enhances tumour rejection.
Justin Eyquem, Jorge Mansilla-Soto, +6 authors, Michel Sadelain.
Nature, 2017 Feb 23; 543(7643). PMID: 28225754    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
CTLA-4 blockade increases IFNgamma-producing CD4+ICOShi cells to shift the ratio of effector to regulatory T cells in cancer patients.
Chrysoula I Liakou, Ashish Kamat, +5 authors, Padmanee Sharma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2008 Sep 27; 105(39). PMID: 18818309    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
Heparanase promotes tumor infiltration and antitumor activity of CAR-redirected T lymphocytes.
Ignazio Caruana, Barbara Savoldo, +6 authors, Gianpietro Dotti.
Nat Med, 2015 Apr 08; 21(5). PMID: 25849134    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited.
The Pharmacology of T Cell Therapies.
Michael C Milone, Vijay G Bhoj.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev, 2018 Mar 20; 8. PMID: 29552577    Free PMC article.
Review.
Current Strategies to Enhance Anti-Tumour Immunity.
Katherine W Cook, Lindy G Durrant, Victoria A Brentville.
Biomedicines, 2018 Mar 24; 6(2). PMID: 29570634    Free PMC article.
Review.
Matrix Metalloproteinase 8: Could it Benefit the CAR-T Cell Therapy of Solid Tumors?- a- Commentary on Therapeutic Potential.
Alireza Mardomi, Saeid Abediankenari.
Cancer Microenviron, 2018 Mar 29; 11(1). PMID: 29589335    Free PMC article.
Next-Generation Conditioning for Bone Marrow Transplantation: Paving the Way for CAR-T Cell-Based Conditioning.
Kevin G Haworth, Hans-Peter Kiem.
Mol Ther, 2018 Apr 25; 26(5). PMID: 29685383    Free PMC article.
Defining success with cellular therapeutics: the current landscape for clinical end point and toxicity analysis.
Leslie S Kean.
Blood, 2018 May 08; 131(24). PMID: 29728399    Free PMC article.
Review.
The Potential of CAR T Cell Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer.
Mehmet Akce, Mohammad Y Zaidi, +2 authors, Gregory B Lesinski.
Front Immunol, 2018 Oct 16; 9. PMID: 30319627    Free PMC article.
Review.
Therapeutic Approaches Targeting PAX3-FOXO1 and Its Regulatory and Transcriptional Pathways in Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Thanh Hung Nguyen, Frederic G Barr.
Molecules, 2018 Oct 31; 23(11). PMID: 30373318    Free PMC article.
Review.
Multispecific Targeting with Synthetic Ankyrin Repeat Motif Chimeric Antigen Receptors.
Ashwini Balakrishnan, Anusha Rajan, +6 authors, Stanley R Riddell.
Clin Cancer Res, 2019 Sep 25; 25(24). PMID: 31548346    Free PMC article.
MUC1 as a target for CAR-T therapy in head and neck squamous cell carinoma.
Zi Mei, Kai Zhang, +4 authors, Yi Zhang.
Cancer Med, 2019 Dec 05; 9(2). PMID: 31800160    Free PMC article.
Evaluation of cyclin A1-specific T cells as a potential treatment for acute myeloid leukemia.
Wingchi K Leung, Aster Workineh, +5 authors, Premal Lulla.
Blood Adv, 2020 Jan 28; 4(2). PMID: 31985805    Free PMC article.
"UniCAR"-modified off-the-shelf NK-92 cells for targeting of GD2-expressing tumour cells.
Nicola Mitwasi, Anja Feldmann, +21 authors, Michael Bachmann.
Sci Rep, 2020 Feb 09; 10(1). PMID: 32034289    Free PMC article.
Principles of adoptive T cell therapy in cancer.
Özcan Met, Kasper Mølgaard Jensen, +2 authors, Inge Marie Svane.
Semin Immunopathol, 2018 Sep 07; 41(1). PMID: 30187086
Review.
The Next Generation of Immunotherapy for Cancer: Small Molecules Could Make Big Waves.
William G Kerr, John D Chisholm.
J Immunol, 2018 Dec 28; 202(1). PMID: 30587569    Free PMC article.
Review.
Evaluation of a Fully Human, Hepatitis B Virus-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model.
Marvin M Festag, Julia Festag, +7 authors, Ulrike Protzer.
Mol Ther, 2019 Mar 11; 27(5). PMID: 30852138    Free PMC article.
Logic-Gated ROR1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor Expression Rescues T Cell-Mediated Toxicity to Normal Tissues and Enables Selective Tumor Targeting.
Shivani Srivastava, Alexander I Salter, +8 authors, Stanley R Riddell.
Cancer Cell, 2019 Mar 20; 35(3). PMID: 30889382    Free PMC article.
Cancer Immunotherapy Based on Natural Killer Cells: Current Progress and New Opportunities.
Weilei Hu, Guosheng Wang, +2 authors, Yibing Xu.
Front Immunol, 2019 Jun 20; 10. PMID: 31214177    Free PMC article.
Highly Cited. Review.
Boosting the Immune System for HIV Cure: A γδ T Cell Perspective.
Brendan T Mann, Edward Sambrano, Sanjay B Maggirwar, Natalia Soriano-Sarabia.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2020 Jun 09; 10. PMID: 32509594    Free PMC article.
Review.
Sensitive and adaptable pharmacological control of CAR T cells through extracellular receptor dimerization.
Wai-Hang Leung, Joel Gay, +8 authors, Alexander Astrakhan.
JCI Insight, 2019 May 01; 5. PMID: 31039141    Free PMC article.
Co-infusion of high-dose haploidentical donor cells and CD19-targeted CART cells achieves complete remission, successful donor engraftment and significant CART amplification in advanced ALL.
Changlin Yu, Bo Cai, +15 authors, Mei Guo.
Ther Adv Med Oncol, 2020 Jun 17; 12. PMID: 32536980    Free PMC article.
Highly Efficient Targeting of EGFR-Expressing Tumor Cells with UniCAR T Cells via Target Modules Based on Cetuximab®.
Justyna Jureczek, Anja Feldmann, +9 authors, Michael Bachmann.
Onco Targets Ther, 2020 Jul 02; 13. PMID: 32606767    Free PMC article.
Current Status and Future Direction of Immunotherapy in Urothelial Carcinoma.
Michael Lattanzi, Arjun V Balar.
Curr Oncol Rep, 2019 Feb 27; 21(3). PMID: 30806823
Review.
The Role of Immunological Synapse in Predicting the Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Immunotherapy.
Dongfang Liu, Saiaditya Badeti, +7 authors, Chen Liu.
Cell Commun Signal, 2020 Aug 28; 18(1). PMID: 32843053    Free PMC article.
Review.
Cell Engineering with Functional Poly(oxanorbornene) Block Copolymers.
Derek C Church, Jonathan K Pokorski.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2020 Apr 14; 59(28). PMID: 32281276    Free PMC article.
Kinetics of Nuclear Uptake and Site-Specific DNA Cleavage during CRISPR-Directed Gene Editing in Solid Tumor Cells.
Kelly Banas, Natalia Rivera-Torres, +2 authors, Eric B Kmiec.
Mol Cancer Res, 2020 Mar 19; 18(6). PMID: 32184217    Free PMC article.
Principles of Immunotherapy: Implications for Treatment Strategies in Cancer and Infectious Diseases.
Krupa Naran, Trishana Nundalall, Shivan Chetty, Stefan Barth.
Front Microbiol, 2019 Jan 10; 9. PMID: 30622524    Free PMC article.
Review.
Recent updates on cancer immunotherapy.
Ming Liu, Fukun Guo.
Precis Clin Med, 2019 Jan 29; 1(2). PMID: 30687562    Free PMC article.
Review.
Insights Into the Role of Mesothelin as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target in Ovarian Carcinoma.
Jiayu Shen, Xiwen Sun, Jianwei Zhou.
Front Oncol, 2020 Sep 29; 10. PMID: 32983962    Free PMC article.
Review.
Identification of Targets to Redirect CAR T Cells in Glioblastoma and Colorectal Cancer: An Arduous Venture.
Eleonora Ponterio, Ruggero De Maria, Tobias Longin Haas.
Front Immunol, 2020 Oct 27; 11. PMID: 33101285    Free PMC article.
Review.
RNA-electroporated T cells for cancer immunotherapy.
Fernanda Pohl-Guimarães, Lan B Hoang-Minh, Duane A Mitchell.
Oncoimmunology, 2020 Oct 27; 9(1). PMID: 33101771    Free PMC article.
Review.
CAR-T cells targeting a nucleophosmin neoepitope exhibit potent specific activity in mouse models of acute myeloid leukaemia.
Guozhu Xie, Nikola A Ivica, +6 authors, Jianzhu Chen.
Nat Biomed Eng, 2020 Oct 14; 5(5). PMID: 33046866    Free PMC article.
Chimeric Antigen Receptor Based Therapy as a Potential Approach in Autoimmune Diseases: How Close Are We to the Treatment?
Muhammad Sadeqi Nezhad, Alexander Seifalian, +3 authors, Meghdad Adbollahpour-Alitappeh.
Front Immunol, 2020 Dec 17; 11. PMID: 33324420    Free PMC article.
Review.
Bispecific Antibodies in Prostate Cancer Therapy: Current Status and Perspectives.
Jonas S Heitmann, Martin Pfluegler, Gundram Jung, Helmut R Salih.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Feb 05; 13(3). PMID: 33535627    Free PMC article.
Review.
Immunogenic Chemotherapy Enhances Recruitment of CAR-T Cells to Lung Tumors and Improves Antitumor Efficacy when Combined with Checkpoint Blockade.
Shivani Srivastava, Scott N Furlan, +17 authors, Stanley R Riddell.
Cancer Cell, 2020 Dec 29; 39(2). PMID: 33357452    Free PMC article.
Machine learning-aided quantification of antibody-based cancer immunotherapy by natural killer cells in microfluidic droplets.
Saheli Sarkar, Wenjing Kang, +6 authors, Tania Konry.
Lab Chip, 2020 May 28; 20(13). PMID: 32458907    Free PMC article.
T Cell Subsets During Early Life and Their Implication in the Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Shanie Saghafian-Hedengren, Eva Sverremark-Ekström, Anna Nilsson.
Front Immunol, 2021 Mar 26; 12. PMID: 33763058    Free PMC article.
Review.
Designed improvement to T-cell immunotherapy by multidimensional single cell profiling.
Irfan N Bandey, Jay R T Adolacion, +10 authors, Navin Varadarajan.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Mar 17; 9(3). PMID: 33722906    Free PMC article.
Robust CAR-T memory formation and function via hematopoietic stem cell delivery.
Anjie Zhen, Mayra A Carrillo, +7 authors, Scott G Kitchen.
PLoS Pathog, 2021 Apr 02; 17(4). PMID: 33793675    Free PMC article.
Adapter Chimeric Antigen Receptor (AdCAR)-Engineered NK-92 Cells for the Multiplex Targeting of Bone Metastases.
Stefan Grote, Frank Traub, +4 authors, Sabine Schleicher.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Apr 04; 13(5). PMID: 33807875    Free PMC article.
Remote controlling of CAR-T cells and toxicity management: Molecular switches and next generation CARs.
Ehsan Moghanloo, Hasan Mollanoori, +4 authors, Habibollah Mahmoodzadeh.
Transl Oncol, 2021 Apr 01; 14(6). PMID: 33789222    Free PMC article.
Review.
Characterization of a xenograft model for anti-CD19 CAR T cell studies.
N Ahmadbeigi, S Alatab, +7 authors, S Muhammadnejad.
Clin Transl Oncol, 2021 May 05; 23(10). PMID: 33942221
Targeting Enclysis in Liver Autoimmunity, Transplantation, Viral Infection and Cancer.
Yara O Aghabi, Alia Yasin, +3 authors, Zania Stamataki.
Front Immunol, 2021 May 07; 12. PMID: 33953725    Free PMC article.
Review.
Memory stem T cells modified with a redesigned CD30-chimeric antigen receptor show an enhanced antitumor effect in Hodgkin lymphoma.
Carmen Alvarez-Fernández, Laura Escribà-Garcia, +6 authors, Javier Briones.
Clin Transl Immunology, 2021 May 11; 10(4). PMID: 33968404    Free PMC article.
Developing neoantigen-targeted T cell-based treatments for solid tumors.
Tori N Yamamoto, Rigel J Kishton, Nicholas P Restifo.
Nat Med, 2019 Oct 09; 25(10). PMID: 31591590
Highly Cited. Review.
The role of small molecules in cell and gene therapy.
Lewis L Brayshaw, Carlos Martinez-Fleites, +3 authors, Christopher Herring.
RSC Med Chem, 2021 May 29; 12(3). PMID: 34046619    Free PMC article.
Review.
Effects of Chemotherapy Agents on Circulating Leukocyte Populations: Potential Implications for the Success of CAR-T Cell Therapies.
Nga T H Truong, Tessa Gargett, Michael P Brown, Lisa M Ebert.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 13(9). PMID: 34066414    Free PMC article.
Review.
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) Provide a Potentially Unlimited T Cell Source for CAR-T Cell Development and Off-the-Shelf Products.
Muhammad Sadeqi Nezhad, Meghdad Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, +2 authors, Alexander Marcus Seifalian.
Pharm Res, 2021 Jun 12; 38(6). PMID: 34114161
Review.
Magnetic Nanostructures as Emerging Therapeutic Tools to Boost Anti-Tumour Immunity.
Stefano Persano, Pradip Das, Teresa Pellegrino.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Jun 03; 13(11). PMID: 34073106    Free PMC article.
Review.
Optical Control of CD8+ T Cell Metabolism and Effector Functions.
Andrea M Amitrano, Brandon J Berry, +4 authors, Minsoo Kim.
Front Immunol, 2021 Jun 22; 12. PMID: 34149701    Free PMC article.
Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cell Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma: Challenges and Road Ahead.
Tahereh Soltantoyeh, Behnia Akbari, +5 authors, Hamid Reza Mirzaei.
Cells, 2021 Jul 03; 10(6). PMID: 34207884    Free PMC article.
Review.
Novel strategies for immuno-oncology breakthroughs with cell therapy.
Hongtao Liu, Chongxian Pan, +3 authors, Lei Zheng.
Biomark Res, 2021 Aug 02; 9(1). PMID: 34332618    Free PMC article.
Review.
Adoptive cellular therapy in solid tumor malignancies: review of the literature and challenges ahead.
Kedar Kirtane, Hany Elmariah, Christine H Chung, Daniel Abate-Daga.
J Immunother Cancer, 2021 Jul 25; 9(7). PMID: 34301811    Free PMC article.
Review.
CAR- and TRuC-redirected regulatory T cells differ in capacity to control adaptive immunity to FVIII.
Jyoti Rana, Daniel J Perry, +4 authors, Moanaro Biswas.
Mol Ther, 2021 May 04; 29(9). PMID: 33940160    Free PMC article.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) immunotherapy: basic principles, current advances, and future prospects in neuro-oncology.
Hyeon Joo Yoo, Biyan Nathanael Harapan.
Immunol Res, 2021 Sep 24; 69(6). PMID: 34554405    Free PMC article.
Review.
Exosomes: A Forthcoming Era of Breast Cancer Therapeutics.
Banashree Bondhopadhyay, Sandeep Sisodiya, +10 authors, Showket Hussain.
Cancers (Basel), 2021 Sep 29; 13(18). PMID: 34572899    Free PMC article.
Review.
Improving CAR T-Cell Persistence.
Violena Pietrobon, Lauren Anne Todd, +3 authors, Francesco Marincola.
Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Oct 14; 22(19). PMID: 34639168    Free PMC article.
Review.
CAR-NK cells from engineered pluripotent stem cells: Off-the-shelf therapeutics for all patients.
Shi-Jiang Lu, Qiang Feng.
Stem Cells Transl Med, 2021 Nov 02; 10 Suppl 2. PMID: 34724715    Free PMC article.
T-Cell Immunotherapy for Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas: New Insights to Overcoming Therapeutic Challenges.
Dalia Haydar, Jorge Ibañez-Vega, Giedre Krenciute.
Front Oncol, 2021 Nov 12; 11. PMID: 34760690    Free PMC article.
Review.
A review of neurotoxicities associated with immunotherapy and a framework for evaluation.
Leeann B Burton, Mahsa Eskian, Amanda C Guidon, Kerry L Reynolds.
Neurooncol Adv, 2021 Dec 04; 3(Suppl 5). PMID: 34859238    Free PMC article.
Cellular immunotherapy for hematological malignancy: recent progress and future perspectives.
Zhengli Xu, Xiaojun Huang.
Cancer Biol Med, 2021 Aug 06;. PMID: 34351724    Free PMC article.
Review.
Potential of Stem Cells and CART as a Potential Polytherapy for Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Evgenii Skurikhin, Olga Pershina, +7 authors, Alexander Dygai.
Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021 Dec 21; 9. PMID: 34926461    Free PMC article.
Review.
Insights into Modern Therapeutic Approaches in Pediatric Acute Leukemias.
Kinga Panuciak, Mikołaj Margas, Karolina Makowska, Monika Lejman.
Cells, 2022 Jan 12; 11(1). PMID: 35011701    Free PMC article.
Review.
SILAC Phosphoproteomics Reveals Unique Signaling Circuits in CAR-T Cells and the Inhibition of B Cell-Activating Phosphorylation in Target Cells.
Alijah A Griffith, Kenneth P Callahan, +3 authors, Arthur R Salomon.
J Proteome Res, 2022 Jan 12; 21(2). PMID: 35014847    Free PMC article.
Elongation factor-2 kinase is a critical determinant of the fate and antitumor immunity of CD8+ T cells.
Jugal Kishore Das, Yijie Ren, +10 authors, Jianxun Song.
Sci Adv, 2022 Feb 03; 8(5). PMID: 35108044    Free PMC article.
In vivo imaging of nanoparticle-labeled CAR T cells.
Louise Kiru, Aimen Zlitni, +10 authors, Heike Elisabeth Daldrup-Link.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2022 Feb 02; 119(6). PMID: 35101971    Free PMC article.
Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Immunotherapy for Leukemia.
Michaela Allison, Joel Mathews, Taylor Gilliland, Stephen O Mathew.
Cancers (Basel), 2022 Feb 16; 14(3). PMID: 35159109    Free PMC article.
Review.
Synthetic receptors for logic gated T cell recognition and function.
Sylvain Simon, Grace Bugos, Alex I Salter, Stanley R Riddell.
Curr Opin Immunol, 2021 Sep 28; 74. PMID: 34571290    Free PMC article.
Review.
CAR T cell therapy and the tumor microenvironment: Current challenges and opportunities.
Lionel A Kankeu Fonkoua, Olivia Sirpilla, +2 authors, Saad S Kenderian.
Mol Ther Oncolytics, 2022 Apr 19; 25. PMID: 35434273    Free PMC article.
Review.
Visualizing CAR-T cell Immunotherapy Using 3 Tesla Fluorine-19 MRI.
Veronica P Dubois, Olivia C Sehl, Paula J Foster, John A Ronald.
Mol Imaging Biol, 2021 Nov 18; 24(2). PMID: 34786668    Free PMC article.
Transcriptional determinants of cancer immunotherapy response and resistance.
Romi Gupta, Amitkumar Mehta, Narendra Wajapeyee.
Trends Cancer, 2022 Feb 08; 8(5). PMID: 35125331    Free PMC article.
Review.
Characterizing piggyBat-a transposase for genetic modification of T cells.
Gaurav Sutrave, Ning Xu, +5 authors, Kavitha Gowrishankar.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev, 2022 Apr 28; 25. PMID: 35474955    Free PMC article.
Development of Cancer Immunotherapies.
Diana C DeLucia, John K Lee.
Cancer Treat Res, 2022 May 14; 183. PMID: 35551655
Multipurposing CARs: Same engine, different vehicles.
A K M Nawshad Hossian, Christopher S Hackett, Renier J Brentjens, Sarwish Rafiq.
Mol Ther, 2022 Feb 14; 30(4). PMID: 35151842    Free PMC article.
Review.